Volume 34, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2020, Page 217-400


Research Paper

Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues among Sheep Meat in Erbil City and Thermal Processing Effect on their Remnants

Dhary Alewy Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 217-222
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125814.1161

The occurrence of antibiotic residues in meat is considered a serious hazard to public health. This work was conducted to survey the occurrence of antibiotic residues among lamb meat and mutton in Erbil city. The effect of thermal processing on residues was also addressed. From July to December 2018, a total of 280 samples were collected from butcher shops in Erbil city and analyzed microbiologically in plates pre-inoculated with Bacillus subtilis by direct and extraction methods. The overall occurrence of antibiotic residues was (10.4%) and (13.2%) according to direct and extraction methods respectively. The highest occurrence rate was detected in December (22.2%). In terms of thermal processing, cooking for 45 minutes totally deactivated antibiotic residues against the challenged bacterium. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic residues among sheep meat in Erbil city is high and their persistence is easily eliminated by cooking. The hygienic significance of antibiotic residues in sheep meat has been discussed particularly the major risks to human health, including those caused by toxic reactions, cancer cases, bacterial resistance or other risks.

COVID-19: Review Paper

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

Research Paper

Histological evaluation of the possible role of Na+/ H+ entiporter and anion exchanger in endochondral ossification activities of secondary bone healing in rats

Sahar Mohammed Ibrahim; Kareem Obayes Handool; Abubakar Adamu Abdul; jalila abu; Sabri Mohd Yusof; Mehdi Ibrahimmi; Loqman Yusof

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125832.1165

In secondary fracture healing, callus proliferate, undergo hypertrophy and the extracellular matrix becomes calcified. This step to some extent, recapitulates the embryological bone development with a combination of cellular proliferation and differentiation, increasing cellular volume and matrix deposition. The causes of the chondrocytes volume increase in secondary bone healing are poorly known, but cell membrane transporters perhaps could be implicated. We hypothesize that NHE-1 and AE-2 are among plasma membrane transporters that have a role in cellular differentiation and regulation of endochondral ossification for secondary bone fracture healing. Study of closed tibia fracture healing in 2 groups of 25 of 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were undertaken and histological evaluation were made at 5 different time points at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after induction of the fracture. Histological evaluation of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocyte zone area showed a significant difference in week 1 compared to other weeks. Immunohistochemistry study revealed a significant high level of labeling intensity of NHE-1 at the first four weeks. While labeling intensity of AE-2 showed moderate reaction at 1 and 2 weeks, that increased and reached the highest level at 3 and 4 weeks. These results suggested that NHE-1 and AE-2 had role in the endochondral ossification of secondary bone healing.

The antagonism effect of sodium nitrate by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on neurobehavioral of mice

Halima O. Qasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 241-245
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125863.1169

Evaluates the neurobehavioral effects were resulted from dosing of sodium nitrate in mice. Mice were divided into 5 equal groups, the first group; control group was fed from concentrated feed (Barley, Wheat, Soybeans, Corn and Bran), the second group was added 0.2% sodium nitrate and the third group was added 0.2% sodium nitrate with 0.4% ascorbic acid, fourth group was added sodium nitrate 0.4% alone and the fifth group was added 0.4% sodium nitrate with 0.8% of ascorbic acid for five weeks. Sodium nitrate did not produce clear signs of toxicity, but a significant decrease in motor activity and standing on the hind legs (rearing) was observed in the open-field activity test, where the lowest level was reached in the fourth week of treatment, and these declines returned gradually to reach the control group level values at the end of the study period. Sodium nitrate was significantly delayed at the time of the negative geotaxis test at a 45 ° while returning to the control level in the fifth week, also showed that there was a significant increase in body weight compared to pre-treatment value. In this study 0.8% of ascorbic acid with 0.4% sodium nitrate in group 5 showed differed significantly with 0.4% sodium nitrate only in group 4, that means the ascorbic acid give a beneficial result when used for remedy of nitrate toxicity.

Molecular detection and seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province, Iraq

Farhad B. Mikaeel; Adel T. Al-Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 247-252
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125885.1173

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease of mammals and birds; human infection occurs through consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Little was known about the infection rate of T. gondii among free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the infection rate in Duhok province by using ELISA (IgG) and conventional PCR. A total of 368 blood samples were collected from free range local chickens distributed in five different areas of Duhok province during the period from November 2016 to March 2017. The collected blood samples were from different sexes (hens and cocks) and from different age groups (less than 6 months and older than 6 months). The data found that the total infection rate was (84 / 368) 22.8% by ELSIA. The presence of the infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. In this study, there were differences from area to area in the infection rates, the highest rate was reported in Semel district at 33.7% which was significantly (p

Genetic detection to Aeromonas hydrophila proteolytic activity in milk samples (cows, buffaloes and goats) in Basra governorate

Rawa B Banay

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 253-258
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125888.1174

This study aim is to determine the incidence and the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila in raw milk, randomly collected from Basra governorate by using of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In this study, the total number of raw milk samples collected from cows, buffaloes and goats that kept from different the regions of Basra governorate were 90 samples. The PCR technique is modern method which regarded as a reliable tool to detect virulent gene of the A. hydrophila isolates. The PCR assays using the primers sets SerAh-F and SerAh-R resulted in the amplification of 650-bp bands from the targeted proteases gene of the A. hydrophil. The result of the present study showed that the results of PCR concerning the proteolytic activity of A. hydrophila in the tested raw milk samples according to animals' source. The higher percentage of the proteolytic activity was found in the cow's raw milk samples 40% and in the buffalo's milk samples was 26.7% while, the proteolytic activity did not find in the goat's milk samples. The association between the source of the milk sample and proteolytic A. hydrophila positive results was considered to be statistically highly significant. The higher percentage of the A. hydrophila isolates found in the raw cow milk was 40%, and the A. hydrophila isolates found in the raw buffalo milk was 26.7%, while, the A. hydrophila isolates did not find in the goat milk.

Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat raw milk

Zahra K. Saeed; Basil A. Abbas; Rasha M. Othman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 259-263
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125896.1176

The aim of this study was to identify the genetic diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the local goat's milk. A total of 100 raw milk samples were collected from the different Basrah local markets. All the samples were cultured in the De man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) medium which enhances the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The result of the study showed that the only 64 lactic acid bacteria isolated gave the Gram-positive and catalase-negative were 64 (64%). All the suspected isolates were detected and identified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing. The sequencing results showed that 9 strains belong to Lactococcus spp. and 6 strainsbelongto Lactobacillus spp. and all tested isolates had similarity over 99% with those recorded in the GenBank of The National Centre for Biotechnology.

Ovarian morphometric evolution in two consecutive estrous cycles of female rats treated with steroid-free bovine follicular fluid antiserum

Jabber A. Al-Sa’aidi; Areej H. Al-Charack

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 265-271
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125923.1186

The current study aims to investigate the role of steroid-free follicular fluid antiserum on ovaries morphometric growth and development in virgin female rats at two sequential estrous cycles. Bovine follicular fluid aspired from graafian follicles, steroids were removed by treatment with activated charcoal, in order to obtained steroid-free bovine follicular fluid (S-FBFF) which was used for immunization of male rabbits to prepare S-FBFF antiserum (S-FBFF-ab). Sixty virgin female rats were assigned into control and treatment groups (30 each), intraperitoneal injected with a single dose of distilled water 100µl/rat and S-FBFF-ab 100µl/rat at late metestrus, respectively. At the estrus phase of the first and second estrous cycle, 15 females from each group of each cycle were anesthetized and ovarian samples were obtained for histological examination. In comparison with control, the results of S-FBFF-ab treated female rats revealed a significant increase of relative ovaries and uteri weights at both estrous cycles. Morphometric examination showed progressive ovarian proliferation at the first estrus phase in S-FBFF-ab treated female rats through elevation of the number of primaries, graafian, and total follicles. In conclusion, passive immunization against endogenous inhibin using S-FBFF-ab could augment the reproductive fecundity through increase ovarian growth and development.

Effect of steroid-free follicular fluid antiserum on reproductive endocrine profile at estrous and metestrus phases in female rats

Jabber A. Al-Sa’aidi; Areej H. Al-Charack

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 273-278
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125925.1187

Inhibins are important ovarian hormones that control the action of the pituitary gonadotropins which regulate the ovarian cycle. The present experiment aims to study the role of steroid-free follicular fluid-antibodies (S-FBFF-ab) on the reproductive hormone levels at estrus and metestrus phases in cycling female rats. Follicular fluid was collected from mature ovarian follicles, centrifuged and treatment with activated charcoal. S-FBFF was isolated and used for immunization of adult male rabbits. After 5 injections, blood was withdrawn for separation of S-FBFF-ab. Eighty mature female rats were assigned into control and treatment groups (40 each). At late metestrus phase, females of the control were injected intra-peritoneally with 100 μL of physiological saline, whereas treated females were injected intra-peritoneally with 100 μL of S-FBFF-ab. At early estrus and early metestrus phases of each estrous cycle, serum concentrations of inhibin-B, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL) were estimated. The results revealed that S-FBFF-ab has inhibin immuno-neutralization effect, which caused elevation in the concentrations of serum FSH and E2, and significant decline of serum PRL and inhibin-B, at early estrus, whereas significant elevation of E2 and PRL, and significant decline of serum FSH, at early metestrus. Furthermore, the results of gene expression revealed a significant elevation of ovarian aromatase gene at both early estrus and early metestrus phases, whereas pituitary PRL gene showed significant decline at early estrus phase and significant elevation at early metestrus phase. In conclusion, passive immunization against S-FBFF could augment the reproductive efficiency through increase reproductive endocrine activity.

Anticlastogenic properties of Quercus infectoria galls extract against DMBA induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice in vivo

Sherzad I Amedi; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125930.1188

This study aimed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria galls extract (QIGE) as anticlastogenic. The effect of QIGE was tested in mice (5 groups for each test) treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA), the strong site-specific carcinogenic agent. In this study, the QIGE show no signs of toxicity, a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice caused a great increase in number of chromosomal aberrations, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and reduction in the percentage of mitotic index (MI) (cytogenetic markers). Oral pre-treatment and post-treatment of QIGE for 14 days at dose 2 gm/kg b.w. daily to DMBA-treated animals greatly reduced in number of micronucleus formation, chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosomal break, chromatid breaks, ring chromosome, dicentric chromosome and fragments. Besides, mitotic index frequency increased comparing with the positive control. The data suggest that QIGE has potent anti-clastogenic effect against DMBA-induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of albino male mice and it may have a protective effect against the mutagenicity of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

COVID-19: Review Paper

Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 287-293
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126898.1408

COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that this novehtm hgn l strain may be developed from the animal. origin by recombination between a bat SARS-like CoV and a coronavirus of unknown origin. The ability of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus from person to other is similar or even more than to other human viruses like influenza or plague leadding to be announced as a pandemic by WHO in 2020. The mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 increased day by day and this led the scientists to search ways to control the virus. Most of the deaths in aged patients may be due to immune response complications where 70% of patients showed lymphopenia. This review, provided some details about structure, pathogenicity and immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The facts in this review lead to suggest that in most cases the death in SARS-CoV-2 may occur via loss of systemic inflammatory response control which leading to lung injury followed by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, hence the death especially in old patients. In concluding the early effective control of both innate and adaptive immunity may be the critical. key factor in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

Research Paper

Follow up the antibodies titer against Newcastle disease virus in broiler breeders using ELISA test

Fanar A. Isihak; Salah M. Hassan; Balqees Z. Shaker; Yasir A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 295-299
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125931.1189

The study period carried out from 25 April 2018 till 21 May 2019 through the rearing and production period including totally of 24000 birds (20800 females, 3200 males). The number of tested blood samples was 452 divided to 255 samples at the rearing period, 143 samples at the production period and 54 samples of offspring. The results of antibodies titer in the sera of non-vaccinated broiler breeders obtained by ELISA showed the maternal derived antibodies titer for 28 samples at 0-5 week/day of age was 5716±612.7, this titer decreased gradually at 3-1 week/day age till to 1075±234) Then the titer was elevated increasingly after vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines and reach to peak 37512±2049.4 at 20-1 week/day age. Whereas the bimodal graduation of antibodies titer showed at production period till to end of study. The mean of maternally antibodies titer in the tested sera of the offspring chicks 0-1 week/day that hatched from parent flocks at 32, 39 and 48 weeks of age was 9012±872.4, 6591±368.1 and 4831±982.7 respectively. Thus, we concluded the repetitive vaccination of broiler breeders flock with live vaccine as well as inactivated vaccine is very necessary in endemic areas and ELISA is a good serological test for following, checking and monitoring of immune status of poultry flocks periodically.

Study of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the mouth of canary

Saba A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 301-304
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125937.1192

The study was done for described genotypically characterize of Staph. aureus isolated from the oral cavity of canary birds in Mosul city using polymerase chain reaction technique which was achieved by amplifying of the thermonuclear nuc gene specialized with Staph. aureus. Sixty birds were examined from variable ages of both sexes from different regions of Mosul city for the period of 1/5/2018-1/6/2019 was carried out. The results indicate that 35 samples gave Staph. aureus with the percentage of 58.4%. These isolates are positive for pigmentation of mannitol salt agar, hemolysis on blood agar, catalase and coagulase-positive, gram staining and oxidase negative. PCR technique indicate that all 35 isolates were positive for the nuc gene and produce amplicon of 166 bp. These results considered positive and it is very specific for bacterial isolates of staph aureus as well as may be used for strain isolation, characterization, and differentiation from other types of bacteria.

Inhibition of Escherichia coli biofilm formation by Streptomyces sdLi crude extract

Ahmed J. Neamah; Abdul-kareem S. Al-Al-Yassari; Mohammed A. Hamed; Miran A. AlRammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 305-310
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125965.1202

Biofilm is a microbial-protecting environment initiated on surfaces that reveals major health problems such as biofilms represented by dental plaques. Fighting biofilm formation is a hugely demanded process. Here, the crude extract of Streptomyces sdLi (sediment lake Iraq-sdLi) was used to check the anti-biofilm formation bioactivity (ABFB) against Escherichia coli (Orooba Meteab Diwanyah 4, OMD4) isolated from milk samples. Using a cross-streak method, each strain of Streptomyces spp. was tested for the best broad-spectrum ABFB. A triplex polymerase chain reaction (TPCR) method targeted specific genes and a fragment (hemin receptor molecule (chuA), uncharacterized protein YjaA (yjaA), and chuA TspE4.C2) was used to categorize 18 isolated OMD4. Using the alcoholic extract of liquid growth of the best strain with ABFB, a crystal violet biofilm assay (CVBA) was employed to test the ABFB against OMD4. The results of the screening test revealed Streptomyces sdLi with strongest ABFB; however, ethyl acetate, as one of the sdLi extracting solvents, was the most potent in in inhibiting the biofilm formation. The TPCR resulted in 18 isolates categorized into four groups A, B1, B2, and D in which B2 and D are known for their significant pathogenic activities in humans and animals. The results of the CVBA showed that Streptomyces sdLi extract was potential for its ABFB. This study recognizes that the Streptomyces sdLi extract is potential for deactivating biofilm formation by pathogenic E. coli which encourages future studies to consider this microorganism and/or its extract as a cure for the treatment of E. coli related illnesses in humans and animals.

Detection and pathogenicity of Listeria monocytogenes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish in Baghdad, Iraq

Nagham M. Al-Gburi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 311-316
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125980.1205

A few reports are available for detection of L. monocytogenes in fish in Iraq, however, the current study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Listeria spp. in common carp fish in Baghdad province, Iraq. A total of fresh thirty raw common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were purchased from fish sellers of various local markets in Baghdad city from (December 2017 to March 2018) The viscera was removed aseptically, the bacterial isolation and identification was conducted by a conventional culture method using Listeria selective media, biochemical tests and Vitek 2 for gram-positive. Pathogenicity of isolates was studied in vivo by inoculating mice with bacterium. Targeting virulence associated genes was used to detect the virulence and to confirm the L. monocytogenes isolates. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method for 12 antibiotics. The results revealed that 6.66% of L. monocytogenes were identified from common carp fish viscera and the isolates were pathogenic in mice. L. monocytogenes virulence associated genes were detected in both isolates, while L. innocua virulence associated gene (Lin0372) was detected in one of the two isolates. The isolates were resistant to 7 out of 12 antibacterial drugs including tetracycline, ampicillin, methicillin, cefixime, oxacillin, cefotaxime and penicillin G. The results suggest that presence of L. monocytogenes in fish may have a serious role in public health hygienic in humans.

Synergizing the deltamethrin larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus larvae using cinnamaldehyde in Diwaniyah, Iraq

Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Dhafer R. Al-Fetly; Monyer A. Alfatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 317-320
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126026.1212

The current work on mosquito larvae was performed to evaluate the resistance status of larvae to deltamethrin (DM) and to detect if the larvicidal activity (LA) of this chemical could be synergized after exposing the larvae to cinnamaldehyde (CD). Here, 200 Aedes albopictus larvae were employed for the experiment and were divided randomly into 2 groups (100/each group and placed in petri-dishes (PD), 10 larvae/PD), and they are the DM group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l in 99ml of distilled water (DW) was placed to each PD) and the DM+CD group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l and 1ml of 0.9mg/l respectively were placed with 98ml DW in each PD). The experiment was lasted for 24hrs. Larvae were detected to have resistance against DM as 45% to 60% of the larvae were killed by the DM, 40% to 55% resistance rate. However, when evaluating DM activity with the use of CD, the LA was synergized showing mortality in 87% to 92% of the larvae in which a significant increase in the mortality in DM+CD group was noticed more than that in the DM group. Furthermore, RT-qPCR was run to identify the expression status of the P540 monooxygenase gene, Cyp6p15, and found that the gene expression was significantly inhibited in the DM+CD group when comparing that in the DM group that showed overexpression of this gene. This work results provide viable information about the potential activity of the cinnamaldehyde in synergizing the larvicidal activity of deltamethrin.

Molecular characterization of fertile hydatid cysts from the liver of the sheep and cows and associated environmental influence factors

Renas G. Abdulla; Sarmad N. Mageed; Chawarwan E. Obed; Jamil A. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 321-327
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126036.1213

The aim of the study is characterizing of hydatid cysts that have been isolated from sheep and cow liver fertile hydatid cysts using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1(cox1) gene. DNA samples of nineteen sheep and one cow were extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers of the parasites in Koya city-Erbil, Iraq, using specific extraction procedures. Mitochondrial cox1 gene region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the expected gene sizes were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. All DNA isolates were then sequenced. Nucleotide sequence alignments were then performed to verify the sequenced isolated according to the database, which showed that all samples were belonging to the (G1) sheep strain. Phylogenetic analysis was also carried out for the sequenced isolated to find out the highest similarities with closest organisms to E. granulosus’ conserved gene and to reveal sharing common ancestor, which has been confirmed. Electrocatalytic reduction of DNA where detected through applying cyclic-voltammetry technique, which referred to the environmentally strong protection features of these strains against any effects of external factors, such as heavy metals and has revealed the secret behind the potent preservation of the DNA structure of this parasite from being affect by mutations, or alterations, along the different lineages over a long period of time.

Molecular detection of Hammondia heydorni in dogs in Mosul city

Wasan A. Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 329-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126052.1219

Through this study 122 individual fecal samples were collected from dogs, with different ages, sexes, and breeding management (stray and pet house hold). Some dogs were with healthy appearances while others were suffered from diarrhea, anorexia, depression, dehydration. Infection was investigated by light microscope after flotation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution. if the sample gives positive to oocyst (H. heydorni or other relative group), were mixed with potassium dichromate solution a rate of 2.5% for the stimulation of sporulation. DNA extraction was done using 2% sarcosyl, pronase E followed by phenol/chloroform extraction then precipitation attempt using ethanol. DNA amplification was attempt using H. heydorni primers JS4 and JS5 n microscope examination give 78 sample positives to the presence of oocyst, while polymerase chain reaction showed total percentage of infection with H. heydorni was 34.6% (27 case give positive reaction to PCR). Dogs less than 6 months of age show high infective rate 17.9%, dogs which suffer from gastrointestinal tract troubles (diarrhea, anorexia and dehydration) gave high infective rate 24.4%. Stray dogs gave high prevalence of infection to H. heydorni 25.6% when compared with pet house hold dogs which recorded 9% percentage of infection. This study is the first recorded H. heydorni in dogs in Mosul city.

Detection of similarity and genetic distance between Iraqi chicken varieties and different standard strains

Thamer A. Ezzulddin; Dhyaa M. Jwher; Sufian A. Dabdoub

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 333-337
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126109.1235

Forty-eight wing vein blood samples were collected from different locations of poultry rearing farms and back yard chickens of Nineveh governorate from the of local and exotic chicken. The chicken divided into twelve groups four birds each according to colors and phenotype for the local and exotic chicken respectively. Blood DNA was extracted and amplified by thermocycler apparatus and the electrophoresis was done using 1.2% agarose gel for DNA bands exhibiting. The results showed high genetic similarity within the local chickens ranged between 0.78- 0.96 at an average of 0.88, while it ranged between 0.73- 0.86 at an average of 0.78 in exotic breeds. The degree of similarity between Iraqi and exotic breeds was 0.74-0.88 at average of 0.80. The calculated average of differences among each of Iraqi and exotic chickens and in between were 0.12, 0.22 and 0.20, respectively. However, the genetic distance within the local chicken, exotic breed and in between them was 0.128, 0.24 and 0.21 respectively. The study concluded that the genetic similarity was higher within local chicken groups than those of exotic breeds.

Pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar albany in experimental infected SPF BALB/c Mice

Jesny B. Sabri; Imad I. Al-Sultan; Khalil Altaif; Sherly Peter; Mohammed J. Saadh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 339-344
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126269.1282

Salmonellosis remains an important zoonotic disease and public health concern, Salmonella enterica serovar Albany is one of the motile serovars which has been identified from poultry and humans. However, its pathogenic potentials and shedding probability and duration from infected/colonized chickens have never been reported. To assess its pathogenic potentials and shedding probability 6 SPF BALB/c mice was inoculated with 0.1ml volume for each mice bacterial solution of 108 CFU/ml of Salmonella entrica serovar Albany after 24 hours the segments of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon were fixed to study the histopathology and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the Salmonella entrica serovar Albany in the intestinal mucus swabs. The control group consist of 6 SPF BALB/c mice were inoculated with 0.1ml of 0.9% normal saline, The pathogenesis incidence rate of the disease caused by S. entrica serovar Albany revealed that prominent blood vessels on caecum 100%, red intestinal serosal 100%, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the crypt of liberkhun and submuscular layer of small intestine 100%, enterocyte necrosis 100%, haemorrhagic enteritis 83.3%, cecitis 33.3%, colonitis 66.6%, villus atrophy 100%, crypt atrophy 100%, and detachment of epithelial tissue 50%, can occur as soon as 24 hours post infection. Infected S. entrica serovar Albany was also successfully re-isolated from the intestinal swabs which revealed that the mice is potentially shed the bacteria through feces.

COVID-19: Review Paper

Are promising mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine abolish COVID-19 activity? A review study

Yaareb J Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Fanar A. Isihaq; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127049.1449

To explore the benefits of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), (which is an antimalarial agent that has shown effective pharmacological properties in different malarial conditions and immunological disorders, particularity in chloroquine-sensitive malaria), in the treatment and prevention of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because HCQ was recently advocated to minimize the pathogenicity of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to shed the light on a possible mechanism by which HCQ can defeat the COVID-19, a disease characterized by the WHO as a pandemic. Literatures from Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were cast-off to search the literature data. The keywords used are antimalarial agent, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2 and Zinc sulfate.The review summarizes the benefits of using HCQ against COVID-19 through exploiting the ability of this antimalarial agent in ameliorating the body immunity, inhibiting and/or delaying the viral glycosylation by increasing the pH inside the host cell and also via suppressing the viral transcription and replication through the formation of a complex structure after binding with zinc. We concluded thatthese interfering properties of HCQ support human immunity to fight against the progression of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the therapeutic efficiency of HCQ against the COVID-19 can be enhanced by the concurrent administration of zinc sulfate.

Research Paper

Phylogenetic analysis of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Iraqi Awassi sheep

Saad Al-Husseiny; Asaad Jassim; Khalefa A. Mansour; Qassim H. kshash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 351-355
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126172.1255

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection in sheep results in contagious ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The aim of this study was to detect the presence of JSRV in Iraqi Awassi sheep of Al-Qadisiyah Province using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Lung secretion samples from 50 adult sheep (1.5 to 2-year-old) during 2016-2018 that were suffering from chronic respiratory distress with suspected clinical OPA were collected. RT-PCR assay for detection of JSRV was conducted using primers specific for its 382 bp envelope protein gene. The results showed that 22 of the 50 (44%) lung secretion samples were positive for JSRV. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the JSRV sequence detected in the local Iraqi sheep population was closely related to NCBI BLAST locus isolates KT279066.1 and KT279065.1. The study found that the JSRV disease is prevalent in the Iraqi Awassi sheep flocks and that the local JSRV isolate is genetically divergent from most other global isolates. 

Effect of vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation on some hematological value, heat shock protein 70 concentration and growth hormone level in broiler exposed to heat stress

Ashwaq A. Hassan; Rana A. Asim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 357-363
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125950.1195

The goal of the current investigation is to study the effect of vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid in minimizing the effects of heat stress in terms of hematological values, growth hormone, HSP70 and glutathione. Broiler were randomly distributed into four groups: 1st group was served as the control, the 2nd group subjected to heat stress 40±2 ºC up to 4 hours/day, the 3rd group was subjected to heat stress and vitamin C 360 mg/L via drinking water and the 4th group was exposed to heat stress and acetylsalicylic acid 0.03% via drinking water. The result showed that exposure to heat stress decline in RBCs count, Hb concentration, PCV and percentage of lymphocyte, furthermore elevation in of MCV, heterophils, H/L ratio, and Hsp70 concentration. Administration of vitamin C caused a significant rise RBCs, percentage of lymphocyte and reduces in MCV, MCH value, percentage of heterophils and H/L ratio compared with the heat stress group. Administrations of acetylsalicylic acid were significantly increased the RBCs, and PCV and decrease in MCV, MCH, MCHC values, and H/L ratio compare with the heat stress group. The results did not show a significant change between the tested groups in the levels of glutathione and growth hormone. The study concluded that Vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid administration as feed additive ameliorating the opposing effect caused by heat stress in the broiler; thus, its administration recommends when there is heat stress exposure.

Development of in-house Taqman qPCR assay to detect equine herpesvirus-2 in Al-Qadisiyah city

Mohammed H. Al-Saadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 365-371
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126076.1229

EHV-2 is distributed in horses globally. It is clustered within gamma-herpesvirus subfamily and percavirus genus. EHV-2 infection has two phases: latent and lytic. In the later, EHV-2 mainly associated with respiratory and genital symptoms. However, in the quiescent phase of infection, EHV-2 stay dormant in the host till viral reactivation. Our previous study has showed that EHV-2 can be harboured by equine tendons, suggesting that leukocytes possibly carrying EHV-2 for the systemic dissemination. So far, numerous PCR protocols have been performed targeting the gB gene. However, this gene is heterogenic. Therefore, there is a need to develop a quantitative diagnostic approach to detect the quiescent EHV-2 strains. To do this, Taqman qPCR assay was developed to quantify the virus. This was performed by targeting a highly conserved gene known as DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene using constructed plasmid as a standard curve calibrator. The obtained results showed an infection frequency of 33% in which the EHV-2 load reached 6647 copies/100 ng DNA whereas the minimum load revealed as 2 copies/100 ng DNA. The median quantification was found as 141 copies/ 100 ng DNA. Establishment of a credited qPCR assay to quantify EHV-2 could be helpful in the control of the disease.

Case Report

Natural heavy infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep in Mosul city: A case report

Nadia S. Alhayali; Manal H. Hasan; Karam Y. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 373-376
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125994.1210

This study included recording the natural heavy infection with immature macrocysts (Sarcocysts) of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep. The sheep is one years old which is slaughtered at butcher shop at Mosul city in May 2018. This is the first case recorded of natural infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. in Mosul city. Many of small nodules were observed during slaughter, these nodules are seen within esophageal muscles in different sizes and shapes, they were distributed randomly throughout esophageal muscles. Most of the sarcosystis were small in size the mean of size between 20- 28×28-42 µm they were histological examination showed that presence of only metrocytes. This confirmed the diagnosis that the sarcocysts were immature macrocysts (sarcocysts) for the Sarcosystis spp. In our study, heavy infected case with Sarcocystis reveals the fact that large numbers of cats(final hosts) in contact with sheep in pastures is considered the main risk factor for infection and feed with raw meat from infected sheep, which is very important for carcass condemnation when the meat inspection when abnormalities are found which indicate that the part of carcass, is unfit for human consumption it is condemned, which means the economic loss for livestock.

Research Paper

Molecular study to detect the Eimeria species in sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Noora M. Majeed; Noaman N. Aaiz; Ahmed J. Neama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 377-381
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126064.1225

Sheep eimriosis is one of the most important and common disease which infects sheep in all ages but it is more effective in lambs. The diarrhea with or without blood is the main signs of infection. Eimeria protozoan required single host to complete its life cycle which pass in different stages including schizogony, gametogony and sporogony. The study was designed for detection of sheep Eimeria species through the molecular method. This study was conducted in Al-Diwanyah province during the winter months of 2019. In which 200 sheep fecal samples were collected and examined traditionally to investigate the Eimeria oocytsts. Ninety-seven samples of highly intensity infection with Eimeria oocysts were selected to subject for DNA extraction process. The extracted DNAs were tested through amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene by conventional PCR, and then phylogenetic analysis was made to diagnose the sheep Eimeria species. All samples that examined microscopically were showed positive results of infections with Eimeria protozoan. Out of 97 molecularly examined samples, forty-five (46.39%) were given positive result in conventional PCR technique, where Eimeria spp. detected through succeeded amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene. Then phylogenetic analysis referred to that there are five species of Eimeria confirmed in sheep in Al-Diwanyah province including 6 (33.33%) samples diagnosed as E. ahsata, 4 (22.22%) samples E. weybridgensis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. ovinoidalis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. bovis and 2 (11.11%) samples E. auburnensis. So, the Eimeria protozoan appears as an endemic parasite and can infect sheep with different species in study area. The sheep can infect with both specific and nonspecific species.

Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of xylazine and it’s interaction with metoclopramide in the acute pain model in mice

Khalid A. Shaban; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Gada A. Faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 383-388
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126070.1226

The study was designed to qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of metoclopramide and xylazine each alone or as a concomitant administration in mice. Adult albino Swiss mice weighing 20-30 mg used in all experiments. By using the hot plate test, the individual analgesic dose (ED50) of metoclopramide and xylazine detected depending on the up and down method. Isobolographic analysis used to evaluate the type of interaction between two drugs at the ratio 0.5:0.5 of individual ED50 for each drug at the level of antinociception effect. Simultaneously administration of the double dose of individual ED50 and low doses (sedative, non-analgesic doses) of both drugs, also evaluated at the level of central and visceral analgesia using a hot plate and writhing response test respectively. The individual ED50 of xylazine and metoclopramide was 10.8 and 25.6mg/kg IP respectively. A synergistic interaction at the level of analgesia explored between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 which represented as decreased in ED50 of metoclopramide and xylazine by 58.75 and 58.15% respectively. The animal suffered from only slight sedation and docile. Simultaneously IP administration of xylazine and metoclopramide at double dose of ED50 for each drug-induced significant increase in latency time of thermal response, as well as a significant decrease in writhes number, which induced by acetic acid in comparison with control groups. The percentage of analgesia at sub analgesic doses of a concomitant administration of both drugs was 100% in comparison with each drug alone. These results suggested safe and good use of both drugs in veterinary medicine.

Effect of silver nanoparticles on some blood parameters in rats

Azhar AL-Baker; A.A. AlKshab; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 389-395
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.165812

The present study aims are investigating the effects of oral administration of AgNPs on some blood the parameters to show potential of toxicity of AgNPs as tool therapy and diagnosis. In this study, 20 healthy male and female rats were used. Randomly, rats were divided into 5 groups depending on the period variable respectively; AgNPs-treated rats' groups for a period of 3 days in concentration 0.2 and 0.4 gm/kg B.W, while the second period after 20 and 30 days after treatment with concentration 0.08 and 0.008 gm/ kg B.W. In addition to a control group. A Manual method was used to measure Hematological parameters. Rats treated with AgNPs showed the significant P<0.05 decrease in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume, Red Blood Cells. Also, Mean Corpuscular Volume; Mean Corpuscular Hb and Mean Corpuscular Hb Concentration. Platelets levels and White Blood Cell Count were After the administration of AgNPs, a protective effect on hematopoietic levels and on Red Blood Cell morphology were shown respectively as it is assessed by Leishman stained blood smears resulted in ovalocytosis at the dose 0.4 gm/kg body weight, while at the dose, 0.08 gm/kg showed echinocytes, acanthocytes, tear drop, stomatocyte and codocyte (target RBCs). Thus, it is concluded that oral administration of AgNPs caused a decreased in the level of Hb concentration, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, but increase PLTS and WBCs. It means that AgNPs has a toxic effect on blood.

Application of ultrasound contra infection with secondary hydatidosis in mice

Baraa B. Ramdan; Asmaa A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 397-403
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126132.1240

The present research explained the impact of ultrasound on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro application of fixed frequency waves at 20000 pulse/sec and 1.8 w/cm2, with different exposing periods, thirty, twenty, fifteen, twelve, ten and five seconds respectively, subsequently prevention of mice against interjected with minor hydatid cysts, in comparison with the control animals infected with protoscolices without exposure to ultrasound waves, depending on many criteria including the numbers, weights and diameters of developed hydatid cysts. The results displayed an obvious impact of ultrasound waves on Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices viability number by increase of exposure period in vitro, in addition to a decrease of 100% of hydatid cysts numbers in the dealt ones with 17% fertility exposed for 20 seconds, the reduction rate was 99.23% in the group of fertility 35% which exposed for 15 seconds, after four and five months of infection.

Assessment of the withdrawal period for ractopamine hydrochloride in the goat and sheep

Mochamad Lauardi; Bambang Hermanto; Tjuk I. Restiadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 405-410
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126114.1237

Ractopamine hydrochloride often used as a bronchodilator, but its β-adrenergic agonist effects on un-striated muscle and its withdrawal time have not been assessed for Etawah goats and sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the safe time to slaughter goats and sheep post-treatment with ractopamine. Five clinically healthy adult goats and sheep (20 kg body weight) were treated with a single dose of ractopamine (1 mg, intravenously). Whole blood was sampled from the jugular vein at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min post-treatment. Ractopamine as a veterinary drug was analysed using HPLC at wavelength 225 nm. The concentrations at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min were 817.156 ± 13.460 µg.mL-1, 554.468 ± 50.157 µg.mL-1, and 294.588 ± 52.845 µg.mL-1 in goats and 706.266 ± 89.856 µg.mL-1, 579.194 ± 45.664 µg.mL-1, and 209.36 ± 54.797 µg.mL-1 in sheep, respectively. The withdrawal times in goats and sheep were 1141.710 ± 255.85 h and 989.741 ± 167.633 h, respectively, no drug residues detected. The safe time to slaughter goats after administration of 1 mg of ractopamine was approximately 3 months and 5 days post-treatment at a safety factor of 2, which was later than the sheep at 2 months and 22 days by a safety factor of two.

Effect of saponin extract of Glycyrrihiza glabra in activity of hepatic enzymes and some biochemical parameters in serum of adults ovariectomized female rats

Ameera A. Hamdoon; Elham M. Al-khashab; Hadeel M. Al-hashemi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 411-415
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126127.1239

This research was planned to verify the influence of saponin, that extracted from Glycyrrihiza glabra in activity of hepatic enzymes and some biochemical parameters of serum ovariectomized adult female rats. 15 adult female rats were randomly divided into three groups, which included sham-operated (sham), ovariectomized (ovx), and ovariectomized rats treated orally with (250 mg/kg/day) of saponin extract for (25) days. The results revealed, that ovx rats showed a significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Calcium level, a significant reduction in activities of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate amino transferase (AST), γ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT), and level of albumin, creatinine without any significant change in alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity and magnesium level comparison with sham -operated rats. Treatment ovx rats with 250 mg/kg of saponin caused a significant reduction in ALT and CK activities, and elevation in albumin and creatinine levels, and AST, GGT activities. In conclusion, the present results revealed that, saponin extracted of Glycyrrihiza glabra have an effect in hepatic enzyme activity and some biochemical parameters in ovariectomized female rats with osteoporosis results from reduction in estrogen level.

Functional morphology of the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel (Epixerus ebii)

Chikera S. Ibe; Adanna Elezue; Ekele Ikpegbu; Uchenna Callistus Nlebedum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 417-425
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126047.1216

The study was initiated to contribute to the meager knowledge of the anatomy of the African palm squirrel. Skin of the trunk and paw pads was the subject of interest. Basic gross and histological techniques were employed. The dorsal fur was grey with golden brown free endings, while the ventral fur was greyish white. The fur covered the entire trunk, extended through the dorsal surface of the distal carpal joint to the dorsal surface of the digits. Five digital pads, three inter-digital pads and two metacarpal pads were observed on the forefoot. There was no observable digital pad on the hind foot; four inter-digital and two metacarpal pads were observed. Surface grooves were evident in the cornified layer of the trunk skin, but not in the paw pad skin. The mean thickness of the cornified layer of the epidermis of the palmar pad was 75.54±3.45 μm, while the entire epidermis was 102.32±4.23 μm thick. The non-cornified layer of the trunk skin was made of only three distinct layers, as the stratum lucidum was not evident. Conversely, the stratum lucidum was evident in the paw pad skin. Dermal papillae observed in the paw pad skin were more numerous and progressed deeper into the non-cornified epidermis than those observed in the trunk skin. There were more melanocytes in the dorsal than in the ventral trunk skin. The study concluded that the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel enable its adaptation to arboreal habitat.

Using T cell lymphokines to enhance the immune response against Newcastle disease in vaccinated broiler chickens fed naturally contaminated diet with different mycotoxins

Basher H. Saud; Mushtaq T. AL-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 427-433
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125977.1204

The current study aimed to reduce the toxic effect of different mycotoxins and enhance the immunity against ND virus in broiler chickens by using lymphokines from hyperimmunized birds with Salmonella typhymurium. The study included three stages, the first stage included isolating Salmonella typhymurium. The second stage was immunized chicks with Salmonella typhymurium. The final stage of the study was accomplished by treating 250 broiler chicks (divided into 5 groups, 50 chicks /each) with the following treatments; G1: 0.5 ml lymphokines was injected I/P at day one old with live ND vaccine (la Sota strain) after 30 minutes in drinking water, the process repeated after 10 days; G2: the same as in G1 but inactivated killed vaccine was used s/c,no repetition was carried out at 10 days ; G3: a combination of G1 and G2 with revaccination of live La Sota vaccines only at 10 days; G4 : only vaccinated with live La Sota vaccine repeated at 10 days; G5: no treatments (negative control). All groups were challenge with local isolate of NDV (100ELD50 105) at 25 days, all groups except the fifth group were fed on contaminated diet withmycotoxin. The results of the present study showed a significant increase (P <0.05) in antibodies titre against ND in the third group, followed by the first and second groups Measured by ELISA and hemagglutination (HI) test, A significant decrease (P >0.05) in the oxidation status (H2O2, MDA and LPO) and significant increase in the antioxidant defense (GSH-PX) in the liver and spleen samples. We conclude from the current study that the Salmonella immune lymphokines (SIL) helps in enhancement the level of immunity against Newcastle disease and n reduction the side effects of which mycotoxin.