Volume 35, Issue 4, Summer and Autumn 2021, Page 611-810


Research Paper

Effectiveness of using probiotic Batcinel-K® and CEVAC SET-K® vaccine on some blood parameters in chickens

Aamer R. Al-Aqaby; A.A. Glaskovich; A.A. Glaskovich

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 611-616
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127018.1439

In the current study, probiotic Batcinel-K® and CEVAC SET-K® vaccine are used to determine their effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters of broiler-chickens. Three hundred broilers chicks "Ross-308" at one-day old were divided into six groups of 50 chicks /each. Blood was taken at 56th, 63rd and 112nd days old. The count of erythrocytes and leukocytes was calculated. Hemoglobin and total serum protein, serum albumin and globulins concentration was determined. Results show that these selected probiotic can improve some of the blood indexes of birds, especially in combination with the vaccine. At the 63rd day old of broilers chicken, globulin parameters in 4th and 5th treatment groups were higher by 2.97% (P

A cross sectional study on the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al-Najaf province in Iraq

Khaleel Z. Al-Alo; Ahmed J. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 617-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127143.1471

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in many countries of the middle east including Iraq, despite the high attempts to control the disease in animals using vaccination programs. The study was conducted from January - March 2012, to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the Al-Najaf province in Iraq, which represent risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle. Blood samples were collected from 172 cows and 15 bulls of 20 dual-purpose cattle herds. Serological examinations are the most useful and widely used tool for the diagnosis of brucellosis in man and animals. All animal serum samples were tested by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBT), and the positive cases were confirmed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The overall prevalence of brucellosis was 5.81% divided between 5.81% in females and 0% in males, and 40% as herd numbers level. Females showed a higher seropositive reaction to the disease than males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of the disease and detected the seropositive reactions in animal samples in different farms of the province, with a difference in infection rate regarding the risk factor. Sanitary measures must be taken to avoid the occurrence and spread of the disease in humans and animals.

Estimation of limit of detection of Salmonella typhimurium in artificially contaminated chicken meat by cultured-based and polymerase chain reaction techniques

Yousif M. Sharif; Bizhar A. Tayeb

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 621-625
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127328.1496

The objective of this study was to develop Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) procedure for detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in artificially contaminated chicken meat. The experiments were conducted with various dilutions of Salmonella Typhimurium reference the American Type Culture Collection ATCC (ATCC13311TM 4.4*107) High concentration 4.4*103 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/ml, low concentration 4.4*102 CFU/ml, very low concentration 4.4*101 CFU/ml inoculated in chicken meat, in order to determine limits of detection (LOD), optimum incubation times 18 to 20 hours of pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW 1%). Hence, cultural methods and DNA extraction were performed according to kits instruction. The microbiological cultural test was capable to detect 1.76 CFU/mL, whereas PCR examination was able to detect 0.18 CFU/ml of initial dilution of Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated in chicken meat. Interestingly, the results were achieved in a less time period than that of classical culture. The PCR technique is beneficial in the methodology for detection of Salmonella in chicken meat.

Comparison study between the efficacy of immune complex and conventionally live vaccine against Gumboro disease in broilers

Fanar A. Isihak; Hana Kh. Ismail; Abdulwahid A. Wahid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 627-632
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127366.1499

This study aimed to evaluate the immune response and histological changes of two Gumboro disease vaccines. Two hundred, days old broilers were divided into 4 groups: group A was vaccinated with live attenuated infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine at 7 and 21 days of age, group B was vaccinated with Immune-Complex vaccine (Icx) at 1 day old, then all broilers of the groups A, B and C were vaccinated with ND vaccine at 10 and 24 days, while the group D was negative control. The blood was collected at 1, 7,14,21,28 and 35 days of age to obtain serum for ELISA. Samples of bursa from broilers of all groups at 14 and 28 days of age were submitted for histological examination. As a result of vaccination in group A the antibody titers are elevated after the 1st and 2nd dose of vaccination at 7 and 21 days. In group B this titer is increased from 21 day of age and reaches to peak at 35 day 7810±858 with significant difference, while in unvaccinated groups C and D the titer decreased gradually. The histological examination of bursal sections in group A and B varied at 14 and 28 days post vaccination and showed degeneration and necrosis of follicular lymphocytes compared with group and D. Thus we conclude that (Icx) vaccine improves the immune response after IBD and ND vaccination in comparison with live IBD vaccine. 

Effect of boron on some organs of pregnant BALB/c mice

Baidaa A. Salah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 633-642
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127549.1509

Current research had been conducted to assess the impact of boric acid (boron) on the different tissues of the fetal and maternal bodies of pregnant mice Mus musculus and its influence on the maternal plasma biochemistry, hematology, in addition to the fetal and maternal bodies weight, moreover the weight of a certain motherly tissues included liver, kidney, lung, brain and spleen. The pregnant mice were administered orally with boric acid at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg during pregnancy. The observations at a concentration of 50 mg / kg demonstrated several histopathological patterns in different mothers and fetal body parts. The lesions were increased at the dose of 100 mg / kg. Moreover, boron caused weight decrease in the maternal body weight, fetuses, and liver, but it caused an increase in weight of the kidney at the concentration 100 mg/ kg. The biochemical assessment of the maternal serum showed a high rise in the level of liver enzymes, blood urea, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL at the concentration 100mg mg/kg. Furthermore, there was a meaningful change in the blood hematology at the concentration 100mg/kg. In conclusion, the exposure of pregnant mice to high concentrations of boric acid can alter the structure, the function of maternal and embryos organs by inducing oxidative stress, which in turn resulting in the accumulation of toxins in the blood that cause different effects during the exposure period. 

Genetic diversity and clonal relatedness of Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from hemorrhagic septicemia’s cases in common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) farms

Zanan M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 643-648
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127566.1511

The objective of this study was to determine molecular typing and comparison analysis of 24 Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the diseased fish with hemorrhagic septicemia in freshwater ponds and cage in Mosul and Duhok cities, Iraq. A total of 24 A. hydrophila isolates that were collected from various fish ponds and cage, were used in this study. Identification of isolates was made by the standard microbiological and molecular methods. ERIC-PCR was done with different primers to establish the genetic relationship between strains. ERIC-PCR typing showed that 24 strains of A. hydrophila were classified into 11 ERIC types (genotypes). Genotypes 9 and 7 represented the most prevalent clone. All A. hydrophila strains that were isolated from the same fish were genetically diverse. There was minimal genetic similarity between some strains which were retrieved from the same geographical source area. Also, some isolates from different geographic source area were showed a 100% genetically similar. Aeromonas hydrophila was genotypically heterogeneous and clonally dispersed among different fish ponds and cage in Mosul and Duhok cities, Iraq. Besides, one fish can be infected with more than one strains of A. hydrophila.

Effect of nano-magnesium oxide and harmonic scalpel on lung lobectomy healing in dogs: Clinical and cytokine study

Omar A. Bader; Mohammad J. Eesa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 649-656
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127611.1514

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the role of the harmonic scalpel in lung tissue healing at the site of a middle lobe resection of the right lung. Twenty-four adult domestic dogs were used. They were randomly divided into two equal groups (control and treated group). The middle lobe of the right lung was excised by harmonic scalpel with titanium clamps to control bleeding and infiltration of air bubbles. The clinical and physiological condition of the animals was studied in the two-week period after surgery and molecular evaluation at time of zero, first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, twenty-first, twenty-eighth, and thirty-fifth days after operation by interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The result of clinical observation showed that dogs in both groups took 2-4 days after the operation to gain full activity. The heart and respiratory rate were within the normal level before and during the operation, and when the animal began to recover, the heartbeat and respiratory rate began to rise with irregularity and the irregularity continued for 3-5 hours after the completion of the operation and then returned to its normal level within 24 hours after the operation. These changes in heart rate and respiratory system were observed in all treated animals, while heart rhythm and respiratory rates persisted in the control group until several days after the operation. In the molecular evaluation, the results for interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α showed a significant difference in the mean values ​​of these two factors between control and treated.

Serological and molecular investigations of Brucellosis in dairy cows at certain areas of Al-Sulaymaniyah governorate- Iraq

Kani M. Ridhae; Suha A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 657-662
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127688.1520

This study aimed to detect Brucella antibodies in the sera of dairy cows and to identify Brucella species in the milk of seropositive cows. A total of 100 sera and 100 milk samples were collected from two 50-cows groups (group 1 with and group 2 without a history of reproductive problems and/or decreased milk production). Rose Bengal plate test and indirect ELISA were used to explore Brucella antibodies in the serum samples and thereafter milk samples of seropositive cows were undergone PCR analysis using Brucella genus specific primers and 3 pairs of species specific primers for identification of B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis. The RBPT showed 22 cows were carriers for the Brucella antibodies, 18 in group 1 and 4 in group 2 whereas the iELISA showed only 10 cows out of these 22 cows were positive, 9 in group 1 and only 1 cow in group 2. The PCR assay, which was performed on milk samples of the RBPT positive cows, revealed 18 samples were positive for the Brucella genus and the Brucella abortus species and were negative for Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis species. As a conclusion, the results of this study showed that brucellosis has been encountered in cows with or without a history of reproductive problems, and the RBPT followed by PCR assay for milk samples of the seropositive cows could provide more specific detection than performing either test alone and could be more useful for rapid screening of brucellosis in dairy cows.

Diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats raw milk by fast and reliable techniques

Dhary A. Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 663-668
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127697.1523

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goats’ raw milk samples by detecting anti-Brucella antibodies and Brucella species at Erbil governorate. A total of 320 raw milk samples (150 sheep milk and 170 goats milk) were irregularly collected from dairy females. The overall occurrence of Brucella antibodies in samples of sheep and goats raw milk was 11.6% and 9.7% according to MRT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Isolation of Brucella (B.) species from samples of raw milk was 7.8%. The isolated species of Brucella were B. melitensis and B. abortus. A noticeable increase in frequency during September to November was observed. In conclusion, brucellosis is still a considerable public health threat in the Erbil. Based on the tests performance, the study recommends MRT in standard observing of brucellosis in milk aggregate farms, centers, and dairy manufactories. Customers are also recommended to adequately pasteurize the milk in order to damage this milk-borne pathogen before ingestion or saleable handling.

Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus in camel milk in the Nineveh governorate by using the PCR technique

Omar H. Sheet; Dhyaa M. Jwher; Raad A. Al-Sanjary; Ahmed Dh. Alajami

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 669-672
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127725.1524

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is the main facultative organism of contagious intramammary infections from lactating animals. It is considered a major foodborne organism that can cause food poisoning conditions around the world. Camels are very important to the lifestyle of many countries because they can produce milk that contains the major components such as proteins, energy, vitamins, and minerals. The present study used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method on a base of the nuc gene as a target gene, which is a specific gene that recognizes the S. aureus amongst other microorganisms. Fifty milk samples have been collected from camels from different areas of the Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. According to the phenotypic characteristics, isolation and identification of S. aureus have been accomplished by characterizing the shape of the colonies, painting the suspected isolates by gram stain, using the biochemical tests such as coagulase and catalase. In this study, S. aureus was isolated from 70% (35/50) camel milk samples. The classical method of identifying the S. aureus isolated from camel milk was consistent with the PCR method. The PCR technique indicated that all positive S. aureus possessed the nuc gene. The increased percentage of S. aureus isolated from the camel milk has a relationship with the type of farm management, poor nutrition, and/or environmental conditions, rather than treatment of the infected camel. The PCR method is considered one of the best-used techniques to identify the S. aureus isolated from camel milk by detection of nuc gene, the specific gene of S. aureus.

Genotypic analysis of ticks species infesting cattle in Al-Diwaniyah abattoir

Mansoor J. Ali; Wisam R. Raheem Atiyah; Monyer A. Abdulameir Al-Fatlawi; Saba F. Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 673-677
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127772.1525

Different vectors are considered critical for disease transmission between animals; however, ticks play a significant role in the dissemination of various infectious illnesses of animals and human importance. The current work was carried out to categorize ticks genetically of those isolated from cattle that entered Al-Diwaniyah abattoir. In the present study, 50 tick samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and genetic-based methods of polymerase chain reaction and partial gene sequencing, both utilized the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) gene as a genotyping element. The findings of the microscopic examination showed that the ticks were from Hyalomma spp. Further analysis, the polymerase chain reaction revealed the genus of Hyalomma of the ticks, but when the PGS was performed, one sample of H. detritum, three samples of H. excavatum, and two samples of H. marginatum were identified. When the phylogenetic analyses were conducted, H. detritum showed close genetic similarity to an isolate from Spain EU827695.1. H. excavatum revealed similarity with isolates from India MK863382.1 and Turkey MT230050.1. In contrast, H. marginatum displayed close identity to an isolate from Iran (MG557555.1). In conclusion, these findings may indicate evolutionary links of the locally identified isolates to different world isolates, probably due to the trade-moving of animals.

Impact of different artificial light intensities on some reproductive, productive performance aspects and blood picture of male quail

Hiyam N. Maty; Suha M. Alghazal; Ashwaq A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 679-685
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127774.1526

This experiment was designed to determine the influence of various white light intensities on spermatogenesis, hematology and growth performance of male quail. A total of 80 birds of one day aged had been assigned to four equal groups: G1 control group was kept under natural light program 12h light:12h dark. G2, G3, G4 were exposed to artificial white light emitting diodes at 0.6, 45 and 25 Lux for 5 hours daily for 8 weeks starting at 14 days of age. The result showed that the application of Lux 0.6, 45 and 25 caused a significant increase in heart weight relative to control. Lux 0.6 led to decrease in total body weight, left testis weight and foam weight. The result revealed that exposure to 0.6 Lux caused significant decrease in sperm count and live sperm percentage and increase in dead sperm percentage. Program of 25 Lux generated a significant increase in RBC counts compared to 0.6 Lux. Exposure to 45 Lux and 25 Lux triggers a significant increase in PCV and hemoglobin concentrations. Exposures to 0.6 Lux and 25 Lux resulted in a significant increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, while apply to program 0.6 Lux cause increase in stress index. The best feed conversion ratio was detected in normal daylight, 0.6 Lux and 25 Lux respectively. In conclusion, exposure of male quails to different intensities of white LED bulb had an effect on the some physiological and reproductive parameters.

Immunohistochemical detection of P53 and MDM2 and its correlation with histological grading system in ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma

Enas S. Mustafa; Waseem H. Al-Jameel; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 687-692
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127779.1527

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a cancer disease in sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The retrovirus is distinctive among viruses for inducing carcinogenesis of lung epithelial cells and cause a lung adenocarcinoma. OPA has numerous characters same as human lung adenocarcinoma, involving a similar histological organization and motivation of most cell signalling pathways. P53 pathway is frequently changed in human lung adenocarcinoma, in specific due to the increase expression of MDM2 and it is the main regulator of P53. Here, we have a go at something new to confirm the possible expression of p53 and MDM2 in OPA as a translational animal model for human lung adenocarcinoma, and to identify the correlation between P53 and MDM2 expression. 1645 of lung samples from different breeds were macroscopically tested. OPA was recognized in 21 samples and further assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Histologically, proliferative cancer foci were distributed and contained of cuboidal or columnar cells and arising papillary to acinar patterns. The nuclear expression of P53 and MDM2 was detected in 90% and 95% respectively in the cancer epithelial cells of OPA respectively. Detectable immunoreactivity for P53 was detected in 6 out of 7 grade I, 7 out of 8 grade II, and 6 out of 6 grade III cancers. In reverse with P53, MDM2 was detected in 18 cases with moderate and high expression. In addition, there was statistically relationship between both protein expressions. Our findings suggested that overexpression of MDM2 plays an essential part in OPA carcinogenesis and is dependable on the grading system, and its overexpression can be convinced by P53 expression.        

Pathological study of the relation between the incidences of claws lesions and carpo-digital joint capsule lesions in front limbs of sheep slaughtered in Mosul

Karam H. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 693-697
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127788.1530

For detecting a possible relation between claws lesions and the lesions of carpo-digital joint capsule, the nearest joint to the claws, with an importance in diagnosing the exact cause of lameness in sheep resulting to be brought for casualty slaughter. For that goal 128 front limb were collected from slaughtered sheep at Mosul abattoir for period from 5-25/2/2013, the gross examination was made for observing the claws lesions and the synovial capsule were harvested, preserved and prepared for histopathologic examination, then examined microscopically with recording lesions. the correlation coefficient values were estimated between claws affection and joint capsular lesions at the same limb. Results demonstrated affection of 83 limbs with claws lesions as foot rot and erosions at incidence ratio 64.84%. The histopathological examination revealed a chronic type of changes including Fibroplasia in both synovium and tunica densa at incidences 8.59% and 6.25% respectively, Foci of hyperplastic synovial lining at 4.68% of samples, adipose tissue marbleizing synovium at 7.03% of the examined sections. Mild degree of chronic synovitis was observed within 10.93% of total samples, connective tissue metaplasia was evident at 3.9% of sections at tunica densa layer, the arteriolar musculature showed vacuolation at 18.75% of samples. The correlation coefficient value was significantly positive between occurrence of foot rot disease and the incidence of chronic synovitis in carpo-digital joint capsule which can be considered as the most important conclusion in the study. 

Aloe vera and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) accelerate healing process in domestic cat (Felis domesticus) suffering from scabies

Tridiganita Solikhah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 699-704
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127884.1539

The objective of this study is to know the formula in making Aloe vera gel cream with VCO to create a scabies medicine and know which treatment gives the fastest healing effect of scabies in domestic cats in Mojokerto. The first step is to extract Aloe vera by infundation method, phytochemical identification test, making Aloe vera cream, testing the washing power of the cream, and testing the effect of Aloe vera gel cream on 32 cats suffering from scabies in Mojokerto, then the skin of cats suffering from scabies scraped and observed under a microscope to observe the ectoparasites that cause scabies in cats. Cats were divided into 4 treatments namely A, B, C, and D. The results of this study indicated skin scrapping on 32 cats scabies in Mojokerto, exist 26 cats that were positive for Notoedres cati, 2 cats positive for Sarcoptes scabieiand 4 cats are negative. Formulas used for the manufacture of creams included stearic acid, triethanolamine, adeps lanae, paraffin liquid, VCO, nipagin, nipasol, aquades, and Aloe vera. The results of the three groups of cream formulas B, C, D caused a significant cure in cats suffering from scabies compared to control group A.

Histological effects of chronic sodium fluoride toxicity on some reproductive organs of male and female adult albino rats

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Bushra I. Al-Kaisie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 705-711
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127896.1540

The current study aimed to determine the pathological effects of chronic poisoning with sodium fluoride on some reproductive organs like ovary, and testis of adult’s male and female albino rats. Thirty-six male and female adult’s albino rats were divided into six groups. The first and second group of male and female rats are control groups was given tap drinking water, the third and fourth groups of male and female rats was given 150 ppm of NaF, the fifth and sixth group of male and female rats was given 300 ppm of NaF respectively for 90 days. The weights of male and female genital were recorded. Histological exam of control groups of female rats showed the typical histological structure of the ovary, while the NaF treated groups showed a decrease in growing follicles, in addition to thickening in tunica albuginea and deposition of eosinophilic material. In male control groups, the sections showed the typical histological structures of the testis, while the treated groups showed multinucleated spermatids in addition to the deposition of amorphous eosinophilic material in the interstitial tissue, coagulative necrosis, in addition to apoptotic and sloughed spermatogonia in the lumen of seminiferous tubule. These results indicate that sodium fluoride with 300 ppm has toxic effects on organ body weights and on the histology of the gonads of adult’s male and female albino rats.

Effect of vitamin C treatment on some central nervous system functions in young rats whose mothers treated with hydrogen peroxide during the lactation period

Afrah Y. Jasim; Suha A. Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 713-717
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127894.1544

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of vitamin on young rats whose mothers exposed to 1% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water during the lactation period on the function of the nervous system. The study consisted of three groups, Control group, hydrogen peroxide group, vitamin C with hydrogen peroxide group, showed that treatment with hydrogen peroxide for mothers led to significant decrease in the weights of young-rats-age21 days and significant increase in the righting reflex test, cliff avoidance and the olfactory discrimination test in young rats at age of week and also in the onset movement test and at the time of negative geotaxis test in-young-rats age21days. Treatment of mothers with hydrogen peroxide caused significant decrease in open-field activity and number of times standing on backlists during 3minutes and in the approach response, touch and sound of young rats at age 21 days. While, hydrogen peroxide treated group resulted in significant increase in time of negative geotaxis test and hydrogen peroxide had no effect on response of tail pinch as compared to other groups. When treating mothers with vitamin C significant increase in weights of youngsters age21days, as well as in onset of movement test and in number of squares cutoff within 3minutes in open-field activity and number of times standing on backlists during 3minutes in young-rats age 21 days. Also there was significant decrease in righting reflex test, olfactory distinction and negative geotaxis test compared to hydrogen peroxide treated group. It was concluded from the study that vitamin C plays an important role as an antioxidant by improving the nervous system function in young rats their mothers exposed to with hydrogen peroxide in drinking water.

Biochemical and behavioral responses in carp fish exposed to tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222) as anesthetic drug under transport conditions

Shahbaa AL-Taee; May Thanoon Anaz; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany; Alla Hussein ALHamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 719-723
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.128035.1552

This study aims to determine the effects of Tricaine methane‐sulfonate (MS-222) at concentration 150mg/l for one hour as an anesthetic agent to reduce the stress conditions during transfer the fish. Forty fish (Cyprinus carpio) were divide in to four groups: the 1st is control group (fish without both transfer and anesthesia), the 2nd group (fish transfer without anesthesia), the 3rd group (fish anesthesia without transfer) and the 4th group (fish transfer with anesthesia). The induction time reached to 3 minutes while the recovery time take at lasted for 7 to 10 minutes. Furthermore, the cortisol was significantly decreased in fish serum in both anesthetized groups that were transferred or that were left in the pond without transmission in compare to control groups (both transfer and without transfer fish). The glucose level rose significantly (P <0.05) in the serum of fish in both 3rd and 4th groups in compare to control groups. There was no difference in hematological parameters (hemoglobin and packed cell volume), blood sodium ion concentration, and enzyme activity represented by Alanine amino transferase in all groups while level of creatinine phosphate was decrease significantly in both groups 2nd and 3ed in compare to 1st group. It can be concluded that tricaine methane‐sulfonate stimulates the recovery and shortens the time of induction and reduces the stress condition caused by fish transport.

A Comparative pharmacological study on moxidectin and propolis ointment in rabbits naturally infested with Psoroptes cuniculi

Mohamed F. Dakroury; Asmaa A. Darwish

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 725-731
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128171.1560

Ear mange is an annoying problem for all animal breeders including rabbit's breeders. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of moxidectin and 10% propolis ointment on rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi with especial reference to some related biochemical parameters diagnostic and prognostic value. For this purpose, a total of thirty-two rabbits: 8 non-infested rabbits (control group (CG) and 24 naturally infested rabbits were used. Infested rabbits were equally divided into three groups: 1st group remained without treatment (diseased group (DG)), 2nd group was treated with moxidectin ((0.2 mg/kg body weight) S/C (MG)). Propolis ointment (10%) was applied topically to rabbits of the 3rd group (PG) once daily. Ear scrapes and blood samples were taken on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. The ear scraping was examined microscopically and the biochemical parameters were estimated and statistically analyzed. The results cleared that moxidectin achieved the complete healing (14th day) faster than propolis ointment (21st day), but MG suffered from a significant (P<0.05) hypoalbuminemia, increased liver and kidney function tests and cortisol levels when compared to PG. Liver and kidney function tests and cortisol yielded good values of the area under the curve, sensitivity%, specificity%, likelihood ratio, PPV%, NPV%, accuracy rate% in DG, MG (except creatinine) and PG. The study concluded that propolis had a prominent antipsoroptic effect without inducing hepatic or renal toxicity. Liver and kidney function tests and cortisol may be useful markers for rabbit mange diagnosis and prognosis and following up its treatment. 

Effect addition of Cinnamomum cassia on treatment of pathological infections in Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings

Mahmoud A Mohammad; Shahbaa AL-Taee; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 733-738
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128258.1564

The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the causative agents that causes death in Yankee Hatch / Erbil fingerling Cyprinus carpio and to investigate the effect of Cinnamon on the infected fish handled. Both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are strongly isolate followed by Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated from liver, kidney and intestine which cause histopathological changes in these organs, characterized by fibrosis in liver, coagulative necrosis in renal tubules in the kidney and sever enteritis. Cinnamomum cassia added to the ration of infected fish at concentration 0.75, 1 and 1.5 %for eight weeks. The histopathological examination reveals that the 1.5% is best the percentage used as food additive for repair and regenerative tissue damage in the liver, kidney and intestine. These study conclude that C. cassia have been used as additive food in fish feed ration at 1.5% and have important role in regenerative tissue damage and keep fish in health status.

A study of the incidence of Lucilia sericata fly in ovine in Mosul city

Nadia S. Alhayali; Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 739-743
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128276.1566

The objective of the current study is to examine the incidence of Lucilia sericata larvae in the sheep in Mosul city, Iraq. From a total of 670 sheep examined, 92 sheep of them 13.7% were infested with Lucilia sericata larvae. For the 516 larvae found in the sheep, 146 (28.3%) was detected to be of the first instars larva, 120 (23.3%) was second in stars larva and 250 (48.4) as third instars larva. As the average number of larvae in the infested animals was 5.6. The infestation percentage in males was higher 26.3% compared to the females 4.2%, where there is no significant difference reported concerning with the age. The prevalence of Lucilia sericata larvae was 8.4% in spring, 38.9 % in summer, 2.4% in autumn and 1.5% in winter. The difference in terms of seasons were statistically significant. Sheep in the rural areas had higher infestation rate in comparison to the sheep in urban area. Most lesions occurred in the breech region, flank, leg and inter digital space of a foot. The percentage of adult flies that merged was 73.3% and the pupariation period was 12 to 20 hours, while the incubation and moulting periods were 7 to 10 days. All flies were similar in the external appearance and belonging to Lucilia sericata causing strike disease in sheep.

Case Report

Surgical treatment of omphalocele with intestinal evisceration in cow calf of Sahiwal: A case report

muhammad Kashif; Mazhar Abbas; Amar Nasir; Farah Ijaz; Majid Ali Nasir; muhammad Qaiser Riaz; Jawad Zahoor

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 745-748
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128322.1569

Omphalocele is a rare type of congenital abdominal wall defect that allows intestines (and sometimes a portion of liver) covered by a paper-thin membrane (amnion) to protrude from the abdominal wall at the navel area. The aim of the current study is to report the first successful rectification of a congenital omphalocele in a day old neonatal cow calf using a basic suture pattern in laparotomy at cattle populous area of Jhang (Punjab). The case was presented at College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang. The calf after surgery manifested a steady and progressive growth rate without any complication suggesting the success of the surgical remedy. At the same time this approach is quite economical to the farmer in the context of saving the life of his farm. It is concluded that this surgery can instituted with success in cases with fair body condition, less contaminated in the absence of predominant necrosis of the tissues.

Research Paper

Pathological and molecular study of ovine diaphragms naturally infected by Sarcosystis spp.

Enas S. Mostafa; Nadia S. Alhayali; Eman G. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 749-755
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128327.1570

 Sarcosystis spp., has a close relationship with muscles due to its unique localization within skeletal muscle in humans and the animals it infects, as the chronic condition of the disease causes significant economic losses, especially in terms of meat production as a result of the formation of cysts, whether macroscopic or microscopic, in their muscle fibers. Sarcosystis tenella and Sarcosystis arieticanis are the most important pathogenic cysts forming in sheep. In this study, 50 samples of diaphragm muscles of sheep slaughtered in the butchers' shops and the Mosul abattoir were examined grossly, histologically, and using PCR technique as a diagnostic tool to identify or diagnose the causative and responsible species of these changes. The diaphragm samples appeared white and pale on the macroscopic examination, while the tissue lesions were characterized by the presence of Sarcosystis in different numbers and sizes among the muscle fibers, which led to the occurrence of zinker necrosis and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophil, monocyte, macrophage and giant cells, and also oedema and proliferation of fibroblast. With the formation of fibrous tissue whose intensity was inferred (mild, medium and intense) by using the masson’s trichrome stain. The results of the molecular analysis using the nested PCR technique indicated that these diagnosed microscopic cysts belong to Sarcosystis tenella with a reaction product of 800bp and 500bp.

Potential of probiotics Bacillus subtilis to reduce ammonia levels, Vibrio sp abundance, and increased production performance of Seaworm (Nereis sp) under laboratory scale

Aditya Kamaruddin; Moch Nurhudah; Djumbuh Rukmono; Angga Wiradana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 757-763
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128408.1572

This study aims to determine the potential of Bacillus subtilis probiotic in reducing levels of ammonia, Vibrio sp, and increased production performance in seaworm cultivation (Nereis sp.) under laboratory scale. Observation of the performance of seaworms (Nereis sp.) was carried out every 10 days which included weight gain (gr), length (cm), total biomass (gr), total bacteria (CFU/mL), total Vibrio sp. (CFU/mL), and total Bacillus subtilis (CFU/mL). Water quality measurements include temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, ammonia, and total organic matter (TOM). Application of probiotics Bacillus subtilis has the potential to reduce ammonia concentration, increase growth, and reduce the abundance of Vibrio sp under laboratory-scale seaworm cultivation. P3 treatment (0.01 mL with a probiotic density of 106 CFU/mL) gave the best results by being able to reduce the ammonia concentration by 47.5%. In summary, the probiotic application using the bacteria Bacillus subtilis with different densities able to provide good results in supporting production performance, maintaining the abundance of Vibrio sp., and reducing ammonia concentration in seaworm cultivation. This is the first study to report the performance of seaworm production using probiotic agent, research is still needed to determine the digestive enzyme activity of seaworms given probiotics.

Development of experimentally-induced periodontitis in a Sprague Dawley rat model

Hana H. Mustafa; Ahmed Kh. Ali; Chen Cheng; Rozanaliza Radzi; Lau Fong; Noordin Mustapha; Hewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 765-769
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128422.1573

Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease that leads to the degradation of periodontium and results in alveolar bone loss. The development of a suitable animal model of periodontitis is a prerequisite to understanding better the mechanisms that underly this disease. This study evaluated periodontal disease induction via retentive ligature, intragingival injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and their combination in a rat model.Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group (control) did not receive any treatment. The second group underwent the application of 4/0 nylon ligature around the second maxillary molars. The third group was treated with an intragingival injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS into the palatal mucosa of the second maxilla molars, and the fourth group was treated with a combination of ligature and LPS injection (ligature-LPS). Morphological changes in the gingival tissues were evaluated after 7, 14, and 30 days of treatment.Significant degenerative changes were observed in the periodontal tissues and alveolar bone in the third and fourth groups, which were evident as early as seven days. The lesions remained until 14 days and declined with time in the third and fourth groups. The changes induced by ligature and ligature-LPS were not different. Injection with LPS alone resulted in minimal increases in the Gingival and Plaque Indices.The ligature technique induced periodontal disease successfully, more effective than the injection of LPS. The combination of ligature with LPS injection added no significant effect compared to ligature alone.

Comparative study on the effect of cadmium and hydrocortisone treatment on the brain of rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Karam H. Al-Mallah; Sura S. Aghwan; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 771-775
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128436.1575

This study was dedicated to detecting the effects of cadmium chloride and of cortisone on experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rats through studying brain tissue. Twenty-four adult albino male rats were used, divided into four groups, comprising: untreated control as group 1, group 2: infected with intraperitoneal injection of Toxoplasma gondii 80 tissue cysts per animal, group 3: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride 1.5mg/kg once a week, group 4: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone in a dose 0.5 mg/kg once a week. After 30 days of treatment for all groups, the animals were sacrificed, and the gross and histopathological examinations were performed on the brains of the rats. The results revealed the presence of changes in the infected groups including appearance of toxoplasma tissue cysts in the grey matter, with mild to moderate perineuronal and periaxonal edema. There were further changes observed in infected groups which treated with cadmium chloride including perineuronal satelletosis, perineuronal edema and demyelination in neuronal axons, otherwise the infected groups treated with cortisone did not show any noticeable difference from the group of infection only. It is concluded that cadmium increase the intensity of occurrence of lesions induced by Toxoplasma gondii in the brain tissue of the rats, considering that all noticeable lesions ranged from mild to moderate in severity, and the differences between groups may be related to the nature of the pathogen used. 

Effect of diclofenac on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in quail

Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 777-781
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128440.1576

This study investigated the Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin alone or with diclofenac sodium in adult Japanese quails. The quails divided into two groups, the first group was dosed intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin, the second group was injected by 50 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin intraperitoneally then directly injected intraperitoneally by diclofenac sodium at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by the spectrophotometer at wavelength 290 nm. Co-admiration of ciprofloxacin with diclofenac lead to appearing ciprofloxacin in plasma at 12.02, 6.4, 5.3, 3.30, 1.36, 0.60 μg/ml in the periods of 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours post-injection. A significantly increased in the concentration of ciprofloxacin at times of 0.25, 0.50, 1, and 2 hours post-injection and appeared at a concentration of 6.96, 3.09, 2.2, and 0.72 μg/ml. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin when given with diclofenac sodium was represented by 91% decrease in elimination constant rate, 53% decrease in elimination half-life t1/2, 64% decrease in volume of distribution to steady-state, 22% decrease in clearance, 28% increase area under curve, 41% decrease in area under moment curve, 53% decrease in mean residence time and 37% increase in maximum plasma concentration. Our study concludes that co-administration of ciprofloxacin with diclofenac sodium lead to alteration in some pharmacokinetic data of ciprofloxacin like effect on the plasma concentration and volume of distribution and clearance. This effect must be considered when therapy by ciprofloxacin with diclofenac, the co-administration of diclofenac with ciprofloxacin decrease the elimination of ciprofloxacin 

The neurobehavioral effects of flumazenil in chicks

Ahmed S. Naser; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 783-788
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.128443.1577

Flumazenil is choosy and competitive GABA receptor blocker that serves as an antidote to benzodiazepines overdose. Its administration in humans and some animal’s model is connected with nervousness, anxiety responses, or seizures attacks. The objective of this study was to scrutinize the neurobehavioral reaction as well as sedative and anxiolytic actions of flumazenil in chick’s model. The Median effective dose of flumazenil injected chicks was 0.114 mg/kg i.p. Flumazenil at 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg diminished the locomotors activity, prolonged the period of tonic immobility and have anxiolytic action in chicks. Flumazenil at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg cause mild sedation in chicks. Flumazenil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg have antagonistic effects in chicks sedated with diazepam at 10mg/kg. Flumazenil demonstrated fairly unexpectedly a depressant effect in the open field test and sedative and anxiolytic bias attention test in the chick’s model. These findings indicate that the impact of flumazenil is indicative of the characteristics of partial agonists when given on its own and antagonist when given after diazepam according to the neurobehavioral tests.

Ameliorative role of Arabic gum against nephrotoxicity induced by ciprofloxacin in rats

Abdullah Th. Abdullah; Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 789-798
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127441.1503

Medicinal plants have gained wide popularity at present time due the side effects of chemical drugs on the body in general and on the kidneys in particular. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of ciprofloxacin. Twenty-four rats divided into four groups administrated for 14 days as following: control group administrated orally with distilled water 1 ml/kg, ciprofloxacin group 750 mg/kg, orally. Third group administrated with AG solution 15% and fourth group administrated with ciprofloxacin 750 mg/kg combined with AG 15% respectively. Results demonstrated the effect of Ciprofloxacin in significant increased levels of nephrotoxicity biomarkers such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, MDA, and a significant decreased urine flow rate, creatinine clearance and degeneration in renal tissue via attenuate antioxidant system tissue. The combined administration of AG with Ciprofloxacin showed the ameliorative role of AG on nephrotoxicity biomarkers, nephron function, antioxidant availability and protected renal tissue from damage. We concluded that AG in concentration 15% has a protective role against renal toxicity exposed by ciprofloxacin in rats.

Therapeutic trial on clinical cases of impactive and spasmodic colic in donkeys in Gondar, northwest Ethiopia

Fentaye K. Gashe; Kindiye Amenu; Birhanu Ayele

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 795-802
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127394.1501

The therapeutic trial was conducted from December 2018 to May 2019 to compare the therapeutic efficacy of different drug regimens in the treatment of impactive and spasmodic colic in donkeys in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Twenty-five purposively selected donkeys were used in this study. Ten of them were showing suspected clinical signs of impactive colic and the remaining ten were with spasmodic colic. The rest five donkeys were kept as control group. For this trial, each disease category was again grouped into two subgroups. The first sub-group in group A with suspected spasmodic colic was treated with ivermectin and, the second sub-group was treated with fenbendazole. Similarly, the first subgroup in group B with suspected impactive colic was treated with meloxicam and the remaining sub-group was treated with hyoscine butyl bromide. Most vital parameters were recorded before and after treatment of colicky donkeys. Feces and blood samples were collected and examined pre and post-treatment from each donkey. Donkeys treated with ivermectin subcutaneously have 97.3% fecal egg count reduction percentage, whereas donkeys treated with fenbendazole orally have fecal egg count reduction percentage of 79.85%. Donkeys treated with meloxicam, most of the clinical signs disappear within 24 hours of time after treatment. Subcutaneous administration of ivermectin was effective for the treatment of spasmodic colic due to Strongyle infestation in donkeys. Therefore, field veterinarians should practice subcutaneous administration of ivermectin and intramuscular administration of meloxicam for effective treatment of spasmodic and impactive colic in donkeys, respectively.

Seroprevalence of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in cows by ELISA in Mosul city

Salam A. Esmaeel; Khder J. Hussain; Mohammad A. Al-Taliby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 803-807
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128668.1595

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is described as a tick-borne viral zoonosis highly prevalent in Africa, Asia, Russia and the Balkans within the distribution range of ticks that belong to the genus Hyalomma. This research aimed to verify the seroprevalence of CCHF in cows employing Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) in Mosul city / Iraq, to ​​examine some epidemiological risk factors related to the incidence of CCHF. From October 2019 - September 2020, one hundred eighty-four blood samples were taken from 3-8-year-old cattle of both sexes, from several management systems and origins, from various parts in Mosul city, 10 ml of blood was taken from the jugular vein in test tubes without anticoagulant to obtain the sera for I-ELISA test, while epidemiological data were obtained by interviewing the farm-owners. I-ELISA was applied to detect the antibodies of CCHF in the serum. The overall seroprevalence of CCHF in cows was 40/184 (21.7%). As for the risk factors associated with increased seroprevalence of the disease, an increase in seroprevalence rates was observed at ages 6, 7 and 8 years 30.5%, among females 26.3% and imported animals 27.5%. which showed that the serological prevalence in indoor feeding and outdoor feeding, was not significantly different (p<0.05). This study concluded that there is a higher seroprevalence of CCHF in Mosul city along with many risk factors related to its incidence.