Issue 1


Effect of Mycofix on immune response of Newcastle vaccine in broiler chickens

R.A. Al-Jubori; M.Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82851

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Mycofix in elevating the immune level also to know the mycofix effect on maternal immunity and to know the effect of giving booster dose of Newcastle disease vaccine in 14 days old on Newcastle disease vaccine, also to know the mycofix effect on body weight, two hundred one day old Ross broiler chicks 308 have been used divided into four groups. The 1st and 3rd groups did not vaccinated to evaluate the maternal immunity. While the 2nd and 4th groups vaccinated with ND vaccine at one day of age, ELISA and HI tests are used to for detecting the antibodies in all groups. Results of the our study showed that Mycofix acted to prolong the period of maternal immunity against ND vaccine in 3rd group comparison with 1st group which not treated with Mycofix, and also the results showed that ELISA test was more accurate than HI test, Where as 2nd and 4th groups showed positive response in both groups but it was significantly higher in 4th group that treated with mycofix comparison with 2nd group, Where as giving booster dose acted to elevate the level of antibody against ND in both groups but the level of antibody was significantly higher in 4th group comparison with other groups along all days of study as a result of adding mycofix in addition to vaccination with booster dose, Results also showed positive response of mycofix which appeared as significantly elevation in live weight average in the groups that treated with mycofix comparison with (control groups) that did not treated with mycofix.

Protein bands of the cuticle of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Boophilus microplus using electrophoresis technique

L.Y. Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 9-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82852

In this study by using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis different bands of cuticular proteins of engorged female ticks, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Boophilus microplus, was clarified six different bands of proteins with molecular weights (182, 68, 67, 66, 57, 56 KDa) of H.anatolicum anatolicum while any band of proteins in Boophilus microplus was not separated because it dissolved quickly in electrophoresis solution. The cuticular protein determinants of H.anatolicum anatolicum and B. microplus were 4.7 mg/ml, 1.3 mg/ml, respectively. It may be concluded that protein bands of cuticle could be used as one of taxonomic parameters of ticks.

Using fenugreek seeds powder as a feed additive in rations of Sharabi local cows and its effect on some hematological and biochemical parameters

A.K. Nasser; Q.Z. Shams Al-dain; N.Y. Abou; A.B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82854

This study was conducted on cows farm/Al-Rashedia station, Section of animal resources, department of agricultural researches, Nineveh.Nine Sharabi dairy cows at same weights, production season and calving data were divided into three groups. The fenugreek seed powder was used as feed additives and added to control group (basal ration) at level 50 or 100 g/cow/day for 2nd and 3rd groups, respectively, while the 1st group was left on basal ration only. Cows were fed individually on basal ration as 2% of live weight and according to developing of body weight and milk production during six weeks. Results showed that percentages of lymphocytes and acidophil, and levels of total protein, globulin and glucose were significantly increased, while percentage of neturophil, cholesterol and blood urea were significantly decreased as fenugreek seed powder was added to basal ration at level 50 or 100 g/cow/day as compared to first group (basal ration), while collection blood periods had insignificant effects on all hematological and biochemical parameters. The adding of fenugreek seed powder to Sharabi dairy cows rations had improved some hematological and biochemical parameters

Using fenugreek seeds powder as a feed additive in rations of Sharabi local cows and its effect on milk production and chemical composition

A.K. Nasser; Q.Z. Shams Al-dain; N.Y. Abou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 21-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82855

This study was conducted on nine Sharabi dairy cows at same weights (390±35 kg) and production season (second and third) and cows during first month of calving which were chosen from Sharabi cows farm, Al- Rashedia Station, Department of Agricultural Researches, Nineveh. They were divided into three groups. The fenugreek seed powder was used as a feed additives to the basal ration at a level 50 or 100 g./cow /day for 2nd and 3rd groups, respectively, while the1st group was left as a control ration. Cows were fed individually on basal ration according to developing of body weight and milk production during six weeks, milk production and chemical composition were measured. The results indicated that the amount of feed intake was significantly (P≤0.05) increased for 3rd group, also the normal and adjusted milk yield, fat percentage, value of ration /kg normal milk and milk adjusted were increased significantly (P≤0.05), also the cost for production of one kg of milk was reduced mathematically for 2nd and 3rd groups as compared to those in the 1st group. In conclusion, using 100 g of fenugreek seed powder per cow per day had improved milk production and fat percentage of milk for Sharabi cows.

Pathological effects of the anabolic steroid sustanon on the rat testes

E.R. Al-Kennany; E.K. Al-hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 27-33
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82856

This study is designed to investigate the pathological effects of sustanon which is a type of anabolic androgens in different doses on testes of rats. The experiment included 100 rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats to each group. The first group is considered as a negative control given diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly, while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. The animals were euthanized on the periods 15, 30 and 60 day then samples of testes were taken and put in Bouin's solution and then placed in buffered neutral formalin 10% for histopathological section. Pathologically all treated groups showed gross and histopathological changes. Grossly Testis, showed bilateral atrophy. Histopathologically there was testicular degeneration with loss of normal architecture,presence of dead sperm in lumen of tubules and there were inflammatory cells and edema especially in a day 60 after treatment and these changes continued even after stopping treatment for 30 days. It has been concluded from this study that sustanon at the doses 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight for periods of 15, 30 and 60 days had side effects on testes and these effects were progressive and were observed even after 30 days of stopping the drug administration.

The use of ultrasonography for early detection of pregnancy and measurement of some foetal pattern in Damascus goats

M. Roukbi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 35-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82857

This study was conducted using ultrasonographic imaging of real-time B mode ultrasound system equipped with (7.5) MHz linear array traducer for the early diagnosis of pregnancy during breeding season 2011-2012 in a flock of 255 Damascus goats (multiparous=202, nullparous=53) in Humaimeh research station belonging to General Commission for agricultural scientific research (Damascus-Syria), aged between 10 months and 7 years naturally mated; thus the day of insemination by the buck was considered as day 0 of gestation. Also, this study include fetal measurement on 85 (multiparous=63, nullparous =22). Ultrasonography was performed principally transabdominaly (TA) and completed transrectaly (TR) without any preparations for verification of negative results. The examination by TR and TA examination revealed 98.4% of does were pregnant, with accuracy in detecting of pregnancy for positive and negative cases 97.3% and 80% respectively. Transrectaly (TR) examination allowed confirmation of reported negative results and recognition of some positive results (false negative) and thus correction of (TA) results by monitoring fluid-filled (GS) in the uterus or cotyledons or fetal structures. Concerning fetometry, the correlation between gestational age (27-86 days) and placentomes diameter was positive (R=0.83), but middle for vesicules diameter and bi-parietal diameter (R=0.43; R=0.42 respectively), and poor (R=0.05) for crown-rump length. Also, the use of 7.5 MHz linear array traducer for transabdominaly examination was found to be efficient, reliable for early recognition of gestation and different fetal measurements between 35 and 126 days of gestation.

Pathological study of experimental infection with Enterococcus faecalis in quails

M. G. Al-hamdany; E. R. Al-kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 45-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82859

This study was carried to isolate and identificate of Enterococcus. faecalis from small intestine and cecum of quails by culturing on differential and selective media. The concentration of E. faecalis suspension was fixed for experimental infection. Quails divided randomly into four groups, the first group considered as control group, the other groups injected with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension as following: second group 1X108 CFU, the third group injected with 1X109 CFU, and the forth group injected with 1X1010 CFU. The clinical signs and pathological changes of heart, liver and kidney were observed at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after infection. The results showed identification of E. faecalis after culturing and isolation of it. The gross lesions represented by opacity of pericardium, heart hypertrophy and liver infarction, histopathological lesions include beginning of endocarditis, severe fatty changes with localized recent thrombus and severe necrosis in liver, and cell swelling of epithelium lining renal tubules and apoptosis in kidney. The histopathological changes were more severe at 3 and 7 days post infection. This study concludes that quails have a strong defense and immune mechanism despite the appearance of pathological changes with high concentrations of bacterial suspension which cause death in other animals such as mice and rats, also E.faecalis possesses the ability to induce apoptosis.

Use of a LaserCyte® for the complete blood count in dogs with oncohematological disorders

A. Gavazza; G. Lubas; D. Maccari; M. Bizzeti; B. Gugliucci; M. Giorgi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82860

The reliability of complete blood counts (CBC) obtained by LaserCyte® were evaluated in 41 dogs affected by malignant lymphoma (29 cases), leukemia (8 cases) and miscellaneous blood disorders (4 cases). A total of 89 CBCs were performed. Different degrees of anemia, leukocytosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis were detected. Results provided from LaserCyte® were compared with those from HeCo VET C® impedance cell counter, manual leukocyte differential counts and reticulocyte counts by the regression coefficient (r). The LaserCyte® cell counter provides reliable results for diagnosing and monitoring onco-hematological disorders, in part due to the provision of alarm codes that indicate when a review of the stained blood smear is necessary. The only unreliable CBC parameter was eosinophil count.

Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

A.A. Al-Juboori; N.K. Kamat; J.I. Sindhu

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82861

The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis), the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67%) in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%), Enterobacter spp. (15.00%), C. pyogenes (10.00%), Micrococcus spp. (5.00%), Pasteurells spp. (5.00%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%). Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

Effect of formaldehyde vapor on the blood constituents of male rabbits

A. Al-Sarraj; A. Al-Habity

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 15-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82864

The present experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of formaldehyde on blood constituents of rabbit males, Twenty four adult males were randomly subdivided into 3 groups (I, II, III) and exposed to vapour of 10% FD (12 ppm) in cages for the following periods: 2, 4 and 6 months; beside, 8 rabbits were exposed to vapour of distilled water as a control group. Blood parameters examination showed no morphological changes, but with a significant increase in lymphocytes and esonophils percentage. Significant decrease in neutrophil, red blood cell (RBC) and platelets counts was detected. The present study concluded that formaldehyde of such concentration and exposure time have an effect on blood constituents of rabbit males.

Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in sheep and goats in Erbil city, Iraq

J.M. Kader; Z.A.Y. Al-Khayat

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 21-23
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82947

Sera from (259) sheep and (88) goats from Erbil city were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by using latex, MAT, and ELISA. By using latex test, 75 (25.4%) sheep and 25 (28.4%) goats were seropositive. By testing the latex seropositive sheep serum by both MAT and ELISA the distribution of both positive and negative results were as such respectively: 63 (84%), 12 (16%), 11 (14.7%), 64 (85.3%). Using both MAT and ELISA for testing the latex seropositive goats serum, the distribution of both positive and negative results were as such respectively: 21 (84%), 4 (16%), 3 (12%), 22 (88%). There was no significant difference between the results of ELISA vs. MAT.

Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

K.F. Dizaye; B.O. Alberzingi; S.R. Sulaiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82948

Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle) and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function). Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

Adaptation of infectious bronchitis virus in primary cells of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane

M.H. Mohammed; M. Hair-Bejo; A. Zahid; A. Alazawy; E.A. Abdul Ahad; M.F. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82949

The susceptibility of the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells to infectious bronchitis virus was evaluated after twenty consecutive passages in chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells. Virus replication was monitored by cytopathic observation, indirect immunoperoxidase, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At 72 hours post-infection (p.i.) in third passage, the cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding up of cells, monolayer detachment, intracytoplasmic brownish colouration was readily observed by immunoperoxidase from 24 hours p.i in third passage, and at all times the extracted viral RNA from IBV-infected monolayers was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Tissue culture ineffective dose50 (TCID50) was used to measure virus titration performed on primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells and the titre in twenty passage was 108.6 TCID50/ml. The results obtained in this study suggested that the primary chick embryo chorioallontoic membrane cells can be used for adaptation infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and may be considered a step forward for the use of these cells in the future for IBV vaccine production

Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara cattle: carcass yield and composition

I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin; S.A. Babiker; O.A. Elkhidir; H.A.A. El-Bukhary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 39-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82950

Sixteen heifers and an equal number of bull calves of western Baggara type were used to study the characteristics of carcass and wholesale cuts at Kuku Livestock Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan. Each of the two sex groups was subdivided into 4 subgroups of 4 animals. All the animals were fed, ad libitum, a similar complete diet for 16 weeks from 4 November 2002 to 24 February 2003. Bulls carcass had significantly (P< 0.05) greater proportion of forequarter than that of the heifers, whereas heifers carcass had significantly (P< 0.05) greater proportion of hindquarter than that of the bulls. Heifer’s carcass had more primal cuts proportion than that of bulls, though the difference was not significant. Bulls carcass had significantly (P< 0.001) greater muscle proportion and significantly (P< 0.01) lower fat proportion in the forequarter than in that of heifers. Bone weight proportion of the heifers carcass forequarter was lower than that of the bulls, though the difference was not significant. Similarly hindquarter of the bulls carcass had higher proportion of muscle and bone, though the differences were not significant while the heifer carcasses hindquarter fat proportion was significantly (P<0.01) higher compared with that of bull carcasses. No significant differences were found in the yield of wholesale cuts weight as % of carcass weight other than the neck, chuck and blade and rump. The former two cuts were significantly (P<0.01) heavier in bull carcass, while the rump cut was significantly (P<0.05) heavier in heifer carcass. The proportion of muscle weight of the cuts as % of carcass weight was generally higher in all cuts except in the shin and rump cuts obtained from bulls as compared with that of heifers. On the other hand heifers gained higher proportion of fat in all carcass cuts as compared with that of bulls. Bulls had significantly (P<0.01) higher proportion of neck muscle and significantly (P<0.001) very high proportion of chuck and blade muscle and neck bone than that of heifers.

Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara bulls and heifers: quality attributes and chemical composition

I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin; S.A. Babiker; O.A. Elkhidir; H.A.A. El-Bukhary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 45-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82951

Fourteen samples of L. dorsi muscles were taken from western Baggara cattle, one sample from each of seven bulls and seven heifers randomly selected for slaughter at the end of an experimental feedlot feeding which lasted for 16 weeks at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan, to study sex effects on meat chemical composition and quality attributes. Moisture content of beef was higher in bulls meat than in heifers meat. Protein and ash content were significantly (P<0.001) higher in bulls meat, whereas fat content was significantly (P<0.001) higher in heifers meat than in bulls meat. Cooking loss of bulls meat was significantly (P<0.001) lower and water-holding capacity was also significantly (P<0.01) lower in the bulls meat than in heifers meat. Bull’s meat colour had low lightness (L) and high redness (a) and yellowness (b), as determined by Hunter Lab. Tristimulus colorimeter, as compared with heifers meat. Sensory panelist scores were higher for colour darkness and flavour intensity and lower for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of bulls meat as compared with heifers meat.

Qualitative assessment of imported frozen fish fillets in Sulaimani markets

Z.K. Khidhir; H.O.M. Murad; E.D. Arif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82952

This study aims to determine the quality of frozen fish fillets sold in Sulaimani city markets a total number of (64) sample of frozen fish fillets belonged to 4 foreign trademarks were collected from different parts of Sulaimani markets. The samples were subjected to physical and chemical tests to determine their quality and suitability for human consumption. The proximate chemical analysis referred to presence of significant differences in moisture, fat and protein content among the four trademarks except for ash content. While the physical indices showed that White fish fillets recorded the lowest thawing and cooking loss which in return recorded the highest WHC. Chemical indices showed that the pH mean values of Myanmar and Flander mark were significantly differed (P<0.05) than Hasson and White fish fillet, Although, the results of FFA recorded no significant differences among the trademarks, and Flander mark recorded the highest PV and TBA among the other which made it significantly differed than them and White fish fillet recorded the lowest, still, they were within the international standard limits. Where, the results of TVN values recorded no significant differences () among the inspected marks. All obtained results referred to the validity of these fish fillets for human consumption.

The effect of replacing fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load in common carp Cyprinus carpio L

N.M. Abdulrahman; H.J.H. Ameen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82953

The use of blue green algae Spirulina in aquaculture has several potential advantages over the production of fish. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different replacement levels of fishmeal with Spirulina on microbial load of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., the trail was conducted for 105 days and for this purpose 200 fingerlings common carp. Mean initial weight was (32.7 g). The fish were acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with control pellets (32% protein) prior to the feeding trials for 21 days. Five experimental diets were used and Spirulina replaced fishmeal protein from the standard diet at 0% (T1), 5% (T2), 10% (T3), 15% (T4) and 20% (T5) levels. Bacterial total account in rearing water and the bacterial total count in carp intestine for the third treatment was higher significantly as compared to other treatments, which is the conclusion of this study.

Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings fed with yeast

N.M. Abdulrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 61-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82954

This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5%) for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg) of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio). The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks) in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram) were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

Long-term toxicological effects of paracetamol in rats

S.K. Majeed; M.A. Ramadhan; W. Monther

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 65-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82959

The analgesic and antipyretic properties of paracetamol were first described in 1893, then it has been widely available as a non-prescription drug, with a therapeutic profile that reflects widespread safety and efficacy as well as paracetamol became the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. It is the most frequently used over-the counter medicine in young children and is nearly universally used in infants. The drug is used by millions of children every day. The study was designed to study the toxicological effect of therapeutic dose of paracetamol after oral administration for three months in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicous) on the heart, kidney and liver. Results showed oral administration of the paracetamol for three months in laboratory rats showed that this drug has a severe damaging effect on most of the vital organs in the body like kidney, liver and heart.

A case report of Gastrothylax crumenifer incidence in sheep in Kashmir Valley

T. Ahmad; M.L. Reshi; M.Z. Chesti; S. Tanveer; Z.A. Shah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 71-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82965

A total of 655 sheep were examined during 2008 to establish seasonal infection caused by Gastrothylax Crumenifer. The sheep were chosen from different areas of Kashmir valley, but the parasite G. Crumenifer was found throughout the year with prevalence 49%. Prevalence increased in the rainy and post-monsoon seasons and decreased slightly in winter and summer.