Issue 2

A gross anatomical and histological study of pancreas in adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Ammar Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 175-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162960

Fifteen Kestrel were used in this study regardless to their sex. The results study showed that the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) lies under the right side of the peritoneal cavity, and situated between the descending part and ascending part of the duodenum and has pale pinkish to white pinkish colored and consisted of 3 lobes dorsal (lobus pancreatic dorsalis), middle (middle pancreatic lobus) and ventral (lobus pancreatis ventralis) with well-developed interlobar connections made it difficult to distinguish between the 3 lobes. Histologically the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was covered by very thin layer of connective tissue with mesothelial cells, Connective tissue septa extended from capsule into parenchyma of pancreas dividing it in to many lobules. These septa were very thin and some of them carried blood vessels distributed all over the pancreas. The exocrine portion was constituted from serous acini with pyramidal shaped cells which had dark rounded nucleus in the middle part of the cell. Acidophilic granules found in the apices of cells. Centro acinar cells found as one or two nuclei in the center of the pancreatic acini. The endocrine portion (islets of Langerhans) was formed from clusters of endocrine cells in shape of oval or rounded pale structures with different sizes. The small one has mean diameter of 40.02±0.9 µm while the large one has diameter of 126.3±3.8 µm. Few endocrine cells were seen distributed as single cells among the pancreatic acini.

Prevalence of nematodes infestation in Clarias gariepinus from El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, Egypt

Sh.S. Sorour; A.H. Hamouda

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162963

A total number of 400 Clarias gaiepinus were collected alive from several and various locations at El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, to investigate the prevailing nematodes that infect this fish species from the two locations. Nearly all the examined fish were positive for one or more nematodes; four spp. of two families were identified from Clarias gaiepinus at El-Burullus Lake: Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. (recovered from the gall bladder for the first time) and Terranova spp. larvae (recorded for the first time in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate representing new locality record), one nematode from Clarias gaiepinus at Lake Nasser: 3rd stage  larvae (L3) of Contraceacum spp. (has zoonotic importance). The prevalence of Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. and Terranova spp. larva were 37.5%, 44%, 0.5% and 10% respectively, meanwhile the prevalence of L3 larvae of Contraceacum spp. were 100%. This study was planned to compare between the nematodes infecting Clarias gaiepinus from the two lakes evaluating clinical signs, postmortem examinations, parasitological examinations, seasonal prevalence and histopathological investigations of infected fish with different nematodes infestation. Clarias  gaiepinus must be eviscerated as soon as possible after catching to prevent 3rd stage larvae of Contraceacum spp. in the abdominal cavity from liberating from their sheaths and attacking the fish musculature (the edible part in the fish) as well as,prevent Terranova spp. larvae in the gills from attacking another parts of the fish and thus prevent the transmission of the nematodes of zoonotic importance to the consumers.

Study of histopathological and biochemical effect of Punica granatum L. extract on streptozotocin -induced diabetes in rabbits

E.R. Sarhat; S. A. Wadi; B.I. Sedeeq; Th. R. Sarhat; N.A. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125523.1045

This study was undertaken to determine the antidiabetic effects of oral administration of Punica granatum L. extract on serum and tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rabbits at 100 mg/kg. The present study was carried out at the Faculty of veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University, from February to August 2017 for 10 weeks. For this purpose, 30 rabbits were randomly separated into three groups, each containing 10 animals: Group 1, healthy control rabbits; Group 2, diabetic rabbits received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg); Group 3, diabetic rabbits treated with PS extract (the 100 mg PS+1 ml DW) for 21 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken for measuring serum biochemical parameters. For histopathological evaluation, sections of kidneys were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and 5micron thick sections with H&E stain were prepared using routine histopathological techniques. The treatment revealed that PSE extract significant decreased serum glucose throm-bospondin-1, nitric oxide, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein in diabetic treated rabbits as compared to diabetic rabbits. Histopathology of kidney showed lesions similar to human glomeruloscleroses, glomerular membrane thickening, arteriolar hyalinization and tubular necrosis. From the above one can conclude that PSE extract possess nephroprotective effect in experimentally induced diabetic rabbits.

Isolation and identification of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria with detection of type-1 fimbriae coding gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique

Zeena Saleh; B.M. Al-Muhana; Kh. Hamdan; M.S. Jawad; S.F. Klaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 195-199
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162961

Two hundred faeces sample were collected from cattle with different age and sex in Al- Diwaniyah Province. The study was conducted in the period between November 2016 and November 2017. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria identified by routine methods such as culturing on selective media, biochemical test and agglutination test using monovalent and multivalent antisera. PCR was can detection type-1 fimbriae gene coding for fimC of Salmonella typhimurium. Results showed that Salmonella isolates were 14.5% in the bovine fecal samples. Also, the serotyping of isolates by using monovalent and polyvalent antisera revealed that all Salmonella isolates in cows were S. typhimurium. The PCR technique was used for detection of type-1 fimbriae coding gene by specific primer for fimC gene. All S. typhimurium isolates in cows appeared to be contained this gene show one distinct band MW.289 bp when electrophoresed on agarose gel. The results of this score indicated that the PCR technique potentate a loud specify in the disclosing of S. typhimurium especially the serotype that encoded to fimC gene type-1 fimbriae isolated from cows in comparison to other routine diagnostic tests.

Mixed thymic tumor in a rooster: gross and histological features

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Ahmed Al-Qadhi; Radhwan Al-Ajeli; layth Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 201-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125536.1058

A 2-year-old rooster local breed suffered from anorexia, emaciation with abnormal large mass in lateral side in cervical region was attended to Veterinary Teaching Hospital belong to College of Veterinary Medicine, Mosul University. After physical examination a movable and friable mass were recognized in cervical region. The case sends for surgical intervention. Gross examination of removed mass showed a friable, pale, will capsulated with hemorrhagic areas. Microscopically, the mass included three types of tumors. Squamous cell thymic carcinoma characterized by presence of keratin pearl. Lymphoma that characterized by atypical polymorphic lymphocytes, vesicular nucleus, and pyknotic nucleoli, while cytoplasm appears eosinophilic to granular with ill- define borders. Lipoma which appear as irregular shape of adipocytes that lack their nucleus, with scattered infiltration of pyknotic lymphocytes. This is the first pathological report of mixed tumor of thymus gland in rooster that composed from squamous cell thymic carcinoma, lymphoma and lipoma.

Early prediction of some kid body dimensions from maternal traits

Abdullah Hameed Salim; Ahmed Mnati; Yassen Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 205-207
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125537.1059

This study was conducted in the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture, Ruminant Research Station, west of Baghdad. It included 447 goats born of both sexes belonging to local, Shami and their crosses. The body dimensions of kids at birth and the dam's weight and age at birth, as well as the dependence of weaning weight on the birth weight of the kids by the use of simple linear regression equations. The results presented that coefficient of regression of most studied dimensions on the traits of maternal weight at birth and weight of the kid at birth has significant effect, except the regression of the body length at birth on both the maternal weight at birth and the kids weight at birth, which was not significant, The results showed the possibility of dependence on the studied maternal characteristics and kids birth weight to predict the dimensions of the goat kids body at birth.

Molecular identification of allelic genotypes of pyrethroid-insecticide resistance in housefly, Iraq

Monyer Abdulameir Abd Alfatlawi; Mansour Ali; Hassan Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 209-212
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125538.1060

According to global-wide presence of insecticides resistance to pyrethroids, the current study identified the purpose to detect the allelic genotypes regarding this issue in house flies in Iraq. From the governorate of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, 60 morphologically and molecularly recognized house flies were caught from 6 different regions. Using a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of specific allele (PASA), PCR was employed to reveal the presence of allele-genetic variations in the para-type sodium channel (para) gene to recognize knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation from the homozygous-wild type of complete susceptibility (sus/sus) to the mutated-homozygous type of complete resistance (kdr/kdr) or to the mutated-heterozygous type (kdr/sus). Here, these genotypes were targeted using specific primers to identify these genetic variations. The results have declared the presence of the sus/sus at 100%-frequency rate in all flies, and none of the other genotypes were detected (0%) in all flies. This valued piece of result indicates the reality of resistance persistence due to lack of insecticide-spraying programs in the governorate. This study provides high-quality information about the current status of insecticide resistance in house flies in Iraq about supporting the fact of genetic-base development of such resistance via frequent use of insecticides.

Effect of arginine on physiological and reproductive performance of Awassi ewes

Thair Mohammed; Ahmed Al-Ani; Alaa Munther

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 213-220
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162878

The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of injected amino acid arginine on reproductive performance in ewes and on the levels of some hormones. Twenty-one non pregnant Awassi Turkish ewes were used. These ewes were divided into three equal groups. The first group were not treated which serve as control group (T1), and injected with 5-10 ml of normal saline in intramuscular. Ewes of second group (T2) were treated by injected with a 155µmol/kg arginine I.V. The third group (T3) was treated by injected with 155µmol/kg arginine intramuscular. All treated ewes were inseminated by rams for 7 days. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein on the 1st and 2nd days of arginine injection and then insert CIDR and on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th,13th, and 16th days of this treatment to measure the change in the levels of some hormones during treatment. The results showed arithmetic difference in the time of the estrus where the treatment of intramuscular arginine injection came first and it was followed by intravenous arginine injection and then the control. Arginine treated groups significantly the control group in the estrus appearance rate. The estrus appearance estrus rate in intravenous injection group, intramuscular injection group and control group were 71.43, 57.14, and 42.85% respectively, also there is significant increase in fertility rates were 71.43, 57.14 and 42.85% respectively. There was a significant increase in pregnancy rates were 71.43, 57.14 and 28.85% respectively. However, birth rates were 71.43, 57.14 and 28.57% respectively. Intravenous treatment showed the lowest than other treatments. The results of current research revealed no significant difference between groups in the level of progesterone hormone, furthermore there is no significant change in the hormone during all periods of the experiment except the 7th period in IV arginine treated group. It was also observed a significant decrease in the estrogen concentration level in arginine intravenous (14.62 ±1.02) and intramuscular (15.00 ±1.98) injected groups in compared with control group (16.82 ±1.25) respectively during the first and 7th periods of injection after the insert of CIDR as compared with the other periods. There were no significant differences in the level of cortisol between the treated groups and the control group, and also between all periods of the experiment. It was concluded from this study that injection of amino acid arginine improved the reproductive performance of Awassi Turkish ewes, taking into consideration the superiority of intravenous injector as compared with intramuscular injection which gave higher rates of estrus, fertilization, fertility, pregnancy and birth and gave the lowest proportion of barrenness as compared with control group. However, arginine had no significant effects on the level of estrogen, progesterone and cortisol.

Effect of probiotic (Poultrystar®) and heat stress on some blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Rawnaq Ismail; Alaa Alhamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 221-225
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125539.1061

This study was conducted to determine the effect of the heat stress on some blood parameters and role of probiotics (Poultrystar®) to reduce these effects, 120 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with mean weight 150±10g were obtained from collage of Agriculture and forestry /University of Mosul. Fish were acclimated for at least 7 day in the laboratory and fed daily, the water temperature was maintained at 25 ±2°C. Three experiments have been done, each of 40 fish which have been divided randomly into four groups 10 for each. First experiment the four groups exposed to different water temperature (control 25, 30, 32, 34 °C), second experiment the four groups treated with (Poultrystar®) in a dose 1 g/ kg body weight by using stomach tube with exposed to heat stress (control 25, 30, 32 and 34 °C). In the third experiment the four groups have been treated with (Poultrystar®) in the same dose of the previous experiment for 7 days then exposed to heat stress. The results show there were significantly increase in hemoglobin concentration in three experiments, and also the Packed cell volume was significantly increase in three experiments, but the stress index was significantly decrease in three experiments, and the probiotics (Poultrystar®) improved the blood picture especially in the second and third experiment because no probiotic used in the first experiment.

Variations in the viability and macromolecules concentration of E. granulosus protoscolices isolated from ruminants consequence treatment with Nigella sativa seed's oil (In vitro study)

Maimonah Q. Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 227-234
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162880

The aim of the present study was to investigate the scolicidal activity of Nigella sativa seed's oil concerning the viability in vitro and biomolecules content (carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids) ofEchinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Protoscolices were aseptically aspiratedfromcysts of livers and lungs (naturally infected) which eradicated from goats and sheep that had been slaughtered at Mosul local abattoir / Nineveh / Iraq from September 2017 to May 2018. Various concentrations of N. sativa seed's oil (20 to 60 µl/ml) were applied on special time interval (5-40min). Viability of protoscolices was checked using vital stain (0.1% aqueous eosin). Concentration of carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were estimated after treating the protoscolices with LC50 of the seed's oil (40 µl/ml) comparing with untreated group. It is revealed that mortality rate of protoscolices, those were treated for 10 minutes with 40 µl/ml and 60 µl/ml of Nigella sativa oil, were approximately 50% and 100% respectively. Viability % of protoscolices treated with 20% hypertonic saline solution for 5 minutes was 43%, whereas, 16% of protoscolices were viable when treated with 60 µl/ml of seed's oilat the same time. The experiments detect concentration and time-dependent scolicidal effect of N. sativa seed's oilon the E. granulosus protoscolices. Mean concentrations of carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) were significantly higher at P≤ 0.05 in control group (62.6µg/ml, 31.0 mg/dl and (23.4 and 82.9 µg/ml, respectively) than that found in LC50 treated protoscolices (58.3 µg/ml, 15.3 mg/dl and (18.19 and 64.48 µg/ml, respectively).The study showed that oil extract of N. sativa seedshas a significant (P≤ 0.05) clear impact in reducing viability of E. granulosus protoscolices, as well as, mean concentrations of its biomolecules which may open away for further experiments about scolicidal validity of N. sativa seeds oil in vivo.

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of theaflavin in healthy and experimentally induced liver damage rabbits

Sarhan Rashid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 235-242
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162962

This current work aimed to study the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin in healthy and hepatotoxic rabbits for comparison. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly raised (P<0.05) after administration of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) Carbone tetrachloride (CCL4) subcutaneously. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated following administration of theaflavin intravenously and orally at 30 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively to both healthy animals and those with damaged liver. Theaflavin concentration in blood measured by HLPC at various time intervals. Pharmacokinetic results showed that theaflavin concentration when given orally reached its maximum concentration after 5 hours in healthy rabbits. While in hepatotoxic group, theaflavin concentration achieved the highest level in blood after three hours. Theaflavin bioavailability in hepatotoxic animals was significantly high and almost double its bioavailability in healthy animals. Results revealed that the area under curve (AUC) value in rabbits with damaged liver was significantly greater than in healthy group (P<0.05). t ½ of theaflavin after intravenous administration was 6.3±0.82 hour in damaged liver group which is significantly higher than that in healthy group (P<0.05). Theaflavin mean concentration in hepatotoxic group required more than 3 hours to decline to 352±19.4 ng/ml when compared to its concentration in healthy group which is required only 45 minutes to decrease to 310± 9.5 ng/ml. In conclusion liver has critical impact on the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin especially bioavailability and biotransformation and this research recorded reasonably large differences between healthy and liver damaged groups regarding theaflavin pharmacokinetic parameters which may result in negative influences on its biological efficacy when used in the treatment of various diseases.

Experimental detection of antioxidant and atherogenic effects of grapes seeds extracts in rabbits

Shihaab Al-Bajari; Moataz Al- Akash; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 243-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162881

The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Grapes seeds (Vitis vinifera) aqueous, proteinous, non- proteinous and alcoholic extracts as antioxidant and antiatherogenic in rabbits after exposure to 0.5% H2O2 in drinking water for 30 days. The results illustrated capability of 0.5% H2O2 to initiate oxidative stress via significant decrease in Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxdiase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in heart and liver concomitant with significant increase in malondialhyde (MDA) in addition to decrease in high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-c) and increase low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-c) in serum of treated only with H2O2 rabbits. While rabbits treated with H2O2 associated with Grapes seeds (aqueous, proteinous, non- proteinous and alcohol) extracts for 15 days showed a significant increase of Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxdiase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration in the heart and liver tissue as well as increase HDL-c, decrease in LDL-c and VLDL-c. While, the histolopathological examination of heart and liver tissue demonstrated that H2O2 induces, degeneration, necrosis and few inflammation foci in the liver and myocardial muscle. While the administration of (Vitis vinifera) aqueous, proteinous, non-proteinous and alcoholic extracts cause improvement in the histological picture of the liver and the myocardial muscle. It was concluded that the (Grapes extracts) aqueous, proteinous, non-proteinous and especially the alcoholic extracts can reduce the damage caused by H2O2 and this will pave the way to investigate the protective effects of the natural substances in the diseases caused by oxidative stress.

Microscopic identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq

Rashaa Ateaa; Mansour Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 251-258
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162882

Babesia is one of hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by arthropod vectors which responsible for causing of Babesiosis disease in bovine worldwide. The present study was designed for microscopic identification, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq. The study performed in three months of summer season (August into September 2017) and animals ages and sex were included in this study. The direct microscopic prevalence results were show highest prevalence of haemoprotozoa prevalence at Babesia sp. 45.74%. The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to animal sex, were show in male 43.48% and female was 52%, with non-significant differences. The Prevalence of Babesia sp. related to age were show 12.50%, 92.86% and 30% in young, adult and old age respectively with significant differences (P<0.05). The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to month of study were show. 28.57%, 62.50% and 42.86 in August, September and October respectively and with non-significant differences. Molecular study results were based on PCR and DNA sequencing method by phylogenetic tree analysis (MEGA 6.0) and NCBI-BLAST Homology Sequence Identity to differentiation Babesia species typing. The Babesia species prevalence results were show identified two Babesia species, high prevalence of Babesia bovis (38.30%) were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bovis (HQ264126.1) with homology sequence identity 97-100% and Babesia bigemina 7.45% were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bigemina (KU206291.1) with homology sequence identity 95-99%, then 43 Babesia species includes (B. bovis and B. bigemina) were submitted into NCBI-Genbank and provided accession numbers (MH503811-MH503853). In conclusion, this study concluded that Phylogenetic tree and homology sequences identity was show accurate in differentiation of Babesia species, and these species can be isolated at from local water buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city, of Iraq.

Application of magnetic technology in local quail house and hatchery on performance, reproductive and physiological traits under heat stress

Mahbuba Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 259-266
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162897

Using magnetic technology has shown major potentials in different fields especially agriculture. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the using of magnetic technology application in local quail house and hatchery on productive and physiological traits under heat stress condition. Results revealed that quail when served 0.2 T magnetically treated water (MTW) were significantly (P≤0.05) better in most productive, reproductive characteristics in the 1st experiment: eggs production, water consumption, egg weight, shell strength, estrogen conc., also improved FCR in females, all semen quality and testosterone conc. in males. Also, total RBCs count, thrombocyte, blood pH, blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), thyroxin hormone and total count of Lactobacillus spp. in small intestine. However, reduction in dead sperm, abnormal acrosome, corticosterone conc., body temperature, blood clotting time, E. coli and fungi counts in both sexes. In the 2nd experiment using of magnetic technology on embryonic development traits of local quails incubating eggs that collected from experiment 1 were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in the most characteristics at the group of 0.2 T MTW as fertility, hatchability, chicks weight, immune status of hatched chicks. While reduction in dead embryo and heterophil-to- lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. Finally, the results of 0.2 T MTW achieved superiorly gains compared with the other groups.

Analyses of mycotoxins in broiler’s local and imported feeds

N.M. Bibani; Z.K. Khidhir; A.S. Shaker; S.M. Kirkuki; S.M. Abdulateef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 267-271
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162994

In the present study 40 samples of broiler feeds that obtained from commercial feed manufacturing company (concerning 21 from Iraqi manufactures and 19 from the Iranian manufactures) were analyzed for the incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin, T-2, Fumonisins, and Zearalenone mycotoxins. The result has shown that AF was detected in 16 samples 76.19% of the Iraqi manufactures and 16 samples 84.21% from the Iranian manufactures, in concentrations ranging from 1.00-23.00 μg/ kg, and 1.00-2.00 μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of AF contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, the highest prevalence was observed in Iranian samples 84.21%, whereas it least in Iraqi samples 76.19%. OCHRA toxin was detected in 21 samples 100% of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples 100% from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from 3.00-4.00 μg/ kg, and (2.00 – 4.00) μg/ kg respectively. prevalence of OCHRA contamination revealed a non-significant (P>0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures. T2 toxin was detected in 21 samples (100%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (2.00 – 16.00) μg/ kg, and (2.00 – 23.00) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of T2 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures FUM3 toxin was detected in 21 samples (100%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (0.05 – 5.00) μg/ kg, and (0.10 – 2.50) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of FUM3 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, ZEAR3 toxin was detected in 15 samples (71.42%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (2.00 – 76.00) μg/ kg, and (1.00 – 41.00) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of ZEAR3 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, the highest prevalence was observed in Iranian samples (100%), whereas it least in Iraqi samples (71.42%).

Analgesic effect of silymarin in chicks

Ahmed Salah Naser; yasser albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 273-276
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162906

There were no studies about the analgesic effect of silymarin in the chicken. This study examined antinociceptive effect of silymarin given intraperitonially in 7-9 day-old chicks. The median effective dose of silymarin for the induction of analgesia to electric stimulation in the chicks was 65.3 mg/kg. Silymarin at 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg revealed analgesic effect to electric stimulation in chicks in dose dependent manner in comparison with the control group. The analgesic effect of silymarin at 120 and 240 mg/kg started at 15 min after injection and lasted after over 120 min of injection were as silymarin at 60 mg/kg the analgesic effect started at 15 min after injection and declined before 120 min of injection. The peak of analgesic effect for 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg were at 60 min after injection. These results indicate that silymarin have an analgesic property in the chicks model.

Structural study of uterine tubes of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) at different postnatal periods

Faeq Jabar Al-Saffar; Massarat Almayahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 277-288
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162911

This study was designed to investigate the histomorphological changes in the uterine tubes of the local rabbits during three different periods of ages that were kitten, immature and mature stages of life. For such study, twenty-four female rabbits were used. Procedure of routine histological technique was performed to prepare histological sections by using general and special histochemical stains. Gross findings revealed the presence of bilateral uterine tubes which comprised thick short coiled preampulla, thin long ampulla and the isthmus which was shortest and straight region joined to the uterus. Microscopically three regions were identified according to the differences in their histological characteristic features. Data revealed that the wall of uterine tubes in kittens was not fully developed, whereas in immature does, global histological and histochemical changes were identified compared to kittens while mature does indicated critical role of the post weaning period on the development of the animals. Changes were specially recognized by histochemical procedure which showed strong positive reactions especially isthmus which obviously reacted with PAS, Ab, combined PAS-AB. In conclusion, current data showed unique differences of the uterine tubes in the local rabbits compared to other mammals especially those of rodentia species.

A comparative study between kessler suture versus polypropylene mesh implantation to repair tenotomized common calcaneal tendon in rabbits

Saddam Humadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162907

The present study is assigned to throw the light on the benefit of using Kessler suture compared with polypropylene mesh implantation in healing of induced tenotomy of common calcaneal tendon in a rabbit model based on clinico-histopathological evaluation. Twenty adults New Zealand white male rabbits were used for this clinical prospective study divided equally and randomly into two groups. The first group, (suture group n=10) and the second group (mesh group n=10). Under the effect of general anesthesia, longitudinal skin incision over the common calcaneal tendon was made, and the skin flap was reflected. The tendon was isolated by blunt dissection from the surrounding tissue, with small curved forceps. Simulation of a rabbit’s common calcaneal tendon rupture was made by sharp transvers incision with scalpel. The first group repair with (Kessler Suture) using polypropylene suture size 4.0. In contrast, the second group repair with (polypropylene mesh implantation) after initial suturing of the cut ends of tendon by two simple interrupted stitches using polyglyconate suture size 4.0. The surgical skin wounds were re-stitched by simple interrupted pattern with 3-0 silk. After clinical follow-up of the treatment rabbits, certain secondary health problems were encountered represented by swelling of operative site and lameness. Grossly, adhesions were noticed between the tendon and subcutaneous tissue in rabbits of both groups. Microscopical examination reflected presence of inflammatory cells perivascular edema and few capillaries at two months. At the end of experiment there were perfect orientation and organization of collagen fibers in mesh group in comparing with suture group. Based on the results obtain from this study, it seemed that both groups reflected best outcome in healing of operated tendons with superiority of mesh group in comparing with suture group.

Assessment the level of some heavy metal in vital body fluids and blood parameters in lactating Awassi ewes

Ashwaq Ahmed Hassan; Rana amer asim Al Suleman agha; Ali Saeed Al-Chalabi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 297-301
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162908

The aim of the study was to estimate the level of cadmium, zinc and oxidative stress parameters in serum and milk as well as the blood constituents in local at the age of 3-4 years during the spring and summer seasons. Blood and milk samples were collected from 30 ewes (15 each season). The blood samples were allocated to into two tubes, for complete blood profile study and for biochemical analysis. Milk was used for biochemical tests. Blood analysis showed a significant difference between some blood values during the two seasons represented by significant increase of total white blood number, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in circulating blood of lactating ewes during summer season compared with spring season. Red blood cells number and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration did not change among the two seasons. Both mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value of lactating ewe increased significantly during spring season with respect to the summer season. The serum glutathione level showed a significant elevation during spring season compared with the summer season, while, the level of malonaldehyde and peroxynitrite free radicle remain constant during the study period. There were no significant changes in the level of cadmium in serum and milk of examined ewes, while the serum level of zinc significantly higher during the spring compared to the summer season and milk zinc level remain stable during both seasons. The study concluded variations in haematological, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum and milk concentration of Zn and Cd according to lactation season in ewes.

Detection on ectoparasites on small ruminants and their impact on the tanning industry in Sulaimani province

Bahzad Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 303-309
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162995

The study was carried out through the clinical examination on the skins of sheep and goats to identify the quality and processed in the tanneries. Parasitic skin diseases caused by ectoparasites such as mange mites, lice, and ticks are among these threats resulting in a serious economic loss to the tanning industry and the country as a whole. Out of 38066 sheep and 9889 goats examined in Sulaimani slaughterhouse in spring season 2017, shows statistically significant P<0.05 between sheep and goats prevalence; 9.35% and 7.43% respectively with one or more ectoparasites. Three different of ectoparasites were infested in both sheep and goats namely; hard tick, lice and mite. Five species of hard tick (Ixodidae) were identified in sheep and goats as follows; Boophilus spp 3.68% and 14.16%, Rhipicephalus sanguineous 12.47% and 28.63%, Rhipicephalus turanicus 7.50% and 15.96%, Hyalomma a. anatolicum 11.90% and 31.30%, Hyalomma marginatum 9.26% and 9.95%) respectively. Two species of lice were identified in sheep namely, Damalinia ovis 17.74% and Linognathus stenopsis 13.63%, and D. caprae 10.97% and L. stenopsis 6.22% on goats. Highly infested were identified with mite on sheep include Psarcoptic scabiei 13.83% and Psoroptic ovies 9.98%, while only one species founded in this study in goats namely, Psarcoptic scabiei 22.79%. The overall number of skins refused to tanning industry 164 (4.61%) in sheep and 116 (15.78%) in goat. The difference in the prevalence of skin disease infestation between refused skin in both sheep and goats were statistically significant in ruminants (P<0.05). This paper deals with major skin defects in occurrence by ectoparasites sheep and goats in Sulaimani province.

The histological changes induced by cytarabine on rabbits kidneys (with and without vitamin E administration)

Saif Al-Jammas; ayad Al-Sarraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 311-316
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162910

The present study was designed to determine the histological changes induced by Cytarabine drug on the structure of rabbits kidneys and the protective effects of vitamin E on these histological changes. The treated group with daily intraperitoneal dose of (50 mg/kg body weight) of Cytarabine alone, showed a massive histological changes represented by renal tubular necrosis, glomerular atrophy and enlarged urinary spaces (widening of Bowman’s spaces), infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages within interstitium of the cortex, formation of hyaline cast in some of the tubular lumens as well as fibrosis and hemorrhage in the cortex were also observed. While the group that received a protective (800 IU of vitamin E) prior to each Cytarabine injection showed a significant improvement that represented by focal regions in the cortex with a normal renal tubules except for a cloudy cell swelling which is a reversible injury, also neither cortical hemorrhage nor hyaline cast formation were seen, in addition to presence of focal areas of normal glomeruli. The present study suggests that vitamin E is an effective chemo-protective agent against nephrotoxicity when used prior to each Cytarabine administration.

A comparison between two different biomaterials for treatment of tracheal defect in dogs

Osama Al-Hyani; Abd Al-Haleem Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 317-327
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162883

This study was designed to evaluate the healing process of tracheal cartilage defect after implantation of two different biomaterials in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs from both sexes were used. They were divided into 2 equal groups. A window shape defect of about 3cm x 2cm was induced in the cervical part of three adjacent tracheal rings with their annular ligaments. In group one, the defect was closed with a small strip of ear cartilage (auto graft) from the same animal, while in the second group, calf's pericardium scaffold (xeno graft) was used to close the defect. All the animals were clinically monitored postoperatively, while gross pathological changes and biopsy collections for all animals was performed at 15, 30, 60 postoperative days. No postoperative clinical complications were recorded and all were looking healthy and resuming food and water intake normally. The gross pathological results revealed rapid occlusion to the trachea especially in first group and animals survived without any respiratory complications. The histological features in both groups were represented by newly granulation tissue formation and hyaline cartilage regeneration. The new hyaline cartilage cells formation was showed faster in group 1 rather than group 2. In conclusion, both grafts can be used for closing a tracheal defect in dogs with the priority of ear cartilage implantation.

Different vectors used to transform and clone of nonstructural NS1 gene of Influenza B in Escherichia coli

Ali Dawood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 329-333
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162964

Flu is a highly contagious and common illness caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transformation and cloning of NS1B gene with pET-32a, pET-32b and pQE-81L in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and DH5α. pUC57-NS1B synthetic gene was transform and clone in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Isolation, single digestion and ligation with pET-32b using HindIII restriction enzyme. Amplification of recombinant DNA was done with conventional PCR after transformation. Screening with IPTG of colonies. Gel electrophoresis was done for each step of cloning after isolation. Isolation, double digestion and ligation with pET-32a and pQE-81L using SacI, PstI and HindIII respectively.Recombinant DNA was attempted to be transformed into E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) and DH5α. pUC57 plasmid carrying NS1B gene was successful transformed and isolated from E. coli BL21 (DE3). Designed primers used for PCR of NS1B showed successful amplification. First screening of pET-32b-NS1B colonies using white/blue method, cloning NS1B into pET-32b using single restriction digestion with HindIII, pET-32a using double restriction digestion with SacI and HindIII and pQE-81L using double restriction digestion with PstI and HindIII gave unexpected result. This result may relate to re-ligation of digested vector for single digestion and uncompleted digestion for vectors of double restriction digestion. Current study has suggested that recombinant NS1B gene can be cloned using single digestion with other expression vectors.

Histological and antimicrobial effects of tramadol infiltration on incisional oral mucosal wound healing in rabbits

F.A. Al-Mashhadane; E.A. Mustafa; G.A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 335-340
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162996

The present study compared effects of tramadol with lidocaine on healing processes of incisional intraoral mucosal wounds in rabbits and to study the antimicrobial effect of tramadol. For this purpose, fifteen apparently healthy male rabbits of 5-6 months old were used. They were classified into three groups, first group treated with 0.5 ml distilled water infiltration as control (n=5), second group treated with 0.5 ml tramadol infiltration in dose of 100 mg/2 ml (n=5), and third group treated with 0.5 ml of 2% vasoconstrictor-free lidocaine infiltration, then an incision was done to the buccal mucosa of all animals and they slaughtered on day 10 and their wounds were evaluated by histopathologic for presence of edema, vascularity, and inflammatory cells. For antimicrobial effect, swabs from tramadol group were taken from sites of wounds before incision and other swabs were taken after surgical incision on the first day, third day and seventh day, then the colony forming units (CFU)/ml of microorganisms were counted. The present study found that the infiltration with tramadol in dose of 100mg/2ml result in new epithelialization and wound healing occurred faster than infiltration with lidocaine 2% group also this study found that tramadol has significant decrease in the means of colony forming units of oral microorganisms. This study demonstrated that tramadol accelerated stages of buccal wound healing faster than lidocaine in rabbits.

Nad1 gene analysis of Echinococcus granulosus from sheep in Aqrah city, Iraq

R.N. Hamoo; nashaat Ghalib Mustafa; S.A. Abdulraheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 341-345
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162965

Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a dog tapeworm cestoda; it is larval stage responsible to cystic echinococcosis, one of the most common and dangerous worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease. The aim of this study was the molecular identification of the local strain of E. granulosus isolated from sheep liver slaughtered in the principal abattoir of Aqrah city, Northern of Iraq during Jun-Nov. 2017. In this study, 37 sheep liver infected by E. granulosus, 12 of high DNA purity fertile (have protoscolices) cyst of them were considered. A molecular study conducted on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) gene. Results demonstrated that E. granulosus isolates were sheep strain (G1) genotype, with fascinating highly corresponding 95% and 96% to global isolates, particularly to north African and Mediterranean countries, by employing phylogenetic tree analysis. So, the isolates of our project were deposited in Genbank (accession No. MG792129). This study findings provide that the local isolates of E. granulosus from sheep liver in Aqrah city, Northern of Iraq are loyally equivalent to global strains and isolates, in addition, nad1 gene considers a perfect biomarker in a molecular identification and phylogenetic study of this parasite.

Laparoscopic and hand-assisted cystorrhaphy strengthened with omental pedicle in dogs: Radiographic and ultrasonographic study

Mohammed Alhamdany; layth Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 347-352
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163026

This study was designed to evaluate the using of two laparoscopic techniques for repairing an experimental cystotomy of urinary bladder reinforced with omental pedicle in dogs. Eighteen local breed male dogs were randomly allocated into two equal groups: first group an experimental cystotomy (about 2 cm) was induced laparoscopically at the ventral surface of the urinary bladder, repaired with titanium clips and reinforced with the omental pedicle. In the second group: similar technique was followed; however, the induced was repaired with hand-assisted extracorporeal laparoscopic method. In both groups, several diagnostic parameters were followed including clinical / laparoscopic exploration, radiology, and ultrasonography. Results obtained in the first group shown the titanium clips 4-6 clips freely applicated and whole time consuming for performing operation was 45±2.1 minutes. Clinically, the experimental animals didn't show any abnormal changes in their behavioral activities. Radiographic examination revealed distention of the urinary bladder accompanied by the presence of distances between the titanium clips; however, ultrasonography didn't show any leakage or thickness at the site of operation. Laparoscopic examination demonstrated mild adhesion between urinary bladder and adjacent organ. In the second group, the operation required 36±1.1 minutes to be completed. Postoperatively, no signs of pain were observed, however, animals demonstrated post-operative transient hematuria, lasts for 24 hours, accompanied with severe adhesion between the bladder and abdominal wall. Radiographically, regular distention of the bladder was revealed, while ultrasonographic examination showed hyperechoic dots and thickening of the bladder wall. We concluded that the hand-assisted laparoscopic cystorrhaphy strengthened by omentum is a practical, time saving and mini-invasive surgical technique.

Levels of some biochemical markers in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant lactating dairy cows in Baghdad, Iraq

Masar Kadhim; Basim Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 353-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163027

This study aimed to measure the biochemical markers including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin / globulin (A/G) ratio, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total bilirubin in sera of dairy cows from the period of February-2016 to March-2018. For this purpose, 78 dairy cows of >3 years old reared at some areas of Baghdad province were subjected to blood sampling from the jugular vein. Study values (mean ± standard error) of ALT, AST, GGT, A/G ratio and total bilirubin markers were found outside the normal ranges of international reference values. Conversely, ALP, CK, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and BUN were found within the normal ranges of international reference values. To investigate changes that occur during late stage of pregnancy, study animals were dividedinto two groups (non-pregnant lactating and pregnant dairy cows). Statistically, significant decrease (P<0.05) was encountered in values (M ± SE) of ALT, AST, and GGT enzymes; and significant increase (P<0.05) in ALP and CK values of pregnant compared to non-pregnant dairy cows. Data concerning the serum proteins, results also indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of total protein, whereas there no significant differences (P>0.05) were showed in values of albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. Pregnant dairy cows were showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of BUN and total bilirubin; however, glucose appeared without significant differences (P>0.05). It has been concluded that the lactation and gestation periods have a great impact on activity of biochemical indices in blood of dairy cows; therefore, there is a need for constant periodic monitoring for the described indices in this study to maintenance on animal’s health status.

Effect of vitamin A and grazing in some physiological characters and milk production of Meriz does

S.Y. Abdul-Rahman; Khalid Sultan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 359-365
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163080

The current study was aimed to investigate the influence of Vitamin A- Palmitate injection and grazing on some physiological and biochemical characters, milk yield and its compositions. Twenty eight Meriz does (2 years aged) after parturition with average body weight 22.57 ± 0.47 Kg, and were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7 does/group) treated for 3 months as following: 1st group does were reared on standard ration and injected with 0.05 ml of physiological saline i.m weekly, 2nd and 4th groups, does were reared on standard ration and injected with vitamin A- Palmitate (50000 IU/doe weekly) as well as grazing for 6 hrs. daily for the does in 4th group, 3rd group does were reared on standard ration with 6hrs grazing /daily. Results showed a significant increase in Hb and PCV in 4th group at 1st, 2nd and 3rd month of treatment. ESR significantly increased in 4th group at 3rd month of treatment, also serum glucose level increased significantly in 2nd and 4th groups at all months of the study, while serum cholesterol level decreased significantly in 4th group at 2nd and 3rd months of treatment. Triglyceride increased at 3rd month in all treatments as compared with control, total protein and albumin increased significantly in 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups at 2nd and 3rd months of treatment. A significant increase in milk yield and fat% were recorded in 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments in most kidding weeks. Conclusion, results showed that vitamin A and grazing improved some of physiological, biochemical, body weight and milk yield in Meriz goats.

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA test using anti- T. canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs compared to PCR

Noor Jarad; A.K. Abbas; N.N. Aἀiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 367-370
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163081

Toxocara (T.) canis is a nematode parasite of canines; belong to the Ascarididae family, which accidentally infected humans. Puppies expel the eggs with the feces from the fourth week of the life cycle. This study is the first study in Iraq for detection seroprevalence in stray dogs and extended from January to September 2017. Our study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. canis infection in stray dogs from different areas in the Al-Diwaniya province, Iraqto detection of specific IgG antibodies to T. canis compared to Conventional PCR technique with the effect of the risk factor. One hundred of the blood sample and one hundred of a faecal sample of same dogs after shooting were studied usingindirect ELISA test and PCR. The result revealed that 71% of the dogs had a seropositive result for this parasite by ELISA test. Dog age is an important factor and affects seroprevalence, were shown that positive rate in adult dogs was more 83.05% than the young dogs 53.65%, while no significant between dogs according to sex. PCR technique showed 58% of dogs were positive forinternal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal RNA. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test was 79 and 40% respectively.

Histological and ultrastructural studies of the pancreas of native rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Y.A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 371-378
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163082

The pancreas of male adult native rabbit was studied by using light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The pancreas possessed both exocrine and endocrine portions. Exocrine portion included both acinar and ductal cells. The acinar cells were pyramidal in shaped which formed the lining epithelia of secretory units (acini). The apical cytoplasm of acinar cells contained unequal size and variable electron opacity of zymogen granules, while the basal part occupied by well-developed rough endoplasm reticulum (rER). Short microvilli projected from the free surfaces of both acinar and ductal cells. The lateral cell membranes of adjacent acinar and ductal cells adhere apically by junctional complex, which was composed of zonulae occludens and zonulae adherens. There was notable interdigitating between the lateral cell membranes of neighboring ductal cells that were located beneath the junctional complex. The oval or irregular pancreatic islets consisted of β, α and δ endocrine cells. Both β- and α-cells could be demonstrated by using LM and TEM, whereas δ-cells visualized with TEM only. The cytoplasm of β-cells contained purple granules and α-cells showed yellowish granules in their cytoplasm when stained with aldehyde fuchsine method. At ultrastructure level, the cytoplasmic granules of β-cells were identified by homogenous electron dense core with clear hallo zone, the numerous granules of α-cells had very electron dense granules and δ-cells contained few granules similar to those of α-cells.β- or α-cells inserted as a single cell and in a partial manner between the ductal cells of some ducts.

Fasciolosis: grading the histopathological lesions in naturally infected bovine liver in Mosul city

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hadil Basim Al-Sabaawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 379-387
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125546.1066

Fasciolosis cause economic losses in cattle that breed in Iraq and the world. About 4% of bovine liver’s samples included in the current study exhibited classical pathological lesions of fasciolosis. Samples of cattle livers infected with fasciolosis were taken for histopathology. Eighteen grading criteria with four scoring level have been chosen to grading the microscopic lesions caused by Fasciola hepatica into a mild infection (grade I), moderate infection (grade II) and severe infection (grade III). The type of hepatic degeneration or necrosis, cloudy cell swelling, coagulative necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, with patterns of infiltration, also type of infiltrated cells, fibrosis between hepatic cells or in portal area, affection to hepatic cords arrangement, hepatic sinusoids, extensions of hemorrhage, pigment deposition, hyperplasia of bile duct, thickness of hepatic capsule and presence of liver fluke were the main grading levels. In grade, I the microscopic lesions were characterized by simple or mild in their nature with very good reversible prognosis, while grade II characterized by moderate severity of the lesions with a good reversible prognosis, while grade III characterized by hostile severity with bad irreversible prognosis as a result of architecture changes in liver histology. In conclusion, we believed that this grading system could be used as a guide when examining histopathological liver's samples infected with F. hepatica to identify the stage of infection and proposed an accurate prognosis.

Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in Baghdad province, Iraq

H.H. Alseady; M.H. Kawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 389-394
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163084

The objective of this study was to record the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium and to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in different parts of Baghdad province. A total number of 100 fecal samples from different age groups were collected. Conventional method using modified Ziehl-Neelsen for staining fecal smears and molecular techniques for detection the prevalence and determines the species of Cryptosporidium that cause infection. The overall prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium was 21% (21/100) by conventional method; nested PCR was done that targeting 18S rRNA gene on the same samples in which Cryptosporidium DNA identified in 38 samples (38%). Four species of Cryptosporidium in cattle were detected for the first time in Baghdad province: C. parvum (6/10), C. andersoni (2/10), C. bovis (1/10) and C. ryanae (1/10). The determination and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle was very important to avoid the infection to other animals and handlers and for applying control programs.

The significance of milk ring test for identifying brucella antibodies in cows and buffaloes' raw milk at Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq

D.A. Al-Mashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 395-400
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163085

This study was undertaken to monitor Brucella antibodies in the milk of cows and buffaloes in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using mik ring test (MRT) assay. A total of 210 samples of milk (130 from cows and 80 from buffaloes) were randomly collected from lactating females. The overall prevalence of Brucella antibodies in all the milk samples was 8.6% (18/210). The highest rate was 9.2% found in the cow milk (12/130), while the lowest rate was 7.5% of the buffalo’s milk (6/80). Out of 210 milk samples, only 15 (7.1%) were culture-positive for Brucella; about 7.7% (10/130) and 6.3% (5/80) from cows and buffaloes respectively. In terms of comparison between MRT and standard milk culture method, MRT was found more sensitive (83%), specific (98%), with the accuracy of 97% in comparison to the employed culture approach to detect Brucellosis agents in milk. The results also revealed that 70% and 60% of isolates were Brucella abortus, while 30% and 40% were Brucella melitensis from the milk of cow and buffaloes respectively. The highest rate of frequency for Brucella antibodies according to MRT was found in February (12.1%), while the lowest rate was found in June (5.7%). This study emphasizes that Brucellosis is still a significant public health hazard in the Kurdistan region. The study recommends MRT adoption in routine monitoring of brucellosis in milk collection centre, dairy factories, and farm. Consumers are also recommended to sufficiently heat the milk to destroy this foodborne pathogen before consumption or industrial processing.

Bone fractures in dogs: A retrospective study of 129 dogs

Mustafa Abd El Raouf; S.A. Ezzeldein; E.F.M. Eisa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 401-405
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163086

The aim of the present study was to evaluate 129 dogs with different breed, age and sex admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University over a 2-year period with different kinds of fractures. Thorough clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to all animals.The results revealed thatGerman shepherd dogs (74.41%), immature dogs below 1 year of age (80.62%) and male dogs (57.36%) were the most susceptible to fractures. The percentages of fractures of the hind limb (48.06%) were the most common location of the fractures on animals followed by forelimb fractures (28.68%) then pelvic fractures (20.16%) and fractures of the mandible (3.1%). Femur fractures (27.13%) were the most common long bone fractures followed by tibia/fibula (15.5%) then radius/ulna (11.63%) and humerus (10.08%). About 79.84% of animals were treated by gypsona (42.72%), cross pins (22.33%), plate and screws (18.45%), intramedullary pins (14.56%) and wiring (1.94%). Satisfactory results were reported in 86.40% of treated animals and post-operative complications were reported in 13.60% of animals. It was concluded that immature and male dogs were more susceptible to bone fractures. Most of fixation methods are successful when basic principles of fracture repair are followed.

The effect of pisang ambon (Musa paradisiaca L.) stem extract on the regulation of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in rats’ enteritis

R. Kurnijasanti; M. Candrarisna

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 407-413
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163167

Considering that NSAIDs are widely used in medication for pain, inflammatory, and fever, its side effect, mucosal erosion, needs to be minimized. The purpose of this paper is to study the potential use of Musa paradisiaca L. stem extract in lowering TNFα, IL-1ß and IL-6 proinflammatory cytokines in rats’ enteritis. Thirty male wistar strain rats (Rattus Norvegicus) aged 2-3 months were divided into 5 groups with 6 repetitions. The positive and negative control groups were given a solvent of Musa paradisiaca L. stem extract. Groups P1, P2, and P3 were treated with the extract. The groups were treated for 14 days. On the 8th day, all of the rats were administered with Indomethacin as enteritis inducer, except for the rats in the negative control group which were only administered with indomethacin solvent. On the 15th day, the rats were necropsied, and their jejunum were taken in order to make the immunohistochemistry (IHC) preparations. The IHC test results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and then continued with the Duncan test. The results showed that the granting of Musa paradisiaca L. stem extract has anti-inflammatory activity against the inflammated jejunum tissue. The anti-inflammatory activity against the damage of jejunum tissue was indicated by an attenuated expression of IL-1 β, IL-6 and TNF-α proinflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. The increasing dose showed more significant effects.

Measurements and evaluation of some electrolytes concentrations in spleens of imported sheep to Sulaimani province

Elham Husain; K.A. Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 415-418
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163168

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between some biometrical measurements (length and width) and some electrolytic concentration (Na +, K+ and Cl-) in sheep spleen. This study was conducted on 19 spleens of male sheep, they were imported from Syria to Sulaimani province, aged between less than 1 year to 1.5 year. The results showed that the mean values of weight were 108 gm and mean values of length and width of the spleens were 13.72 cm and 9.05 cm, respectively. Also, the mean values of Cl-, Na+ and K+ concentration were 14.17 mmol/L, 6.58 mmol/L, 32.89 mmol/L, respectively. The correlation coefficient between weight and width was (r = 0.661, P=0.002) was a higher correlation with  R2 = 0.437. Also It was (r= 0.932, P≤0.0001) between Na+ and K+ which was a high correlation, with the higher value of R2 =0.869. The results showed the negative correlation between weight and Na+, weight and K+ with (r= -0.161, P=0.509) and (r= -0.214, P=0.379), respectively. However, it showed the positive correlation between other parameters; weight, length, width , Na+, K+ and Cl-, the correlation coefficient (r= 0.421, P= 0.072) between width and Cl- was the highest correlation, and the value R2 = 0.177. In conclusion, our study shows the positive correlation between some parameters (weight, length and width) and some electrolytes concentration (Na+, K+ and Cl-) and the highest correlation between width and Cl-, however there was a negative correlation between weight and Na+ and between weight and K+ in sheep spleen.

Effects of platelets rich fibrin and bone marrow on the healing of distal radial fracture in local dogs: Comparative study

Moyaser Thanoon; M.J. Eesa; E.R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 419-425
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163169

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of platelets rich fibrin and bone marrow on distal radial fracture healing in local breed dogs. Twenty four adult animals (males and females), mean aged 2.6 ±0.15 years, and the mean body weight 24.58 ±1.07 kg were used. The experimental animals were randomly divided into three equal groups. First group (Control group), transverse fracture was induced in the distal portion of radial bone and immobilized by Plaster of Paris, the fracture line didn't treated with any material. Second group (platelets rich fibrin group), the fracture line was surrounded by the platelets rich fibrin. Third group (bone marrow group), the fracture line was surrounded by autologous bone marrow. The radiographic results confirmed that the fracture healing was faster and superior in third group compared with first and second groups. The hematological results showed an increasing in concentration rates of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and calcium at the weeks that follows surgical operation. Depending on the serial rates of alkaline phosphatase, the third group and the second group are the better fractured bone healing than the first group. In conclusion, the results revealed that, the using of bone marrow and platelets rich fibrin improved and enhanced the healing of distal radial fracture.

Prevalence and some risk factors of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in Nineveh province - Iraq

Salam Abd Esmaeel; Basima albadrani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 427-431
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163170

The objective of current study was to determine the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in cattle using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Nineveh province/ Iraq, to investigate some of the epidemiological risk factors associated with occurrence of the disease. From September 2017 - September 2018, four hundred blood samples were obtained from cattle both sexes, different ages, origin, different management systems and from different regions in Nineveh province, ten milliliter blood were collected from the jugular vein for PCR test, whatever epidemiological data were collected through interview with the farms owners. The results of this study appear that the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was 75%. The risk factors associated with increased prevalence of disease include age, increased prevalence was at >3 years, females, imported animals, indoor animals which were 86.8, 80, 91.7, 77.5% respectively. The significantly increased prevalence of the disease 93.7% in the western regions of Nineveh province. In spring and summer months a significantly increased prevalence of disease which were 79.6 and 78.95 respectively. In conclusions, this study detected that bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was widely distributed in Nineveh province associated with several risk factors.

Prevalence of Parascaris equorum in native horses in West Bank Palestine

R. Othman; I. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 433-436
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163192

A total number of 435 fecal samples from native horses, aged between 6 months to 10 years of both sexes, were collected from eight cities at West Bank, Palestine during January 2015 to January 2017. The Mc Master egg counting and sedimentation methods were used for the detection of Parascaris equorum eggs in the collected samples. The overall prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum was found to be 15.6% (68 out of 435), and this rate varied significantly depending on the city. The highest prevalence rate was in Jericho 41.1% followed by Hebron 26.3%, Jenin 19.4%, Qalqilya 19.4%, Tulkarm 12.2%, Nablus 11.8% and Ramallah 5.3%. The results revealed also that there was no significant difference in the prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum between male 15% and female 16.5% as well as between young 17.6% and adult 10.9% horses.

Comparative anatomical, histological, and histochemical study of liver in human and domestic rabbit

Muna Zuhair Al-Hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 437-446
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163193

This study was conducted to compare the anatomical histological and histochemical structure of human liver with the liver of domestic rabbits to evaluate the quality of liver of rabbit to be used as a model of mammalian species in the experimental researches. Ten liver biopsies of human (Group I) and same number of liver specimens of domestic rabbit (Group II) were used in this study. The liver specimens were processed and stained with Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin stain and Masson's Trichrome stain and examined under light microscope. For histochemical examination, Periodic Acid Schiff's, Best's carmine and Gomori's Alkaline Phosphatase stains were used. Histomorphometric measurements were done to compare some parameters between the two groups. Transabdominal ultrasound examination was done to compare ultrasonic appearance of the liver in both groups. The work was done from May 2018 to December 2018. The study revealed more lobulated liver of domestic rabbits, hexagonal lobules are mingled with each other in rabbit's liver compared to human, larger hepatocytes, with higher percentage of binucleated hepatocytes and thicker capsule in the human's liver than in the rabbit's liver. Histochemical results revealed less carbohydrates, less glycogen content with less activity of alkaline phosphatase in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes of the human's liver. The ultrasound image revealed denser hyperechoic diaphragm and fibrous capsule, non-homogenous low echogenicity of parenchyma of the liver of human compared to the rabbit's liver. We conclude that the basic anatomical and histological structure is more or less similar in the human's liver andliver of domestic rabbit but the few differences might be related to the evolutional variations among mammals thus the value of the liver tissue of domestic rabbit to be used in the experimental researches is significant.

Serotyping, virulence gene expression and phenotypic characterization of E. coli O157:H7 in colibacillosis affecting buffalo calves in Basra governorate

H.A. Naji; Wessam Monther Mohammed Saleh; M. Hanoon; I. Imad; Y. Salim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 445-451
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163198

The objective of the current study was to detect the clinical signs of colibacillosis in buffalo calves, isolate E. coli O157:H7, detect its virulence gene eaeA using PCR and estimate its prevalence.The current study sampled 120 buffalo calves aged 1day to 5 months from the Al- Basra veterinary Hospital and Private veterinary clinic within the Basra province between October 2017 and July 2018. A total of 100 calves were naturally diarrheic and the other 20 calves served as controls. The clinical sings in the diarrheic subjects included a significant increase in body temperature, heart rates, respiration rates and capillary refill time as compared to control group. Other clinical signs included whitish to yellowish watery diarrhea with tincture of blood, anorexia, weakness, depression, weak suck reflex, dry oral mucous membranes, cold extremities, weak peripheral pulse, dehydration and death. Using phenotypic characterization tools like MacConky agar, EMB agar, biochemical tests and Viteck, 83 out 100 diarrhea samples confirmed E. coli. Using CT- SMACT agar, 31 out of 83 E. coli isolates were E. coli O157:H7 positive. The PCR result indicated that 47 out of the 83 isolated E. coli samples were positive for eaeA virulence gene. In conclusion, this study is a debut in the report of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 isolation and genes identification in buffalo calves in Iraq. Therefore, proper prevention and control measures are requisite to curtail the mortality and morbidity rate caused by Colibacillosis.

Clinical and ultrasonographic study of using autogenous venous graft and platelet-rich plasma for repairing Achilles tendon rupture in dogs

A.H. Allawi; layth mahmoud Alkattan; osama muwaffag aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 453-460
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163199

The present article was aimed to assess the healing process of experimental entire rupture of Achilles tendon treated with various methods. The study was conducted on twenty-four healthy mature local breed dogs, which were randomly allocated in equal four experimental groups (6 of each). All dogs underwent complete Achilles tendon rupture and reconstructed as following: Group1 (control), animals were treated with tendorrhaphy only; Group 2, tendorrhaphy with platelet-rich plasma; Group 3, tendorrhaphy with a vein graft; and Group 4, the ruptured tendon was repaired with tendorrhaphy and augmented with vein and platelet-rich plasma. Dogs were monitored clinically and sonographically to evaluate tendon healing at 15, 30 and 60 days following the surgery. By comparison with the control group, the utilizing of plasma, with or without vein graft, enhanced the healing process of the induced rapture. Clinically, animals showed a fastest weight bearing and ultrasound imaging revealed increased echogenicity of fibrotic tissue. Clinically, the vein- platelet-rich plasma treated animal’s demonstrated early weight bearing, while animal treated with plasma showed earlier improvement in fiber pattern echogenicity. Furthermore, the using of vein graft for injury repair increased the repair process and the healing was earlier than that in the control group. In conclusions, our results suggested that the using of platelet-rich plasma with or without vein graft could enhance tendon healing and improve its mechanical function, which might be attributed to the synergistic effect of platelet-rich plasma with the vein graft.

The impact of melatonin administration on the fertility performance and several relating parameters during the breeding season in the Arabi ewes

W.Y. Kassim; K.A. Al-Rishdy; M.F. Al-Helou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 461-468
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163244

A total of twenty-four healthy ewes aged between 2-3 years old and weighed about 35.09 kg of body weight were divided randomly into four groups (6 animals for each group). The first group included the non-treated control group, while the other three groups were subjected to various oral doses of melatonin 9 mg, 12 mg and 15 mg/head, respectively. All treatments were applied at 6 o'clock in the morning, to investigate the effect of treatment with melatonin during breeding season on reproductive performance and levels of some biochemical parameters in Arabi ewes from 1 May to 1 October 2017. Blood samples 7ml were collected after one hour of treatment and then monthly during the pregnancy months to determine the concentrations of biochemical parameters. After Postpartum, lambed ewes/lambs number, birth weight, placenta empty weight and cotyledon number were recorded. The results showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in reproductive performance (fertility percentage, twinning rate and the number of offspring) when ewes administrated melatonin at two doses (12 and 15 mg/ head). Also, melatonin administration caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in the concentrations of thyroxin, cortisol, and cholesterol. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in glucose concentration after 1 hour of treatment. The concentrations of thyroxin, cortisol, cholesterol, and vitamin C increased significantly (P<0.01) in early-gestation compared with mid and late-gestation, while the concentrations progesterone and glucose increased significantly (P<0.05) in mid-gestation compared with early and late-gestation. In conclusion, melatonin administration at doses 12 and 15 mg/ head improves ewe reproductive performance (fertility percentage, twinning rate and the number of born lambs). Additionally, the gestation stage has a negative effect on the concentrations of thyroxin, cholesterol and vitamin C.

Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae by using of cultural and PCR technique

N.A. Jafar; Bashar Noomi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 469-473
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125484.1016

Laboratory methods are essential for the diagnosis of Mycoplasmal infection. There are three laboratory approaches are essential for the diagnosis of Mycoplasmal infection in chicken including direct methods by culture method and polymerase chain reaction, and indirect methods by detection of Mycoplasmal antibodies by serological tests. This study aimed to detection of Mycoplasma by culture and PCR technique. Two hundred seventy-six samples were collected from infected adult boiler chicken in Salah Al-din province which suffering from respiratory signs and /or joint infection, 202 respiratory and 74 articular samples. According to the results of culture, Mycoplasma isolated in rate of 35.1% (36.6% from respiratory samples and 31.1% from articular samples). The sensitivity of culture was 100%, while the specificity of culture was 97.9% when comparing with PCR results. The current study concluded that the respiratory infection was more than articular infections, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum more distributed than Mycoplasma synoviae among chickens.

Detection of ectoparasites in different birds

Manal Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 37-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162896

The study was conducted to detect the ectoparasites infestation in chickens, Domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica and turkeys in different areas of Mosul city by survey examining of 80 birds of chickens, 85 birds of pigeons and 50 birds of turkeys, of both sexes. Results show the infestation rates with ectoparasites in chickens, pigeons and turkeys, were 41.3%,37.6% and 36% respectively. Results show that the chickens were infested with three types of ectoparasites, two species of lice are Menacanthus stramineus, Gniocotes gallinae and soft ticks Argas persicus the infestation rates were 63.6%, 24.2% and 36.4% respectively. The highest infestation rate with lice in chicken was 70% in Spring season and the lowest rate 5% in Summer season while the infestation rates in Autumn and Winter were convergent, there was 44.4% and 45.5% respectively. The results show that the pigeons were infested with two types of ectoparasites, one species of lice is Columbicola columbae and soft ticks is Argas persicus, the rates were 87.5%,18.8% respectively. The infestations were individual and double. In turkeys the results record one lice species Goniocotes gallinae, the infestation rates were 36%. The male and female were infested with rates 27.3% and 42.9% respectively.

Ovarian lesions in non pregnant ewes in Mosul city

Maryam Hussien; karam yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163028

This study aimed detection and identification of the lesions in the ovaries of ewes and determination of their percentages in Mosul region. For that purpose, ovaries from 108 genital systems were randomly collected from non-pregnant ewes slaughtered at Mosul slaughter house and private butcheries for a period extended from 1/11/2012 to 1/5/2013. All of them were grossly and histologically examined. The result showed occurrence of ovarian cortical atrophy at 0.93% of total samples, also ovarian medullary sinusoidal congestion, ovarian cortical hemorrhage, cortical and medullary perivascular fibrosis at ratios 5.0, 1.39, 1.85, 0.46% respectively noticed. Ovarian follicular degeneration, cortical oophoritis, purulent oophoritis and ovarian cortical scarification also recorded at the ratios 1.39, 0.46, 0.46 and 1.39% respectively, both fibroma and fibrosarcoma were diagnosed at the ratio 0.46% for each. It is concluded from the present study that variable lesions were noticed at the examined samples that may reflect multiple causative agents inducing it.   

Diagnostic study for Listeria monocytogenes isolated from brain and meat of sheep in Mosul city

Sumaya Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 51-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163087

This study included collect of 150 samples from brain and meat of sheep from the slaughterhouse and local butchers shop in Mosul city. 50 sample from each (brain, cutting meat, and minced meat) which used for detection of listeria monocytogenes. The International Standard Organization (ISO) methods were used for isolation. The isolated bacteria were diagnosed according to bacterial morphology, culture, and biochemical characteristics. 10 isolates were obtained, which included 2(4%) isolates from the brain of sheep, 3 (6%) isolates from cut meat and 5(10%) from minced meat. Virulence factors tests were used for bacterial isolates which include, lecithinase, lipase, protease, esterase, and hemolysin. Antibiotic sensitivity test for bacterial isolates was also used for some antibiotics. The results indicated that all isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin, Gentamycin, Chloramphenicol, and resistant to Nalidixic acid. However, they showed variant sensitivity to other antibiotics. In conclusion, this study documented that L monocytogenes can be isolated from brain and meat of sheep in Mosul city.

Evaluation the efficiency of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as biocontrol agent for adults of hard ticks Hyalomma anatolicum

S.Sh. Shahatha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 57-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163088

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae  as a vital agent for the control of the Hyalomma anatolicum, which is infested on buffalo fields in some villages of Anbar province, Iraq. The results showed that different concentrations of the fungus 4.2*110, 4.2*310, 4.2*510 pg/ml were capable of killing the tick eggs, and the kill rate was proportional to the higher concentrations used. After 3 days of treatment, moreover causing a high proportion of phenotyping deformation in male and female ticks.

Effect of heat stress on sex hormones, sex organ weight and relationships with sexual puberty in male rats

hiyam matty; Ashwaq Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 63-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163089

This study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic and acute heat stress on sex hormones level and their relationship to sexual puberty in male rats. Used 45 male pups in the age of weaning, were randomly divided for 3 groups each group included 15 pups of each sex. 1st group was a control group, 2nd group exposed to chronic heat stress at 38Cº for 1hour a day since the age of weaning until onset of puberty and the 3rd group exposed to acute heat stress at 38Cº for 4 hours per day for 5 consecutive days from 35 day age of rat and each group above were secondarily divided into 3 age groups consisted of pre-puberty, at puberty and post-puberty. Results of study showed that male rats exposed chronic heat stress led to a significant increase in body weight, tail of epididymis, prostate gland weights, at onset of puberty compared with control group, with a significant decrease in body weight, testis, head and tail of epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle weights at post-puberty compared with control group. as well as a significant decrease in the level of luteinizing hormone at post-puberty compared with acute heat stress group. Males exposed to acute heat stress cause a significant decrease in the head and tail of the epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle weights and significant increase in the concentration each of testosterone and luteinizing hormones at post-puberty compared with the control group. Acute exposure to heat stress caused early sexual puberty in males to show from the early appearance of first sperm compared with the control group, while the exposure to chronic heat stress led to delay of puberty associated with a delay in the appearance of first sperm compared with the control group. It concluded from this study that male rat's exposure to heat stress affects differently on sex hormone. Acute heat stress led to reach early sexual puberty and reflected the impact on puberty when chronic exposure to heat stress.

Histological and morphometrical study of the effect of season on layers and glands of skin in local Awassi sheep (Ovis ovis)

ahmed nazar abdujawaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163090

The study aimed to investigate the effect of season on the skin and cutaneous glands in local Awassi breed of sheep (Ovis ovis). The study was done on five healthy adult rams of Awassi breed in winter and summer at five anatomical regions (armpit, back, scrotum, ventral surface of fatty tail and dorsal surface of the fatty tail). The study explained that season had no significant effect on the histological structure of the sheep's skin, while there was a significant variation in the histological measurements of most structures of skin such as skin layers, sweat and sebaceous glands where the thickness of the corneal layer of the skin varied between the winter and summer seasons ,it was thicker in the winter than in the summer for most of the studied areas, the variation was higher and more significantly at scrotum , where the epidermis was thicker in winter than in summer for most of the few wool areas that included in the study, while in the dense wool areas the epidermis was thicker in summer than in winter. The study also showed that the season has a significant effect on the size of the sweat glands. The size of the sweat glands in the summer appeared to be greater than in the winter and for all areas of study, but the area of the scrotum and the skin of the ventral surface of fatty tail showed the opposite. the season had an effect on the depth of the sweat glands in the dermis. With the exception of the scrotum and the ventral surface of the fatty tail, the sweat glands were deeper in the summer than in the winter for the rest of the study areas. The lining of the sweat glands units was affected by the change of season. In the summer, the height of the cells of the sweat units was increased and for all regions of the study to reached 16.43 micrometers in the scrotum area for the summer while decreased in winter to reached 10.70 micrometers. So, we can say that the sweat glands of the study areas faced the warm climate not only by the increase in the size of the glands and their proximity to the surface in the summer but also by increased functional activity. The sebaceous glands in the area of the ventral surface of the fatty tail had a large difference between the winter and summer followed by the rest of the areas, either the armpit areas and the dorsal surface of the fatty tail did not show any significant difference between the two seasons. Finally, we found the season has been shown to play a significant role in influencing the histological measurements of skin and skin glands.

Propagation of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in embryonated chicken egg

Ammar Al-AAlim; Sumaya Aldabbagh; Haiffa Hussen Alkazaly; Mozahim Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163171

The study included the injection of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimuriumisolated from starlings bird in embryonated chicken eggs. The eggs were divided into eight groups, each group contain 6 eggs. The G1 and G2 groups were injected with the sterile normal saline solution in the choriaollantoic membrane (CAM) and yolk sac as negative control. The group G3 and G4 injected by bacterial suspension at a concentration of 104 cfu/ml in the CAM and yolk sac while the G5 and G6 injected with bacterial concentration 106 cfu/ml in the CAM and yolk sac respectively. Finally, the G7 and G8 groups were injected with 108 cfu/ml of bacterial suspension in the CAM and yolk sac respectively. The results showed that the highest percentage of death in eggs embryos was 100% in the sixth group after 96 hours of injection. There was also a significant increase in the number of bacteria in correlation with time of incubation. The highest rate of bacterial isolate was 8,19log10, 8,26log10 after 96 and 144 hours in the sixth group, while the highest number of bacterial isolates was 7.04log10 and 6.31log10 in the third and fourth groups after 48 and 96 hours of injection respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the number of bacterial isolate after 24 hours of injection in both concentrations compared to other incubation times. A significantrelationship was also found between the amount of the dose used and the bacterial disease. this study concluded that Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolated from starlings can cause pathological changes and effect on hatchery percentage in embryonated chicken eggs.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Effect of diphenhydramine and phenobarbital in the concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde and glucose in plasma and brain of chicks treated with pentylenetetrazol

Maab Fadel; Fouad K. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 97-104
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163173

The aim of this study was to develop convulsion by giving pentylenetetrazol and to observe the interaction of this drug with diphenhydramine and phenobarbital in chickens with an evaluation of the interaction of these drugs and their effect on the biochemical parameters. The chicks were divided into five groups, each group containing six birds, control group injected with normal saline at 2ml/kg, second group injected with PTZ at56.5 mg/kg I.P., third group injected with diphenhydramine at dose 2.5 mg/kg I.M., before 20 minutes from injected of PTZ at dose 56.5 mg/kg I.P., forth group injected with phenobarbital at dose 10 mg /kg I.M., before 20 minutes from injected of PTZ at dose 56.5 mg/kg I.P., fifth group injected with diphenhydramineat dose 2.5 mg/kgI.M. and phenobarbital at dose 10 mg /kg I.M. before 20 minutes from injection of PTZ at dose 56.5 mg/kgI.P. The results showed that group which was treated with PTZ alone showed a significant decrease in glutathione concentration in plasma and brain compare with the control group. All groups except the group treated with PTZ diphenhydramine and phenobarbital showed a significantly increased in malondialdehyde concentration in plasma and brain compare with control group, as well as, all groups except the group treated with PTZ and phenobarbital appeared significantly increased in glucose concentration in plasma compared with the control group. In conclusion, the study appeared oxidative stress result in the lipid peroxidation which main reasons for decreasing of glutathione concentration and increasing of malondialdehyde concentration in chicks.

Effect of protected methionine and lysine supplementation to Awassi ewes ration at flushing period on productive performance

H.W. Kassim; O.D. Almallah; saeb Abdulrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 105-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163174

This study was conducted on 32 of local Awassi ewes, average body weight 36.06±0.74 kg (aged 2-3 years, ewes were divided into two treatments. The first treatment (T1) the control contained 8 ewes fed on ration consist of barley, wheat bran, urea and wheat straw without supplement and the second (T2) was contained 24 ewes and fed on the same ration of control supplemented with protected amino acids (methionine 2.5 g and lysine 2.5 g) per ewe daily, the ewes were fed with restricted quantity 1 kg / ewe divided twice daily through the flushing and mating period which lasted 60 days, also all ewes was grazed for 6hr daily. Results was referred that protected amino acid supplement in T2 led to a significant (p<0.01) improvement in conception percentage 91.6%, prolificacy percentage 87.5% and lambing percentage 100% compared to T1 62.5%, 62.5% and 75% respectively, where is the differences was not significant in other traits. Blood parameters was showed significant (p<0.05) increase in glucose 67.91±2.06 mg/dl as compared to T1 59.25±1.72mg/dL, triglyceride was decreased significantly (p<0.05) in T2 42.66±0.96 mg/dl compared to T1 47.37±1.38 mg/dl. Concentration of AST enzyme was decreased (p<0.05) in T2 110.66±7.58 IU/l, while increased (p<0.05) ALT enzyme concentration 38.08±2.48 IU/l as compared to T1 which were 162.12±4.79 and 21.87±0.71IU/l respectively. In conclusion, Awassi ewes supplementation with protected methionine and lysine through flushing period enhance reproductive performance out of reproduction season.

The serological diagnosis of canine Leishmaniasis by using ELISA in Nineveh province

Wasan Amjad Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163194

This study was to investigate the specific antibodies of Leishmania using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to detect the specific antibodies of the Leishmania donovani complex (L.infatum, L.chagasi, L. donovani) in 80 dogs of both types (domestic and stray dogs) of different ages and both sexes in the Nineveh Province for the period from February 2017 to October 2018. Some animals suffered from the appearance of skin ulcers in the face and quarters and diarrhea, vomiting, Paw pad fissures, the other animals did not show any clinical finding. The results showed that the total infection rate was 55%, the highest percentage of dogs with skin lesions 80.9% with significant differences with other groups, the stray dog's groups recorded high infective rate when compared with domestic dog group 62.96 and 38.4% respectively with significant differences.

Biochemical and histopathological study of thioredoxin reductase isolation from blood serum in normal and oxidative stress-exposed rats

A.A. Hamdon; L.A. Al-Helaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 115-124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163243

The study included investigation of effects of the thioredoxin reductase isolated from serum of human on oxidative stress induced in rats, through histopathological examination of the heart and liver, and the measurement of the biochemical parameters, which included: thioredoxin reductase, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and uric acid. Treating experimental animals with 1% hydrogen peroxide led to a significant increase in thioredoxin reductase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin compared to control group, while a significant decrease in: albumin and uric acid, but non-significant in alanine aminotransferase. As well as, a different dose 2 and 4mgl Kg of rat body weight of isolated TrxR with 1% hydrogen peroxide improved parameter levels through decrease oxidative stress that induced in rats. The results of the histopathological examination revealed slight to moderate changes in the heart, while no distinguishing changes were observed in the heart of the group treated with hydrogen peroxide and injected with enzyme in intraperitoneally with 4 mg/ kg of rat weight compared to control group. In the liver, there was observed vascular degeneration and thickening of hepatic capsule as a result of chronic congestion and degeneration in the blood vessels which after treatment with 1% hydrogen peroxide compared to control group, but there was noticeable improvement in the liver of group treated with hydrogen peroxide and injected with the enzyme in intraperitoneally with 4 mg/kg of rat weight, and these results confirm the role of the enzyme in the protection of the body from oxidative stress, the use of the enzyme can reduce the severity of different diseases.