Volume 27, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2013, Page 53-121

Seroprevelance study of Rift Valley fever antibody in sheep and goats in Ninevah governorate

O.B. Saleh Aghaa; M.S. Rhaymah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 53-61

The aim of this study was to detect the sero- prevalence of Rift Valley Fever virus antibodies in sheep and goat in Ninavah Provence, The study was included Examination of 368 serum samples, 184 samples for each species of animals (Ewes and female goats (Does), Pregnant, Aborted and lambs or kids 1-2 weeks old) in different areas Ninavah from October 2012 to February 2013. The samples were examined by using competitive ELISA test and measured the level of blood protein, total and direct bilirubin and estimation of some liver enzymes The results of study was revealed that the total percentage of seropositive samples to the c-ELISA was 2.99% (11/368 samples), divided to 1.08% in sheep (2/184) and 4.89% in goats (9/184) and 2.17% from the sample was doubtful. The highest ratio from seropositive was in aborted female goats 72.73% (8/11), while the ratio was equal between aborted ewes, pregnant ewe's and pregnant female goats was 9.09%. There was no positive samples in lambs or goat kids 1-2 weeks of age. There was significantly increased in total protein in serum of seropositive animals compared with control group.

Genetic parameters of some economic traits in Arabi ewes

S.F. Al-Dabbagh; A.K.Mohammed; R.K. Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 63-66

Data were analyzed of Arabi ewes flock (153) within productive years 1990-1999 to estimate the overall mean and genetic parameters which are heritability, repeatability, genetic and phenotypic correlations for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, milk and wool yield for this breed. The overall mean for fertility, litter size, ewes weight, lambs birth weights, daily milk yield and greasy fleece weight were 70.07%, 1.14, 50.24 kg, 4.52 kg, 0.59 kg and 1.67 kg respectively. Heritability estimates were low- moderate ranged (0.09-0.45). Repeatability estimates were low-high ranged (0.10-0.56). Genetic and phenotypic values of correlation between the traits were all highly significant (p≤ 0.01) except for the genetic and phenotypic correlation between birth weight and both daily milk yield, fertility, phenotypic correlation between greasy fleece weight and both fertility, litter size were non significant.

A role of the sires and dams in the hermaphrodite phenomenon linked with polled Damascus goat breed

M. Roukbi; Kh. Al-najar; K. Fatal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 67-74

The selection for polled character as preferential in Damascus breed leads to spread homozygous individuals for the polled gene and polled intersexes and consequently further economic losses in this breed. It’s very important to study the genetic origin, the role of sirs and dams in the development of intersexuality linked with hornlessness, and evaluate some other effects in the excess of the intersexes in caprine herd. To perform this work data of 52 intersexes issues from mating 19 polled bucks with 12 horned and 37 polled goats in Humeimeh research station, belonging to General commission for agricultural scientific research, were collected and analyzed by mean of Chi-Square (SAS, 1998). The results showed the statistical effect of sires (P≤0.007) and the unstististical effect (P≥0.05) of dames on the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed. The number of kids intersexes were repeated 10, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 for 1, 2, 2 and 1, five and eight sire number respectively. Whereas the number of kids intersexes were repeated only 2 and 1 for 3 and 46 goat number respectively. The sex of the kids, kidding type and horned goat character have all highly significant effect (P≤0.001) and this because intersex cases issues of single births and twin birth: twin to male, twin to female, and triple births: twin to male and female, and twin to tow males respectively were repeated 17, 18, 14, 2 and 1 respectively. Also, single births, twin births and triple births were repeated 17, 32 and 3 respectively. Cases of intersexuality issues from horned and polled goats were repeated 14 and 38 respectively. It was concluded the important role of hornlessness genetic and multiple births in the development of polled intersexes in Damascus goat breed.

The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

N.N. Dhaher; D.M. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 75-80

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group). Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%). Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL), the value of the average velocity (VAP), the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL), and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH). Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects of the semen collection method on ability of dilution and storage of buck semen, and using of artificial vagina and 10% of egg yolk is recommended for buck semen dilution and storage.

The relationship of the hard ticks in transmission of some Haemoprotozoa in sheep of Baquba city

E.M.H. AL-Karkhi; A.M. AL-Amery; A.A. Faraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 81-85

The results showed high infection rates by protozoa (Theileria spp, Anaplasma spp) 51.85% and 44.44% respectively in sheep that was coincident with high infestation rate of ticks, while the low infection rate was 6.66% and 3.33% respectively was coincident to high rates of animals without ticks infestation with a significant difference (P< 0.05). The salivary gland of hard tick females of the genera Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus showed that infected with structures resembles to the developmental stages of the blood protozoa with infection rates 73.33% and 57.14% with a significant difference (P< 0.05).

Pulmonary lesions of buffaloes slaughtered in Mosul area

M.A.M. AL-Qathee; E.R. AL-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 87-93

The current study was conducted on 100 lung samples collected from slaughtered buffaloes at Mosul city, for identification of the causes of pathological lesions. The isolated bacterial includedEscherichia coli 41.25%, Aeromonasveronii 11.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8.75%, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp 6.25% for each one, Streptococcus pneumoniae 5%, Bacillus spp. 3.75%, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonashydrophila, Pasteurellamultocida, Mannheimiahemolytica, Actinomyces spp. 2.5% for each one, Proteus vulgaris, Actinobacillus spp. 1.25% for each one. Parasites that were isolated from encountered including hydatide cyst 97.29% and Fasciola hepatica 2.7%. Various types of pneumonias were the buffaloes included, chronic fibrinuspleuropneumonia, embolic pneumonia, chronic suppurative bronchopneumonia, suppurative bronchopneumonia, fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia and granulomatous pneumonia.

The study of using effective microorganisms (EM) on health and performance of broiler chicks

Dh.M.T. Jwher; S.K. Abd; A.G. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 73-78

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous EM supplementation to broilers on the performance, immunological and histological status of broilers. A total of 60 unsexed day old broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly in two equal groups (treated and control groups 30 birds 15/each replicate) reared on controlled system for 5 weeks. Ten ml/ liter of EM solution was only added to drinking water of the treated group (T2). Blood and performance parameters included body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. As well as estimation of differential leucocyte count. Immunologic criteria involved measurement of relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius of necropsied birds. The results showed a positive significant effect of EM on the body weight of the treated group which was clear during the 3rd to the 5th week of the trial. There was significant difference in feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency between the two groups. However, the latter parameter had the most notable significance. Increased lymphocyte percentage, increased jejunal villus height and crypt depth as well as increase in goblet cell count were observed in the treated group.

Serological diagnosis of FMD in sheep in Basra by ELISA test

W.M. Muhammed Saleh; S.A. Hasso; F.A. Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 79-84

This study was performed to detect the antibodies against the virus-infection- associated antigen (VIAA) in previously diseased and healthy sheep in Basra. The test is valuable in epizootiological surveys because only infected animals with foot and mouth disease virus will give positive reaction without detection of the virus serotypes. 241 sheep sera were collected from 13 suspicious infected sheep flocks with FMD from two major areas in Basra (Abulkhaseeb and Alzubair). All these samples were examined by ELISA test to VIA antigen. It was found -by ELISA- that 71.9% of the total tested sheep sera build specific VIA antibodies against FMD virus, and that 91.7% of the clinically infected sheep gave positive result and that 66.8% of the clinically non-infected sheep were negative. The higher rate of seropositivity in both Abuelkhaseeb and AL-Zubair areas was in the age between 3.5 – 4.5 year (80%) and (81.8%) respectively. The high prevalence of seropositivity to VIA could be due to sub clinical infection or to carrier state and the disease in sheep mild and go un-noticed but important because of transmission to cattle.

Microscopic study of the submandibular salivary gland of adult African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse -1840)

E. Ikpegbu; U.C. Nlebedum; O. Nnadozie; I.O. Agbakwuru

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 85-89

The study was carried out to provide the basic histology of submandubular salivary gland in the giant pouched rat, as there is dearth of information of its microscopic architecture in available literature. This becomes more important as the possible use of this species of rodent is considered as a future laboratory animal of choice over the Winster rat because of its bigger size and possibility of the giant pouched rat domestication as a ready source of animal protein. Hence the need to understand the digestive biology to help animal nutritionist in feed formulation. The histology revealed the presence of both serous and mucus secretory acini. Some mucus cell presented serous demilumes. Myoeithelial cells were seen around secretory cells and the intercalated ducts. The serous gland region with more relatively profuse intralobular ducts was larger in size than the mucus gland region. The intralobular ducts of intercalated and striated ducts were lined by simple cuboidal and simple columnar cells respectively. The excretory duct was line by stratified cuboidal cells. The large serous glandular region reflects need for more enzymic action in the oral cavity while the mucus glands will help produce mucin that will lubricate the digestive tract. This study for the first time documents the normal histology of submandibular salivary gland in this species, hence filling the knowledge gap that will help further investigative research especially the role of myoepihelial cells in secretory glands tumours.

Comparison of two jejunal anastomosis techniques in dogs treated preoperatively with dexamethasone

A.S. Al-Qadhi; A.M. Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 91-96

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of steroidal antiinflammatory drugs that given before surgery on two intestinal anastomosis techniques in dogs. Thirty-two adult local breed dogs were equally and randomly divided into 2 groups: group 1: consist of 16 dogs underwent apposition End-To-End jejunal anastomosis using simple interrupted suture technique and divided this into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consist of 8 dogs treated preoperatively for 15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.1ml/kg) given I/M. Subgroup B: control group consists of 8 dogs not treated with dexamethasone. Group 2: consist of 16 dogs underwent inverted End-To-End jejunal anastomosis using continuous Lumbert suture pattern and divided this into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consists of 8 dogs treated preoperatively for 15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.1ml/kg) given I/M. Subgroup B: control group consist of 8 dogs not treated with dexamethasone. The result showed the adhesion at anastomosis site with omentum was more severe in the group one when compared with the group two. The degree of stenosis rate was lower in group one after 7 days of operation (22.7±8.2) while the degree of stenosis rate was higher in the group two after 15 days (54.9±4.1). The anastomotic bursting pressure was significantly lower in the all steroidal subgroups at 7 and 15 days compared with the control subgroups.

Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis virus and it is relation with avian influenza virus (H9) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from different geographical regions in Iraq

A.H. Al-Dabhawe; H.M. Kadhim; H.M. Samaka

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 97-101

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) have been recognized as the most important pathogens in poultry cause acute respiratory infection and serous economic problems in Iraq and many other countries all over the world. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of these diseases in commercial chicken flocks in different geographical region in middle part of Iraq by using qPCR. Tracheal swabs and tissue specimens from trachea, lung and kidney were taken from 38 different cases from commercial broiler chicken flocks in (Najaf, Hilla, Muthana and Theqaar governorates) in the period from November 2010 to June 2011, all these flocks were showed respiratory symptoms and mortality about 20-90%. The results showed that 92.1% of samples collected from these flocks were infected with IBV, 20% of samples were infected with IB alone and 45.71% of samples with IB combined with both GM and AIV subtype H9 and 25.71% of samples were positive to both IBV and AIV(H9). No samples were positive to AIV (H9) or MG alone. Because of importance of respiratory diseases as a most common conditions noted in commercial flocks in Iraq and no previous study detecting this pathogens by molecular techniques, this study come to detect and confirm the diagnosis of this pathogens by qPCR as new technique used in this field in Iraq.

High performance liquid chromatographic determination of diclofenac sodium in plasma of the rat

Z.S. Hamad; B.M. Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 103-107

A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of diclofenac sodium in rat plasma. The assay was performed after liquid-liquid extraction with 1M orthophosphoric acid and a mixture of hexane:isopropyl alcohol. Chromatographic separations were performed on C18 stationary phase with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: deionised water: orthophosphoric acid (45:54.5:0.5,v/v) as mobile phase with final pH of (3.5). Analytes were detected at wave length of 276nm. This method was validated for specificity and linearity with a correlation coefficient, r=0.99.

A survey of some ovarian abnormalities responsible for sterility in Damascus goats

M. Roukbi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 109-114

A survey of some ovarian abnormalities in 13 Damascus goats with normal to masculinized genitalia, aged 1.5 to 6 years is made up in the purpose to determine some types of disorders affecting the ovaries in light of their morphological findings referenced in obstetrics and gynecology literatures. The results showed persistent follicles and cystic ovarian disease in phenotypically females, epidermal neoplasms, gonads dysgenesis and dysgenesic gonad tumors in Shami goats polled intersex goats, similar to ovarian tumors in women.

Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma in an Ewe: Case report

E.R. Al-Kennany; M.A. Qathee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 115-118

Cauliflower, hemorrhagic, necrotic, and ulcerated mass located on the right of an ewe maxilla was diagnosed as gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC). It was recognize microscopically by identifying malignant epithelial cell arranged as keratin pearls or various degrees of differentiation toward keratinocyte.

Vaginal fibrosarcoma in bitch: a case report

E.R. AL-Kenanny; O.H. AL-Hyani; M.Th. AL-Annaz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 119-121

A nine year–old wolf bitch was admitted to the surgical section of veterinary clinic teaching hospital in Mosul with abnormal mass occupying relatively the vulvar opening. According to the case history of owner, the bitch was suffered from varying degree of difficulty during parturition due to presence of this mass that showed during and after parturition. Appetite and all body health condition were normal. Clinical examination revealed presence of mass like tumor attached to the vaginal wall with numerous nodules or small growths originated also from wall of vulva near to large mass. The large growth was protruded completely through the vagina without any vaginal prolapse. After general anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine, the mass was surgically removed. Histopathological sections were revealed presence of fibrosarcoma which represented by arrangement of cells that have features of malignancy like darkly staining nuclei (hyperchromasia). The mass was diagnosed as a well-differentiated fibrosarcoma.