Volume 35, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2021


Research Paper

Investigation of the principal vectors of abortive diseases in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius)

El Aid Kaaboub; Nassim Ouchene; Nadjet A. Ouchene; Ali Dahmani; Imene Ouchtati; Asma Haif; Djamel Khelef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 411-415
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126914.1415

One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important source of meat, milk and leather production for humans in southern Algeria. Camel livestock farming is confronted with several obstacles, including abortive diseases which can be transmitted mainly by ticks. The study was carried out in Ouargla region, South Algeria, between January and December 2017. The objective of this study was to identify ticks in camels and to study the relationship between camel abortion rate and the presence of different species of ticks. A total of 350 camels (including 171 males and 179 females) was used in this study. Ticks were searched on the entire camel body (head, neck, hump, abdomen, forelegs, back legs, and tail area). Results showed that 215/350 (61.4%) camels were infested by ticks including 137/171 (80.1%) and 78/179 (43.6%) males and females, respectively. A total of 46/179 (25.7%) camel females had aborted and all these were revealed infested by ticks. A total of 298 ticks was collected including the following species Hyalomma dromedarii (90.9%), Hyalomma impeltatum (5.37%) and for the first time in Algeria, Amblyomma variegatum (2.35%) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.34%). H. dromedarii was the most frequent (p<0.001). The study showed that the dromedary was highly infested by ticks. The presence of ticks in all aborted female camels certainly indicates their important role in one-humped camel abortions in Algeria. The identification of tick-borne abortive agents in camels is important in order to establish an effective abortion control plan.

Case Report

Pathological lesions of acute sodium chloride toxicity in common carp: Case report

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Asel M. Rahawe; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Ahmed M. Farhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 417-419
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126917.1417

Sodium chloride (NaCl) have a major impact on fish farming, as it used to disinfect fish and their eggs, in contrast using NaCl in high dose can cause life threating toxicity with high mortalities in Cyprinus carpio. We aimed in current report to introduce for specialist in fish culturing and farmers a typical acute NaCl toxicity by presenting pathological lesions. The histopathological lesions composed from sever degenerative and necrotic changes in gill filaments with destruction in blood vessels and hyperplasia in secondary gill lamella. In conclusion, using NaCl in high uncalculated doses can cause significant pathological changes that lead to 100% mortalities in Cyprinus carpio.

Research Paper

A study of pathological abnormalities of genitalia in ewes in Duhok, Iraq

Zeravan A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 421-427
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126939.1421

Congenital or acquired abnormalities in genital tracts of ewes leading to sterility, which cannot easily to be identify by routine clinical examination. Reproductive tracts abnormalities regarded as a major causes lead to loss of sheep production. This study aimed to examine reproductive tracts in slaughtered ewes grossly and microscopically. This study was conducted on 270 genital tracts of non-pregnant ewes at Khanky slaughterhouse in Duhok province. Samples were collected within the period from September 2019 to March 2020. The results showed that 24.1% exhibited acquired abnormalities and 75.9% were exhibited normal. The rate of uterine abnormalities was about 3.3%, ovarian abnormalities comprised 17.8% and oviduct abnormalities were 3.0%. The most common pathological conditions of the uterus were endometritis at rate 2.2%, hydrometra (pseudopregnancy) and mummifies foetus at rate 0.4% and 0.4%, respectively. In the ovary, the common abnormalities were ovarobusral adhesion 14.4%, ovarian cysts 1.1% and Para ovarian cysts 0.4%. The abnormalities of the oviduct were uterine tubes obstruction 2.6%, followed by hydrosalpinx 0.7%. It is concluded that pathological lesions, such as endometritis, ovarian cysts and hydrosalpinx in ewes could result in infertility or sterility of the ewes leading to economic losses to farmers.

Novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the prolactin gene of Awassi ewes and its role in the reproductive traits

Tahreer M. Al-Thuwaini

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 429-435
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126973.1423

This study was conducted to determine the genetic variation of the prolactin (PRL) gene in 5' flanking region and its role with several reproductive traits in Awassi sheep. One-hundred six Iraqi sexually mature and healthy Awassi ewes that aged between 2 and 2.5 years were included in this study. Ewes were classified into two the main divisions: ewes producing twins and ewes producing single offspring. Two genotypes (AA and AT) were observed in Awassi sheep. While genotype AA was detected in Awassi ewes that produced twins, genotype AT was detected in ewes that produced a single offspring. The sequencing reactions identified nine SNPs in the prolactin gene at the 5′ flanking region in Awassi sheep, differing from the prolactin reference sequence (GenBank accession number X16641.1). Genotype AT possessed one single nucleotide polymorphism SNP substitute comparison with the AA genotype in Awassi ewes. The association analysis revealed that the AA genotype is characterized by significantly higher levels of the progesterone concentration, twinning ratio, fecundity, and prolificacy than the AT genotype. In conclusion, a new SNP (g.1209 A>T) was discovered within the ovine flanking region which potentially influences prolactin gene expression. These results showed that the genotype AA associated with high prolificacy of Awassi sheep may be used as a selection criterion for improving the reproductive performance of Iraqi Awassi sheep.

Anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in Sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus

Hamid H. Hamid; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 437-442
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126976.1424

The current study conducted to investigate the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in sparrow hawk accipiter nisus. By using an optical microscope and histological stains. Anatomical results showed that the cornea composed of two parts, the peripheral cornea and the central cornea, and there was variation in corneal thickness according to the anatomical region. Histologically, the cornea consists of five layers. The first layer of the central cornea consists of non- keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue composed of four rows of cells. Whereas, Bowman's membrane appeared clear and thicker on the dorsal side than on the ventral side. The corneal stroma consists of collagen fibers arranged in three secondary layers within the stroma. The corneal stroma also distinguished by the presence of fibroblast cells, which randomly distributed among the collagen fibers. The Descemet membrane appeared clear and equal in thickness between the dorsal and ventral sides. The endothelium tissue appears in the form simple squamous epithelia. The histological structure of the cornea root seemed similar to its formation in the central cornea. Still, it characterized by the presence of pigment cells spread in the stromal corneal root. Among the distinct results that appeared in this study is the presence of blood vessels spreading in the root of the cornea. The study concluded that the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in this bird distinguished by some specialties that contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the function of the cornea in this bird.

Pathological and biological effects of treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin in rabbits

Assia BOUMEZRAG; Houari HEMIDA; Fadhela Amina BOUMEZRAG; Fadh SMAIL; Sekhou CISSE

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 443-450
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126977.1425

Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide, which is widely used to control a large variety of agricultural pests throughout the world as well as in Algeria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LCT exposure on body weight, hematological and blood biochemical parameters and to evaluate histopathological changes in some organs. Twelve (12) healthy local rabbits with a mean body weight of 1.8 kg were divided into three groups of four each: First group was kept as control (CTRL), second group (LCT 10) and third group (LCT 20) were given oral LCT at 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively three times a week for 25 days. The results showed no significant difference in mean body weight between groups. Blood analysis revealed no significant variation in hemogram between LCT-treated groups and control group. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P˂0.05) in total cholesterol content and glucose in LCT10 and LCT20, respectively. Total protein increased significantly (P˂0.0001) in LCT 20 group. While a very high increase (P˂0.0001) in the activity of asparatate aminotranferase (AST) was recorded in both treated groups, no change was observed in the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). LCT treatment exhibited severe histopathological changes in liver, kidney, lung and brain. It is concluded from the study that LCT produced serious toxic pathological alterations and metabolic dysfunctions in rabbits.

Effect of plasma isolated Orexin-A on the regulation of metabolites in male rats

Rana F. Jasim; Thikra A. Allwsh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 451-457
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127001.1429

This research includes the isolation and purification of Orexin-A from the plasma of healthy human via various biochemical techniques, it was proposed the therapeutic role of orexin on hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation and it has been suggested to study the effect of isolated orexin A on the metabolism of lipids and glucose in normal and hyperlipidemic rats, a high level of orexin-A had been found only in second peak (B) isolated by gel filtration chromatography (using Sephadex G-50) and showed (34.5) fold of purification, also, the effect of isolated orexin-A on some clinical parameters had been studied in normal and hyperlipidemic male rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with orexin-A at a dose of 1μmol/kg of body weight/day for one month. The results, obtained before treatment and after two and four weeks of treatment, had been showing a significant decrease in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, malondialdehyde and hyperinsulinemia, while there was a significant increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. It was concluded that orexin-A had an important role in regulating the metabolism of glucose and lipids, treatment of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, and decreasing lipid peroxidation in normal and hyperlipidemic rats.

Impact of breed, sex and age on hematological and biochemical parameters of local quail

Abdullah Fathi Abdul-Majeed; Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 459-464
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126960.1432

The current work aimed to study the normal values of some hematological and biochemical criteria of local quail and the effect of the breed, sex, and age on them. Two hundred quail (100 birds belong to each of white and light brown feathers local breeds), they were randomly distributed at 1st-day-age into 5 replicates, 20 birds/ replicate for each breed, and the study continued till the age 84 days. The results of the current study had revealed that the breed and the age, each alone did not significantly affect the physiological and biochemical parameters in this study, whereas the sex factor affects significantly most of the study parameters. The males were highly significant as compared to the females in the following parameter values: red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes%, basophils%, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity. While the females were significantly higher to the males in mean corpuscular volume, lymphocytes%, triglycerides, total protein, globulin, and alanine aminotransferase activity. In conclusion, the sex of the bird alone and its interaction with breed and age had the greatest impact on the hematological traits.

Immunolocalization of decorin, a small leucin-rich proteoglycan, in the normal and injured horse tendon

Othman J. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 465-471
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127017.1436

The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of decorin in normal and the injured equine cadaver limbs. The study was carried out using superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) samples harvested from equine cadaver limbs. Randomly assigned left or right equine distal forelimbs were collected in normal (7 - 14 years old ± 2.86 SD) and injured (6 - 16 years old ± 3.64 SD) SDFT. Small pieces of approximately 5 x 5 x 3 mm were collected from normal and the injured areas at the mid-most metacarpal regions and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at room temperature. They were routinely prepared for H&E staining in order to confirm whether they were normal or injured. Then they were prepared for immunological assay, the primary and the secondary antibodies were prepared in a standard ratio. The results showed that the distribution of decorin was varied between fascicles and the interfascicular matrix (IFM), and the latter showed greater intensity than the fascicles. The injured tendons showed up-regulation of decorin, it was intensively expressed in all the cases of injured tendon, particularly fascicles showed significant up-regulation when compared to the normal tendon. It was concluded that decorin was varied regionally, and the injured tendons presented a significant up-regulation.

Molecular characterization of extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dogs

Ihsan M. Ahmed; Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh; Dhyaa M. Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 473-478
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127032.1441

Shepherd dogs have been implemented in the transmission and distribution of many threatening pathogens. The presence of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli (ESCR E. coli) in dog feces can constitute a significance risk to human health due to transmission of antibiotics resistance from dogs to humans, other animals and the surrounding environment. Therefore, in this study, phenotypic and molecular characterization of fecal ESCR E. coli were investigated in shepherd dogs accompanied sheepherders in urban areas. Sixty-seven fresh fecal samples were collected from shepherd dogs from different regions of Mosul city. Bacteriological examination of ESCR E. coli was done using MacConkey agar with cefotaxime followed by subsequent PCR confirmation of the CTX-M gene using specific primers and molecular characterization using specific primers directed to CTX-M-1, 2 and 9 groups. The results of bacterial examination showed successful confirmation of ESCR E. coli which has been isolated from fecal samples of shepherd dogs 58.2% (39/67). In addition, detection of CTX-M gene was confirmed in 53.7% (36/67) of E. coli isolates. Furthermore, molecular characterization of CTX-M gene revealed the presence of only one genotype belongs to CTX-M-1. However, both of CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 genotypes were not detected in this study. This study concluded that shepherd dogs have an essential role in carrying and spreading of ESCR E. coli especially in urban regions.

Comparative histological and histochemical study of the ileum in two different birds

Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 479-487
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127046.1447

This study aimed to know the comparative histological structure and histochemistry of the Ileum in two birds that are the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and the Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using histological stains and histochemical techniques. The results showed that the Ileum wall in the two birds is composed of the histological layers that make up the rest of the gut wall, with many differences between them. The villi appeared in Turkey in various shapes, longer and more numerous than in the Cockatiel. The villi lined with a simple epithelial tissue in the two birds, containing the goblet cells. Lieberkuhkn''s crypts under the villi appeared in the two birds and had spherical secretory, and some secretory units contained the enteroendocrine cells. The Muscularis Externa appeared distinctively in Turkey than in the Cockatiel, and it was of three sublayers while in the Cockatiel from two sublayers. Histochemical results showed medium to a strong positive response to the epithelial tissue to AB pH 1, AB pH 2.5, PAS techniques while a weak positive in the intestinal glands to these techniques, with varying degrees between the two birds. While the response was positive for BP technique in the epithelial tissue and negative in the glands, as well as the same response appeared for the SB technique. The current study concluded that the Ileum structure in the two birds is identical with histological and histochemical differences that are appropriate to the nature of each bird''s food.

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from broiler carcasses in Mosul city

Omar H. Sheet; Saba A. Hussein; Aamer Y. Al-Chalaby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 489-493
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127052.1451

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is deemed as one of the main pathogens in human and animals. S. aureus can produce various toxins that usually implicated in food poisoning. S. aureus could possess the mecA gene, which is the principle cause of β-lactam antibiotics resistance, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Broiler’s meat is worthy food for humans, but it may expose to contamination with MRSA during the poultry processes in the slaughterhouse. The current study aimed to assessment the spread of S. aureus and MRSA in the broiler carcasses via detection the nuc and mecA gene and their resistance to different antibiotics. Fifty skin swabs were taken from the broilers carcasses, during their processing in poultry slaughterhouses that scattered in various districts in the Nineveh Governorate during the period between January to April 2020. The results showed that S. aureus was recovered in broiler’s skin swabs at a percentage of 66% (33/50) which confirmed by nuc gene, while MRSA isolates constitute 40% (20/50) of all S. aureus isolates, and distinguished as MRSA by their possessing mecA gene. All MRSA isolates were resistant to Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Methicillin, and Ampicillin/Cloxacillin antibiotics. The present study stressed on the reduction as much as any possible source of broiler carcasses contamination with S. aureus including MRSA during and post poultry processing, through applying high levels of hygienic conditions in all poultry processing premises to attain high standards of sustainability and public health standards.

Seroprevelance of schmallenberg virus infection as emerging disease in cattle in Iraq

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 495-499
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127071.1454

Schmallenberg virus is an emergent disease which infect cattle, sheep and goats which cause loss of condition, diarrhea, and abortion in pregnant animals, so this study was conducted to detect the antibodies in imported calves by using cELISA, so 400 blood samples was collected calves in different ages and healthy status in a period between October 2018 to September 2019 in Nineveh province, the investigation of specific antibodies was done by competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay, the results showed that the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus in imported calves was 21% (84 positive from 400 samples), high prevalence of infection in the animals more than 6 months to 1 year old 11.5% when compare with animals less than 6 months of age 9.5%, high incidence of infection in animals suffer from various clinical signs 17% and the healthy apparent animals recorded low prevalence of infection 4%, samples which collected in spring months recorded high prevalence of infection 7.5% while the lowest prevalence of infection with the virus recorded in winter months 2%, with significant variance in spring and summer months compared with other seasons, in conclusion this study was conducted that schmallenberg virus is newly emerge in Iraq and this study is firstly recorded this virus in cattle in Iraq.

Age-related anesthetic effect of ketamine in the chickens

Yaareb J. Mousa; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 501-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127100.1458

Little works of literature studied the anesthetic effect of ketamine in different ages of broiler chickens, hence this study intended to examine these alterations in chickens at different ages. The doses of ketamine that causes hypnosis in 50% of the chickens (hypnotic ED50) were 7.90, 7.90 and 6.80 mg/kg, intramuscular (IM) at 10, 20 and 40-day-old chickens, respectively, whereas the doses that resulted in analgesia in 50% of the chickens (analgesic ED50) were 12.92, 12.92 and 6.50 mg/kg, IM. The onset, duration and recovery from ketamine hypnosis were in an age-dependent manner and significantly longer at 40-day-old, although the depth and sensitivity of chickens to ketamine hypnosis rises as the age advancing forward. Ketamine analgesia is more effective at 40-day-old. There are neurobehavioral deficits, according to the age of chickens when injecting ketamine in a subtle dose of 1 mg/kg, IM. The concentrations related to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), tested in the serum, reveal that the 40-day-old chicken group differs significantly from 10 and 20-day-old chicken’s groups which all treated with single ketamine dose (25 mg/kg, IM). In conclusion, the present work discovered that ketamine’s efficacy, including hypnosis, analgesia and neurobehavioral activity will be increased as the age is progressing, suggesting that the veterinarians need to take it into account when preparing the dose regimen of ketamine anesthesia for different ages of animals.

Morphological and molecular identification of Parabronema skrjabini of camels (Camelus dromedary) in Najaf province

Haider H. A-Fatlawy; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 507-512
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127101.1459

The current study was conducted during the period from September 2019 to December 2019, the number of examined samples 150 abomasums isolated from males 127 and females 23 to identify the species of Parabronema skrjabini that infected one-humped camel slaughtered in Al-Ashraf Najaf slaughterhouse. The microscopic examination of the worms was properties compared to other worms of the digestive system, and then confirmed using genetic markers with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the use of sequencing and phylogenetic analysis technologies relative to those that are predominant in world regions registered in the Gene bank. The results of the microscopic examination showed that Parabronema skrjabini distinguished by a red color, females are curved dorsally and longer than males with a vertically curved and head features that resemble a horseshoe for both sexes. The number of infected samples is 53 (35.33%) and the non-infected samples 97 (64.64%). The highest rate of infection during December month 63.41%. On the other hand, the prevalence rate has been reported 65.21% females and 29.92% males with significant differences. In this research, PCR technique was used the molecular examination with the selection of the highest DNA samples, which were 10 samples to determine the alignment range according to the ITS2 gene, all samples were well suited to primer in length 783 bp and confirmed the diagnosis of these nematodes.

Review Paper

Review of diagnostic procedures and control of some viral diseases causing abortion and infertility in small ruminants in Egypt

Mohamed A. Mahmoud; Alaa A. Ghazy; Raafat M. Shaapan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 513-521
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127114.1461

Sheep and goats represent an essential source of meat, milk and wool production. Infectious viral diseases of small ruminants hinder the expected benefits from these animals. The aim of the present review was to shed light on diagnostic procedures and monitoring of some important infectious viral diseases that affect small ruminants. Border disease (BDV) is caused by Pestiviruses. The affected herds are usually expressed high rates of infertility and production of underweighted-lambs. Affected lambs usually die within days after lambing. A commercial killed whole virus vaccine was produced for BDV. Louping ill (LI) is caused by the Louping ill virus, which is transmitted by Ixods ricinus ticks. The LI virus typically causes fever, anorexia and encephalomyelitis. Death could occur 1-3 days after the beginning of signs. The available Louping ill vaccine is composed of inactivated killed virus. Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) is a tick-born infectious disease caused by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, characterized clinically by fever, abortion hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and high mortality. Inactivated killed oil adjuvant virus vaccines are available for the control of Nairobi sheep disease. Akabane disease (AKAV) is a Culicoides borne viral disease belongs to orthobunyavirus that has a teratogenic effect on the fetus of cattle and small ruminants. A live attenuated virus vaccine and inactivated virus are commonly used. This review concluded that the modern diagnostic tools are urgently needed not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring viral disease control and control programs.

Research Paper

Experimental study on the effect of toxin fractions isolated from hydatid cyst fluid of sheep on the cardiac muscles of mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Ilham A. AL-Saleem; Afrah Y. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 523-528
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127124.1463

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of hydatid cyst toxin fractions in mice. Fifty male mice were divided into five groups with 10 mice for each group the first group as control the second group was injected with toxin fractions at the concentrations 25Mg/ml PBS, the third group are the mice that injected intraperitoneally with toxin fractions at the concentrations 25Mg/ml PBS and treated with vitamin E at the concentration of 40 mg/ 100 g of feed, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 1 ml of raw fluid and the fifth group was injected intraperitoneally of 1ml of row fluid with the vitamin E at the concentration of 40 mg /100gm feed. The mice were sacrificed after 15 and 30days post injection, specimen of heart are fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histological techniques. The histopathological changes in cardiomyocyte were edema, infiltration of mononuclear cell and thickening of blood vessels wall with congestion in it. The results confirm that the toxin fraction have more effect than the raw fluid and that there is the regeneration effect of vitamin E on hydatid cyst cardiomyocyte.

Induction of estrus using human menopausal gonadotrophin in Iraqi Awassi ewes

Elias Kh. Hussein; Uday T. naoman; Radhwan R. Alajeli

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 529-533
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127132.1466

This study aimed to induce estrus by using Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG) in Iraqi Awassi Ewes and comparison its action with Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG). The study was carried out between first of June 2018(non or earlier-breeding season) until all ewes lambing in the middle of November 2018. Sixty Iraqi Awassi ewes aged 2-4 years old and weight 35-45 kg were used in this study. Ewes were divided randomly into three groups, (20 ewes per each). All ewes comprised of intra-vaginal sponge impregnated by progesterone for 12 days. Control ewes (C) were injected intramuscularly with 2ml of sterile saline solution, HMG treatment group (HMG) were injected intramuscularly with 300 IU of HMG hormone while PMSG treatment Group (PMSG) were injected intramuscularly with 500 IU of PMSG at the same day of sponge removal. Estrus response percentages were 40% (8/20), 85% (17/20), 90% (18/20) in control (which significantly change P<0.05), HMG and PMSG groups, respectively. Estrus onset time was 71±1.9, 72±1.9, and 71±1.0 hours, respectively, also the data records no significant changes in estrus duration means which were 31±0.5, 31±0.7 and 31.0±0.5 hours, respectively in all groups. The pregnancy rate was 30% (6/20), 85% (17/20), 90% (18/20), respectively (control group significantly change P<0.05). The gestational period was 155± 1.4, 155±.1.3 and 155± 1.6 days respectively in all the groups and the twining rate were 1.1±0.3, 1.1±0.1 in both HMG and PMSG groups respectively without significant changes (P<0.05) while control group record no twining data. The result of this study recorded rise of dystocia and pregnancy toxemia which were higher in the PMSG group when compare with other groups. We can conclude that using HMG and PMSG hormones show a high rate of successful when they used in estrus synchronization programs but the birth problems need more investigation.

Comparative antinociceptive effect of aspirin and aspirin nano particles in semisolid formulae in mice

Labeeb H. Al- Alsadoon; Maha T. AL-Saffar; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 535-539
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127138.1467

Aspirin are commonly used analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic drug in medicine, oral route is the most common one for drug administration as a result it will produce different adverse effects like peptic ulcer, nephropathy, and thrombocytopenia even with low and continuous therapeutic dose, so the alternative topical route is preferable with minimal adverse effects and effective concentration.Therefore, in the present study was to investigate whether the antinociceptive property of aspirin would enhance if used aspirin as nanoparticles after preparing it in several forms (gel, cream and ointment). Thirty-two healthy male mice weighing 30-35 gm. were used in the present study. The animals were divided as a randomized design. Each mouse was treated topically. All drug concentration of aspirin was prepared using gel, cream and ointment as vehicle and topically application on fore and hind paw of experimental animals. Pain was induced by application of hot plate for assessment of latency of pain stimulus. Time from placement to jumping or hind paw licking was recorded as latency of response. The result showed that the median effective concentration (EC50) for analgesic effect of aspirin (gel, cream, and ointment) were 0.848, 0.958 and 1.00% respectively while these EC50s were decrease when used nanoparticles aspirin (gel, cream and ointment) to 0.72, 0.657, and 0.701% respectively. In conclusion, topical applied of aspirin will produce effective therapeutic antinociceptive effects in mice although gel preparation produce a better response followed by cream, then ointment due to pharmacokinetic properties. Also nanoparticle preparation will produce superior response in all forms, whether Nano aspirin is prepared in gel form, cream or ointment.

Epidemiological Analysis for medical records of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul during 2017 to 2019

Mohammad O. Dahl; Omar Kh. Hamdoon; Obaida N. Abdulmonem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 541-548
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127141.1468

This analysis aimed to (i) report diseases of animals received at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul between years 2017 and 2019, and (ii) examine whether its records can be used in studying the factors associated with different diseases. In this analysis, medical records of 1,280 cases examined and diagnosed at the internal medicine section and/or clinical pathology laboratory were used. Odds of diseases as a function of different factors were modeled using conditional logistic regression. Results revealed that the number of cases was increased in 2018-2019 compared to the previous academic year. The minimum number of cases was received in autumn, and the maximum was in summer. The most received cases were from areas located at the south inside Mosul city. The most received cases were generally gastrointestinal disturbances, blood parasites, and respiratory infections. Skin affections were also frequently received. Modeling diseases in ruminants indicated that blood parasites infection were higher in old ages compared to younger, greater in spring, summer, and autumn compared to winter, and more in city countryside compared to its inside. Gastrointestinal parasites infection was greater in old ages compared to younger, higher in summer compared to autumn, winter, and spring. Respiratory infections were higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in summer compared to autumn and spring. Enteritis of different causes was higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in winter compared to summer. In conclusion, records of this hospital are useful for studying animal diseases.

Impact of heat treatment on the antimicrobial residues in raw goat's milk

Dhary A. Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 549-553
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127137.1469

Although antibiotics are valuable drugs for treatment of bacterial and some parasitic infections, their presence in animal products have a potential public health hazard. This study investigated antibiotic residues in goat raw milk and thermal effect on residues. Samples were collected randomly from different farms and retail outlets in Erbil city from January 1st to June 30th 2019. The residues were detected by disc diffusion assay against Bacillus subtilis bacteria on Muller Hinton agar. The occurrence rates among milk samples was 14.9%, also these residues in the samples was 13.5% and 16.4% in farm samples and retail store samples, respectively. No significant differences were found between sampling sites (farms vs sale points). Regarding the seasonal variations, spring was found to be associated with gradual decrease in antibiotic residues frequency in milk. Boiling for 5 minutes was the most effective treatment (among pasteurization and microwave heating) that inactivated antibiotic residues in 57.7% of positive samples. Such occurrence rate of residues is alarming and require authorities to observe and validate the quality of raw milk introduced to markets for consumers. Further evaluation of antibiotic stability period in raw milk is highly recommended.

A cytopathological study of the role of liver impression as a diagnostic tool in pigeons

Zahra A. Al-Noayme; Ayman A. Al-Alhially

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 555-560
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127170.1477

The aim of the current study is to investigate any pathological changes which affect local pigeon liver by using liver impression and providing data base for the results of cytological and morphological features of hepatic impressions of local pigeon also to Study the relation between cellular contents and bacterial profiles at those impressions for that purpose about 20 birds of local pigeon were used in current study. the result showed presence of including heterophil 21.53% monocyte 1.52%, eosinophil 1.04%, basophil 0.01%, macrophage 4.01%. RBC 31.9% and vacuolated hepatocyte 4.94%. We also recorded presence of undifferentiated cells0.19% bacterial infection and parasite infestation of blood protozoa represented by presence of plasmodium parasite inside red blood cell in 4 samples out of 20 samples, G+ Staphylococcus and streptococcus and G- Bacteria coccobacilli as a bacterial. Bacteria including Staphylococci, Streptococci and Coccobacilli were noticed with in different densities between sections, the protozoal parasite as Plasmodium infestation were also detected in 20% of samples We concluded that, the hepatic impression give a diagnostic tool to aim in final diagnosis for inflammatory diseases in pigeons, in addition this impression give a primary idea about bacteria and parasitic infection that can be present in infected pigeons

A study of the gastrointestinal parasites in awassi sheep and surrounding environment

Dhyaa M. Jwher; Maan T. Jarjees; Aqeel M. Alshater

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 561-567
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127174.1478

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence gastrointestinal parasites in Awassi sheep and the contamination of surrounding environment in ten different locations of Nineveh governorate, during March up to June/2018. A total of 781 of different samples including 231 fecal, 192 soil, 188 feed and 170 water samples were investigated for the detection of ova and oocysts. Traditional parasitic techniques were followed in the study. The results showed that fecal samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts 30.63, 9.09, 14.28% respectively. Soil samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts at 21.35, 10.93, 44.79% respectively. Feed samples declared that contamination with nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts were 22.34, 26.06, 51.59%, respectively. Examination of water troughs examined, showed that nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts were occurred at 14.11, 8.82, 31.76%, respectively. It concluded that parasitic infection in sheep could attain from different sources, and every effort should be applied to reduce the contamination.

Study the beneficial activity of low level laser in experimentally induced pain in mice

Shaymaa K. Noor; Ahmed K. Munahi; Abbas A. Allban; Muthana H. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 569-573
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127228.1487

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied to alleviate pain with minimal adverse effects. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy for pain control to help in surgical and emergency cases. The present study has demonstrated these effects experimentally on forty-five male albino mice weighing 45±5 grams. Creation of pain in animals was done by injection of 50µl of 5% formalin into the left posterior paw. Lifting of the paw was considered as an indicator of the pain. All animals were divided into 3 groups 15 mice in each group. In group A the LLLT 820nm.200mw, 48J/cm2 was focused on the affected paw for 1 min. In group B a diode laser with same dose in group A and different time used to irradiate the injected paw continuously for 30 seconds. The group C (control group); the laser probe was placed over the affected paw for concurrent but the apparatus was switched off. The results demonstrated that there were significant differences between group A and B when compared with group C during the 5 minutes as well as in 10 minutes and 15 minutes. Group A also registered a superior analgesic effect when compared with group B. Groups of LLLT were better than those found for control one and the irradiation continuous for one minute was better than 30 seconds at 5,10 and 15 minutes after the creation of pain.

Review Paper

The relationship of hematological parameters with adaptation and reproduction in sheep; A review study

Tahreer M. Al-Thuwaini

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 575-580
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127253.1490

Sheep possess desirable characteristics for farmers such as resistance to disease, good acclimation to environmental fluctuations, and endurance to extreme weather. This may, in part, be due to hematology characteristics and various types of hemoglobin that interact differently to external changes; displaying various reproductive ability in certain environmental conditions. This review aims to investigate the effect of hematology parameters and hemoglobin types on the adaptation and reproductive performance of sheep. Hematological parameters are useful tools for the detection of adaptation and physiological traits of these animals. The reproduction of sheep has depended on the ability of each type and breed to acclimate to different environmental conditions. In addition, hemoglobin types have also been correlated with the environmental adaptability and physiological traits of sheep. Thus, the present review provides useful information on the association of hematology parameters and hemoglobin types in sheep with adaptation and reproductive performance, and could be used as vital tools that help in determining the species or breed of sheep that are more adapted to certain environments or have more reproductive potential.

Research Paper

Molecular and serological typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes currently circulating in Egypt

Maryam M. ِbd El-Rhman; Sayed A. Salem; Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid; Diea J. Abo El-Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 581-588
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127327.1495

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease affects all cloven- hoofed animals. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiological situation of FMD in Egypt during 2017 and 2018, based on antigenic and genetic characterizations of FMD virus (FMDV). Thirty oral epithelia were collected from vaccinated animals (14 native cattle and 16 water buffaloes) showed clinical signs of FMD in four Egyptian governorates having outbreaks. In all collected samples the antigen detection was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the genetic characterization was done by using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were constructed for genetic characterization. The obtained results of FMDV antigen detection ELISA indicated that 50% of the examined samples were positive for FMDV and serotyped as serotype O 40%, serotype SAT2 33% and serotype A 27% respectively. RT-PCR confirmed the results of FMDV antigen detection by ELISA. Six amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for viral protein 1 (VP1) of FMD. Results demonstrated that genotype O was related to East Africa-3 (EA-3) topotype with 12.7% difference from vaccine strain O-IRN-8-2005-Pan-Asia-2. Furthermore, genotype A clustered into Asia topotype with 6% difference from vaccine strain A-IRN-1-2005. Meanwhile genotype SAT2 in 2018 was related to VII topotype but it was in close relation with strains isolated from Libya in 2012 with 94.3% amino acid identity that differ from the previously circulated SAT2 since 2012 and recorded recently in Egypt. The presented results confirmed the circulation of a new topotype of serotype SAT2.

Histopathological assessment of nano n-acetyl cysteine effect on postoperative adhesion in rats

shadman shahzamani; Alireza Jahandideh; Gholamreza Abedi; Abolfazl Akbarzadeh; saeeid hesaraki; pouya parsaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 589-597
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126857.1400

Abdominal adhesion is one of the main and important post-surgical problems and, according to available literature, the probability of their occurrence after surgery is higher than 50%. The present study intended to estimate the effect of Nano n-acetylcysteine on macroscopic and microscopic features post-surgical adhesions in an animal model. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats, 200-220 gr, were randomly divided into five equal groups and underwent intramuscular anesthesia by injection of ketamine 10% at 50 mg/kg and injection of xylazine 2% at 5 mg/ kg. The treatments included three Nano-NAC groups at different dosages 50, 75 and 150 mg/kg, an NAC group, and a control group. On days 14 and 28 post-surgery, the abdomens of all rats were re-opened for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of adhesions. Based on the results of macroscopic evaluation, the group receiving Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest and the control group the highest mean adhesion scores on days14 and 28 post-operations. Histopathological evaluation also revealed that the group treated with Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest level of inflammation and fibrosis score among the five groups on days 14 and 28 post-operation. Considering the results obtained in our experimental model and the increasing use of nanotechnology in the manufacture of biomedical drugs, it seems that use of Nano-NAC at low doses 50 and 75mg/kg after laparotomy can significantly reduce adhesions.

Case Report

Necropsy findings and histopathological analysis of a terminal stage ewe from a herd with sudden deaths in Mosul

Karam H. Yahya; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Thanoon Y. Al-Hubeity

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 599-604
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127015.1435

A three-year-old ewe was received as a terminal stage animal for necropsy in the Teaching Veterinary Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Mosul, on 18/12/2018. The animal was carried alive from the Al-Fthilya region in the eastern north of Mosul and expired before hospitalization. Statement of the owner prevailed sudden deaths of healthy animals or a concise course of illness followed by respiratory distress and nervous manifestations and death at 14 mature animals within mortality rate reached 15.5% in the herd. Necropsy findings and histopathological analysis showed that encephalitis included hyperemic cortical blood vessels, severe perineuronal edema, microglial proliferation. The lungs revealed severe pulmonary edema and signs of peracute pneumonia. Liver sections demonstrated congested portal and central veins and lobular sinusoids with centrilobular coagulative degeneration. At the kidneys, we detected both glomerular and interstitial nephritis with severe tubular cell necrosis. We concluded a state of bacterial septic shock, suggesting Pasteurellosis as a probable etiologic factor from the symptoms and pathological examination. The case was reported, and laboratory tests were requested.

Research Paper

Ectoparasite inventorisation of nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti) fingerlings cultured on ponds in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia

D. Fira; Putu Angga Wiradana; Arif Ansori; Raden Joko Kuncoroningrat Susilo; Emy Sabdoningrum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 605-609
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127031.1440

Nilem fish (Osteochilus hasseltii) is a type of freshwater fish native to Indonesia that is included in the Cyprinid family and has the potential to be developed as a superior product of aquaculture in Indonesia. This study aims to inventorisation the level of ectoparasite in nilem fishfingerlingscultured on the ponds in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. Ectoparasites examination was carried out by taking mucus from the skin surface and gill of nilem fish. Sample preparations that have been made are observed using a stereomicroscope. Prevalence and intensity levels were analyzed by descriptive analysis. The observation of the sample showed the presence of ectoparasites such as Trichodina sp. (P: 86.67%; MI: 7.69 ind/fish) and Dactylogyrus sp. (P: 6.67%; MI: 1 ind/fish). In summary, the level of prevalence and intensity produced are included in the medium category infestation and the two parasites found cannot pose a zoonotic risk.