Issue 1

Effects of feeding frequency on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) growth rate

S.A. Hama Amin; N.M. Abdulrahman; V.M. Ahmed; P.B. Ibrahim; R.R. Ismail; M.B. Ahmed; N.M. HamaGareeb

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153786

In present study the effect of feeding frequency on growth performance, food efficiency and survival rate of common carp fingerlings were investigated. Three groups of common carp fingerlings (average weight 22.88±1 gm) designed with three feeding frequencies one meal a day (D1), two meals a day (D2) and three meals a day (D3) with three replicates of each treatment. Fish in experimental treatments were fed by 4% of body weight. Feeding frequencies had significant effect on growth performance (P<0.05). The final body weight and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly higher in group D3 (P<0.05) in this comparison. Similar responses were observed for body weight increased (BWI) and daily growth rate (DGR) and the best BWI and DGR were obtained in D3 group, that showed significantly different to other groups (P<0.05). The best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained from three daily feeding (D3), however there were no significant different between D2 and D3 (P>0.05). Also feeding frequencies had positive effect on fish survival rate (P<0.05). The best results in growth performance and survival rate were obtained by feeding threemeals a day (D3).

Use molecular techniques as an alternative tool for diagnosis and characterization of Theileria equi

M.A. El-Seify; N.M. Helmy; N.M. Elhawary; Sh.S. Sorour; A.M. Soliman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 5-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153787

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical, subclinical and chronic infection with the equine parasite T. equi in some Egyptian localities (Cairo and Giza governorates). A panel of 396 equine blood samples representing 141 horses, 250 donkeys and 5 mules was collected from equines during the period from April 2015 to March 2016 using microscopic examination and conventional PCR. Microscopically a twenty two (5.56%) of 396 were positive for T. equi merozoites that appeared as small rounded, pyriform shaped and maltase cross shaped merozoites. Among 8/141(5.67%) horses and 14/250 (5.60%) donkeys were found to have positive for T.equi. A one hundred blood samples (45 horses, 50 donkeys and 5 mules) selected randomly were also examined by PCR. The results of PCR showed 30/100(11/45 (24.4%) horses, 18/50 (36%) donkeys and 1/5 (20%) mule) were positive for T.equi. When the sequenced PCR amplicons (n=3) were aligned to the reference nucleotide sequences of T. equi accessed in Genbank, the horse isolate showed insertion of Thymine (T) base at position 23 and substitution of Thymine (T) base with Cytosine (C) base at position 91, while the donkey and mule isolates have no alterations when compared to the reference sequences. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequenced PCR isolates belonged to T. equi. The obtained sequences were deposited in the GeneBank database under accession numbers MF192854, MF192855 and MF192856.

Histopathological changes in diseased and treated catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by ciprofloxacin and clove oil

S.S. Abd El-Salam; M.F. Ghaly; D.M. Baraka; S.H. Mahmoud; A.A. El-Makhzangy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153788

Bacteria pathogens may cause a serious loss in aquaculture and also health hazards to humans. On the basis of biochemical characteristics and API-20E system, all isolates of pathogens from diseased fish were identified as Aeromonas spp, the most predominant bacterial species were A. sobria 46.7%, A. caviae 19.03%, A. jandaei 8.6 % and A. veronii 8.6 %. One hundred and twenty Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus were divided into four equal groups (1,2,3 and 4) were challenged with Aeromonas sobria which predominant isolates, Gp. (1) was challenged only, while Gps. (2, 3 and 4) were treated after challenged with ciprofloxacin, clove extract and ciprofloxacin and clove extract in combination, respectively. The antibacterial activity of antibiotic and clove extract in their therapeutic doses decrease the mortality rate as (20, 16 and 13%) respectively compared with non-medicated Gp. (1) which recorded mortality 83%. Internal signs of infection with Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) include congestion of the hepatic blood vessels, areas of coagulative necrosis in the liver and hydropic degeneration of renal tubules according to the histopathological examination. In-vivo the combination of ciprofloxacin and clove extract was the choice as alternative bacterial therapeutic agent in infected Clarias gariepinus with Aeromonas sobria. Moreover histopathological changes have been widely used as biomarkers in the evaluation of the health of fish exposed to contaminants.

Rearing and measurements of Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae (Diptera: Oestridae) from slaughtered sheep heads in Mosul abattoir -Iraq

A.B.J. Alani; E.R. Al- kennany; N.H. Al-ubeidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153789

Oestrus ovis larvae 142 were collected from the 133 heads of sheep slaughtered at the Mosul abattoir in Nineveh governorate during March-May 2014. In This study, the weight and dimensions Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae were measured and there was a significant difference between larvae of Oestrus ovis. Forty five of the third larval stage were rearing and them pupated until emergence of the adult stage. Sixteen larvae were emerged to adult (35.6%). (4.4%) larvae did not pupariation and 60% were not reached to adult. The puparation period taking (24-30 hours) and the pupal stage taking (23-28) days the average longevity of adult flies was 10 days. This study is regarded as the first one showing that all flies were similar in their external shape and so all were belonging to Oestrus ovis causing myiasis in sheep.

Impacts of processing heat treatments on deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk and raw milk from different animals

S.A. Abd Al-Zahra; A.J. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153790

A total of 163 milk samples (200 ml) human breast milk and (500 ml each) of cows, ewes, goats, buffaloes and camels were collected randomly at weekly intervals (10 samples/week) from Baghdad governorate. Among the total milk samples (138) milk samples were examined during two climatic periods from the beginning of September 2016 to the end of the February 2017 were tested for the occurrence of DMT residues by using the HPLC technique. Besides that, some of the selected positive samples were subjected to one of the commercial heat treatments such as 63°C/30 min, 80°C/5 min and 100°C/5 min to evaluate the efficiency of heat exposure on the degradation of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in milk. The results pointed out that milk samples containing the higher fat percentage exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest concentration of deltamethrin and bifenthrin in summer highest than in winter, increased the fat percentages of milk was being associated with an increased level of deltamethrin residues due to the lipophilic nature of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin pesticide. The current results revealed that milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes and cows recorded the highest deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season where their mean levels that exceeded the accepted MRLs of 0.05 ppm to milk samples of goats, camels and breast milk the lowest mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues. There was a seasonal variation of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin concentrations in milk samples for each animal species where all the milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes, cows, goats, camels and breast milk had higher mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season than in winter season. Data illustrated revealed that there was a seasonal variation in the mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk samples for each district village where all the milk samples that were collected from AL-Sader and AL-Karada districts had highest mean levels values in summer than in winter season.

Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) leaves extracted by four organic solvents and water

H. Mohammed; R.S. Najem; S.S.A. Altekrity

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153791

Pumpkin is a rich source of vitamin A, being high in beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It provides substantial fiber, niacin, and lutein (important antioxidant). Pumpkin seeds have many health benefits, some of which include a good source of protein, zinc, and other vitamins, and are even said to lower cholesterol, Pumpkin plant was mentioned in the holy Quran as protector to protect the prophet Yonah, peace upon him after his expulsion from the whale. The present work was design to elucidate and evaluate different organic solvents i.e. (Distilled water, Ethanol, Hexane, and Petroleum ether) extracts of pumpkin leaves against some of the pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed pumpkin leaves extracts were able to inhibit bacterial (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans) growth, comparable with the known antibiotic Ciprofloxacin and the antifungal drug Kenazole. There were no significant differences among different solvents in their ability to produce anti- microbial activity except petroleum ether. Petroleum ether extracts did not show any bacterial growth retardation while it showed anti –fungal inhibition in higher concentrations for Aspergillus fumigates and Aspergillus niger, while Candida albicans seem to be resistant to the petroleum ether extract of pumpkin leaves.

Effect of different levels of selenium on the carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs

A.B. Mahmood; M.K. Arif; S.M. Sadq; A.A. Alhoby; S.A. Abdurahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153792

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of using different levels of selenium (Se, Sodium Selenite) on carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs. Fifteen male lambs (4-5 months old and initial weight 25±0.53 kg) were randomly divided into three groups (5 lambs for each). All groups were fed rations consisted mainly of barley grain, wheat bran, yellow corn and soybean meal. All lambs were Se orally given twice a week, which were put in an empty gelatin capsules. The experimental groups were: control group T1 (0 mg Se /kg BW), low level T2 (0.15 mg Se /kg BW) and high level T3 (0.25 mg Se /kg BW). The results showed no significant effects of the different amount of Se on slaughter weight (SW), empty body weight (EBW), dressing percentages (hot carcass weight on empty body weight (HCW/EBW), cold carcass weight on SW (CCW/SW) and (CCW/EBW), carcass length and rib eye area, all adipose fat tissues, carcass offal weights and the chemical composition of meat. On the other hand, significant (P<0.05) differences were found in hot carcass weight (HCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), dressing percentage of HCW/SW, fat thickness, the loin, rack, flank cuts and fat tail among all treatments. The highest weight of loin, rack, flank and fat tail was found in T3, but the lowest weight was in (T1). The physical dissection of legs for fat% components was reduced in both Se treatments groups compared to the control groups. The heart, kidneys, spleen and testicular weight were increased significantly (P<0.05) by increased levels of Se compared to the T1. While, the T2 showed the higher weight of the spleen, but the lower weight was in T1. In conclusion, the increased amount of Se significantly influenced some carcass traits; (HCW), (CCW), dressing percentage of HCW/SW, some carcass cuts, edible and reduced fat thickness and fat contents of leg dissection.

Immunohistochemical expression levels of anterior pituitary LH, FSH and testicular testosterone of Allium sativum extract and thymoquinone in male treated rats

N.F. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153793

The present study was conducted to determine the immunohistochemical expression levels of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in the anterior pituitary gland and testicular testosterone of male rats treated with Allium sativum extract and Thymoquinone. Forty mature Waster male rats Rattus norvegicus, aged 60 days and weighed 140-150 g, were randomly divided into control and three treatment groups (10 rats each). Control group males were orally supplemented with 500 µL of normal saline daily. The treated groups of males were orally supplemented with TQ suspension, 50 mg/ kg, B.Wt (TQ group), Allium sativum aqueous extract, 50 mg/ kg bw (A group) and their combination (TQA group). At the end of experiment, all male rats were sacrificed and pituitaries and testes were dissected and fixed in neutral formalin buffer 10% for immunohistochemical examination of pituitary LH and FSH and testicular testosterone. The results demonstrated high immunohistochemical density in treated male’s pituitary tissues for both LH and FSH compared with the control group. In comparison with control, testicular tissues of treated group males showed stronger immune reaction for T especially around Lydig’s and Sertoli cells. It can be concluded that TQ and Allium sativum have potent improving effects on reproductive hormones production and could be increase the male fertility.

Effect of oil palm frond treated with ammonia on some carcass traits and meat chemical composition of Bali bulls - Indonesia

R.A. Muthalib; M. Afdal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153794

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil palm frond treated with ammonia on the carcass weight (CW), rib eye muscle area (REMA) and some meat chemical composition in Bali bull in order to maximal optimization of this oil palm frond. Sixteen Bali bulls, weighing initially between 120 and 140 kg, were randomly divided in to four groups of four animals each. The bulls were placed individually in wooden pens with cement flooring in an open bull barn. The bulls were each randomly assigned in a 60-day experiment. The four treatments included control diet (P0), diet containing 25%, 50% and 75% of ammonia treated OPF for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th, respectively. Randomized Complete Block Design was followed with four treatments and four block of replications applied in this experiment. The results showed that there were no significantly different effect (P>0.05) at treatment on CW, REMA and the meat chemical included water, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and ash content. The findings reffered that, treatment P2, 50 of ammonia oil palm frond (OPF) tend to increase CW, REMA and the meat chemical content of Bali bulls.

Study of the prophylactic activity of Terminalia chebula against induced gastric erosion in rabbit model

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 61-66
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153799

The study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic activity of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) against induced gastric erosion in rabbit model by using 80% Ethanol for induction. The experiment continued for 16 days, during which 18 rabbits were divided into three groups (6 rabbits/ group) control group, induction group and treatment group, which received normal saline orally daily, 80% ethanol as a single dose or Terminalia chebula ethanolic extract (400 mg/kg ) orally daily respectively. In the last day of the experiment, a single dose of 80% ethanol was given to the animals in group 3 which received plant prophylactically, 1 hour before animals been scarified to induce gastric erosion in it. Blood samples were collected from animals in the three groups, prior to the end of the experiment, for hematological assessment of blood glucose, blood urea, blood creatinine, alanine aminotransferase test (ALT), and Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase test (GGT) and triglycerides (TG). The results showed that in the group treated with Terminalia chebula, a significant reduction in blood glucose, urea, creatinine, ALT and GGT (65.16±0.47 mg/dl, 36.16±2.98 mg/dl, 0.72±0.00 mg/dl, 57.33±0.84 IU/l, 19±3.82 IU/l) respectively was noticed in comparison to the induction group (174±0.36 mg/dl, 46±0.36 mg/dl, 0.83±0.003 mg/dl, 96±0.36 IU/l, 53 ±0.36 IU/l) and the control group (169.5±11.60 mg/dl, 52.66±5.39 mg/dl, 0.62±0.03mg/dl, 63.66±3.46 gm/dl, 26.33±5.90 mg/dl) respectively at (P< 0.05). TG were not significantly affected in the treatment group comparing to the induction and the control group. The data were analyzed by student’s t-test using SPSS (Version 10). The results were expressed as mean ± standard error (mean ± SE), P values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The data showed a protective activity produced by T. chebula against ethanol induced gastric erosion as showed by the histopathological examination of the harvested stomach from the animals in the three groups, as the distorted superficial gland by the effect of ethanol in the mucosa were regenerated in T. chebula treated group. In conclusion, the significant improvement of the blood parameters levels in the treated animals comparing to the induction and the control group, in addition to the protective effect on tissue level suggested the possible prophylactic activity that T. chebula have in the studied gastric erosion condition.

Vulvar and vaginal tumors in Hawshar dogs

B.T. Abbas; S.M.A. Hassan; A.K. Saeed; D.M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 67-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153800

Twelve Hawshar bitches were (3-5 years in aged) examined clinically and vulvovaginal tumor masses were diagnosed histopathologically revealed the three types of tumor which include; (three cases of vulvovaginal diffuse small cell lymphoma, six cases of vaginal transmissible venereal tumor, and three cases of leiomyoma), these masses were removed surgically with local excision with or without episiotomy and recurrence of the tumor showed in some cases after following up for different duration. In conclusion, this study revealed that the age with physical condition of the dog were played an important role in cancer occurrence, and the surgical excision was not regarded as the ideal treatment especially in malignant tumor.

Potency Syzygium cumini L as adjuvant therapy on mice model malaria

L. Maslachah; R. Sugihartuti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 73-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153801

The objective of the study was to prove the potential extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf and stem bark as an adjuvant to malaria modelling mice. Antimalarial effects were assessed by the percentage of parasitemia, growth inhibition, 50% dose level (ED50), Parasite Clearance Time (PCT), Recrudescence Time (RT) of Plasmodium berghei. Male albino Swiss mice infected with 1x105 P. berghei parasite in 0.2 ml intraperitoneally. Treatment with chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight, chloroquine combination 25 mg/kg body weight with leaf and stem bark extract of Syzygium cumini L dose 600 mg / kg body weight for 4 days and 24 hours after infection, and then its activity as antimalarial and adjuvant therapy were observed. The results showed that the extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf combined with chloroquine gives highly significant result in inhibiting the growth of parasites than the chloroquine alone and the extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf combined with chloroquine gives the Parasite Clearance Time faster and Recrudescence Time (RT) longer than the other treatment.

Isolation, identification and detection of some virulence factors in yeasts from local cheese in Mosul city

I.I. Khalil; S.Y.A. Aldabbagh; A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153802

Fifty samples of local cheese were purchased from Mosul city markets during the period from April 2012 to November 2013 to identify and characterize yeast species in these samples. Fifty-eight yeast isolates were identified and confirmed biochemically. They were Candida albicans (13.8%), Candida krusei (9.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsiloosis (25.8%), Geotrichum candidum (20.6%), Rodotorella spp. (10.3%) and mixed yeasts (12.9%). Virulence factors (Hemolytic, Phospholipase, Aspartylprotinase and Estrase activities) of Candida isolates were determined. All isolates show one or more of these activities except Candida krusei. The presence of Candida isolates in this type of cheese refer to the importance of this genus to the health of consumers was discussed.

Detection of Escherichia coli hlyA gene and Staphylococcus aureus Sea gene in raw milk of buffaloes using RT-PCR technique in AL- Qadisiyah province

J.N. Sadeq; Kh.H. Fahed; H.J. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 87-91
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153815

The aim of this study was to determines the prevalence of virulence gene hemolysin A (hly A) Escherichia coli and Staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea) in Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk buffaloes. In molecular laboratory, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique has been performed for 24 samples which have been taken randomly from Buffaloes milk, using primers of high specificity for Escherichia coli hlyA gene and Staphylococcus aureus Sea genes. The results showed different degrees of the studied genes activities. Four out of 24 samples represented S. aureus Sea gene (16.6%) whereas 16 out of 24 samples represented E. coli hlyA gene (66.6%). this study concluded that buffaloes milk might be a source of contamination with pathogenic bacteria of virulent genes which may have different levels of activities.

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of dogs in rural areas of the north east of Algeria

F. Matallah; W. Khelaifia; S. Lamari; S. Matallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153829

Canine faeces are an important source of pathogens for the pet population, for dog owners and for the community in general. A total of 100 faecal samples taken from dogs, were examined for helminth eggs. 80 % of dogs examined are parasitized. Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum were the most commonly observed parasites. T. canis was observed with a prevalence of 68 % in the El Kala region, while in the region of Guelma, A. caninum were predominant with a rate of 71%. Dipylidium caninum and Trichuris were present but with low proportions especially in the region of Guelma. The climatic conditions seem to play a role in the excretion of helminth eggs, while the age plays a primordial role in particular for T. canis as well as for A. caninum. The absence of conscience of the owners of dogs and the lack of participation of the veterinarian role increase the risk of the parasitism of these animals and consequently for the public health in particular our children in the Northeast of Algeria.

Effect of some mycotoxin on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

F. I. Magouz; M.S. Salem; M.A. Hashad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153830

The present study was conducted in the fish lab, Sakha Aquaculture Research Unit, Central laboratory for Aquaculture Research-Abbassa, during season 2015, Feeding experiment was conducted for 16 weeks to study the effect of dietary contamination with aflatoxin B1 (150 ppb, AFB1) with and without the dietary supplementation of (1gm/kg) of Liquorice (medicinal plants), (2g) of MTB-100 (chemicals) and (0.5g) of Gromin-plus (chemicals) on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. A group of 150 Nile Tilapia fingerlings (O. niloticus) with an average initial body weight 13.50 gm were randomly allotted into 5 treatments in 10 glasses aquaria (80x35x40cm). Each treatment was applied in two aquaria. Fresh tap water was stored in fiberglass tanks for 24h under aeration for dechlorination. Prior to the start of the experiment, the fishes were adapted to a basal commercial diet (control diet) containing 31% crude protein and consisted of herring fish meal, soybean meal, yellow corn, wheat bran, sunflower oil and vitamins and minerals mixture for two weeks. These ingredients were pressed by manufactured machine (pellets size 1mm), milled and toxin AFB1 was added at a concentration of 150 ppb except the control. Fish in all treatments were daily fed the experimental diets at level of 3% of the fish biomass. The feed amount was given at two times daily, six days a week for 16 weeks. Fish were weighed weekly and the feed amounts were adjusted on the basis of the new weight. The aflatoxic dite has adversely affected the growth performance and survival rate, feed utilization and carcass composition in fish and residues of AFB1 in the whole body of fish and indices organs and blood biochemistry of the experimented fish. Dietary MTB-100, Liquorice and Gromin-plus inclusion alleviated aflatoxiccosis semptoms by fish, since it improved all the above tested parameters of aflatoxicated fish. Generally, obtained results in the present study indicated that the additives all the above could be used as detoxifying agents for aflatoxins.

Mastitis in mare: case report

M.SH. Rhaymah; Q.T. Al-Obaidi; M.A. Hamad; M.A. Altalby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153831

Mastitis is rare in mares compared with cattle, a mare suffered from mastitis was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul for examination with a history of abortion before two months and gradually loss of body weight. Clinical examination revealed, a swollen left mammary gland, painful to palpate, there was mild degree of edema in the tissue surrounding the gland, fluid with clot expressed from the gland, body temperature was 37.4ºC and heart rate was 40/ minute. Fluid (mammary secretions), milk samples were collected under sterile condition and submitted to the laboratory for bacterial culture and identification test. The results of the culture and biochemical tests showed that the Staphylococcus spp was the etiological agent. This case was treated with systemic and local antibiotic therapy (Penicillin preparation).

Polymorphism of growth hormone gene in the artificial insemination result of Madura cattle with Limousin semen as a reference for genetic selection

B. Utomo; E. Safitri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 113-118
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153832

Research on genetic polymorphism of growth hormone (GH) and receptor growth hormone (rGH) has not been done in crossbred of Limousin cattle, so it is interesting to be examined. Blood samples were taken from 14 Madura calves were artificially inseminated with Limousin cement. DNA amplification is done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method to determine the genotype. DNA sequencing was done to determine nucleotide sequences of GH unit genes. The results showed that identification of GH and rGH gene polymorphisms was done by breaking DNA fragments from 432 and 298 bp in Madura and Limousin cattle (Madrasin) ie, L and V alleles have a frequency of 0.67 and 0.33 for the GH gene, respectively. This proves that the crossed-breeding of Madrasin have V allele that is not owned by the Madura cattle. While in the rGH gene, the A allele is 0.92 and the G allele is 0.08, with the frequency of the A allele larger than the G allele. This research concluded: that GH and rGH undergo changes on polymorphisms in Madrasin cattle can be used as a basis for selection.