Volume 26, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2012, Page 1-51

Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

H. I. A. Al-khan; R. J. M. Alnuaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

Bovine mastitis caused by gram negative bacteria in Mosul

S. Y. A. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 11-16

A total of 90 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city, in a period from October 2009 to June 2010, for the detection of gram negative bacteriological causative agents. The bacteria were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. thirty tow (35.3%) gram negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the total count which included 14 isolates (15.5%) for Escherichia coli, 7 isolates (7.7%) for Klebsiella spp, 4 isolates (4.4%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 isolates (3.3%) for Enterobacter aerogenes ,2 isolates for Serratia marcescens and one isolates (1.1%) for each of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pasteurella multocida. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that most of these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin following by Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole, while most of these organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, the isolates showed different percentages of sensitivity to Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin and Chloramphenicol.

Prevalence of Giardia spp. in ducks and geese in Nenevah governorate

N. H. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 17-21

This study include the examination of 235 fecal samples 125 from domesticated ducks and 110 from domesticated geese from different localities in Nenevah governorate through the period from September 2009 to March, 2010 the Samples were stained by iodine stain and Giemsa stain and flotation method. The total percent of infection with Giardia cyst was 34.4%, 36.4% in duck and geese respectively. The study revealed presence of Giardia in diarrhetic and non diarrhetic fecal sample of ducks and geese. Higher rate was in diarrhetic ducks and geese of age less than 5 months 41.8%, 44.4% and this rate decreased with aging. The results showed the higher infection rate in rural area which was 38.5% in duck and 40.7% in geese compared to urban area 30%, 31.4% in ducks and geese respectively. Higher rate was recorded in December in ducks were 53.5% while the higher infection in March in geese were 44.4% and lowest rate of infection in September for both ducks and geese, this is the first study of Giardia spp, in ducks and geese in Nineveh governorate.

Clinical and therapeutic study of gastrointestinal parasites in fedlot calves

Kh. J. Hussain; S. A. Esmaeel; Q. T. Al-Obaidy; M. A. Abdulhameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 23-27

The study was conducted on 10 herds included 811 local fedlot calves (1 to 2 years old) in Goggeli region, 86 calves were affected with gastrointestinal parasites. Total infestation rate was (60.99%). The study showed that Calves were infested with various species of nematodes and cestodes representing,The highest ratio of infestation was with Ostertagia spp (61.62%), and the lowest with Monezia expansa (2.32%). Affected calves exhibited weakness, pale mucous membranes, loss of appetite, diarrhea, easily detached and lusterless hair. Results revealed that single infestation was (17.5%), whereas mixed infestation was (82.5%). Results of blood picture indicated significant increase in total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, and significant decrease in total leukocyte count, at days 7, 14, 21 post treatment calves with Albendazole and (levamisole hydrochloride 3% and oxyclozanide 6%) compared with control group. Levamisole hydrochloride 3% and oxyclozanide 6% was more efficient against gastrointestinal parasites when compared with albendazole.

Evaluation of foaling heat in Arabian mares in Ninevah province

M. A. Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 29-32

The present study was conducted to study the relationship between breeding season of Arabian mares at first estrous after foaling and pregnancy rate. Thirty six mares were divided in to two groups according to foaling heat in breeding season, transitional periods. Animals included in this study were maintained with the same management and conditions in the special breeding stables. This study was performed in a farm located in Nineveh province during the period from June 2008 to June 2010. The mares were observed for the first estrous after foaling and the duration between foaling and first estrous after foaling (foaling heat) in breeding season or transitional period and the estrous signs were recorded by exposing the mares to a teasers stallion. The results of this study showed that the foaling heat in the first group was 8-9 days in 26 mares in breeding season observe first estrous while the pregnancy rate in 8 mares was 30.76%. However, results the second group of the first estrous sign after foaling was 8-10 days in the 10 mares observe the first estrous in, transitional period without pregnancy. It could be concluded that the detected foaling heat duration 8-10 days after normal foaling in breeding season and natural mating in spite of decreased pregnancy rate at foaling heat.

Effect of pretreatment female lactating rats with albendazole on preventing developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups

M. K. Shindala; A. M. AL-Jobory

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 33-39

The aim of the present study was to evaluated the effect of treated female lactating rats with enrofloxacin alone and its interaction with albendazole on the occurrence of developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity in suckling pups by using percentage of survival of pups to weaning as well as neurobehavioral test (surface righting reflex). The exposure of suckling pups to enrofloxacin alone through the milk caused sever toxic effects manifested by significant decrease in percentage of survival in pups to weaning to (0%) as result from death all pups from dams were treated with enrofloxacin at high dose (480 mg/kg, i.m.) during the first 5 days of lactation. Whereas, treated lactating female rats with albendazole at (300 mg/kg, orally), 1 hour before enrofloxacin (480 mg/kg, i.m.) during the first 5 days of lactation protected suckling pups from developmental toxic effects of enrofloxacin which mainly appeared as a significant increase in percentage of survival of pups to 100% as result from survival all suckling pups to weaning, accompanied by preventing the neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups manifested by highly significant decreased response time to surface righting reflex to (2.64 ± 0.57) minuets in the postnatal day 3 in compared with pups from dams that treated with enrofloxacin alone which reached to (15.82 ± 0.27) minuets. In conclusion, our results suggest that pretreatment of female lactating rats with albendazole protecte suckling pups from developme-ntal and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin.

Detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp in gall bladder of sheep slaughtered in Mosul, Iraq

E. G. Suleiman; E. T. Butty; A. A. AL-Abadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 41-44

The current study revealed the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium in the fluid and tissue of gall bladder of sheep which is slaughtered in Mosul city by using different diagnostic techniques, including direct smear method, staining method by modified Zeil-Nelseen stain, scraping of mucosal layer of gall bladder and histological examination, the percentage of infection 20% and there were significant differences in the percentages of infection between gall bladder 20% and fecal samples 41%. The histological study showed that the oocyst of Cryptosporidium was attached on the surface of the epithelial cells of gall bladder. The high percentage of infection appeared in ewes was 30% and there was no significant differences in the infection of gall bladder between rams and ewes.

A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

M. H. Hasan; H. M. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 45-53

The study was conducted to diagnose and study species of Eimeria in sheep in Mosul city from beginning of September 2009 to end May 2010, as well as to determine the percentage and intensity of infection of Eimeria species. Five hundred fecal samples of sheep with different ages were collected from different areas of the Mosul city. The results showed that total percentage of Emeria infection was 63.6%. The variations in percentage of infection were recorded according to month of study. Highest percentage was recorded in March being 89.2% and the lowest in September 25.9%. The species E. ovina recorded the highest infection rate 86.7%, while the species E. granulosa represented lowest infection rate 10%. Moreover the intensity of infection was higher in young ages and lower in adult. The results were detected that indoor sheep infection with high parasitic infection 69.9% whereas outdoor animals have an infection rate 25.3%. The morphological characters of oocysts were varied according to species of Eimeria has been studied. Fifty of intestinal and abomasal samples from both slaughtered in shops butchery in Mosul city and dead animals were examined to detect Eimeria infection, and results show that infection percentage was 56.4% in intestine of slaughtered animals and 36.3% in dead animal. Moreover no infection of Eimeria were detected in abomasums in both slaughtered and dead animals. The oocysts of (E. parva, E.pallida and E. ovinoidalis) detected at more than 5000 oocysts per gram of intestinal contents. The intestinal secraping stained with Giemsa stain reveals the presence of different developmental stages of parasites in wall of intestine. The histopathological sections of intestine revealed the different pathological changes concerning of Eimeria infection.

Serum glucose concentration and lipid profile in racing horses

S. A. Hasso; H. A. Al-Hadithy; R. M. Hameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 1-3

The aim of the present work was to evaluate serum glucose concentration and lipid profile in racing horses in Iraq. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 92 clinically healthy racing horses (males and females, Arabian and Cross bred), 2-8 years old at Equestrian Club, Baghdad. Investigations included serum measurements of glucose (sg) and lipid profile parameters; total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and the atherogenic ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C), in order to register the normal ranges and mean values of these measured parameters in Iraqi healthy racing horses. Results showed that the range and mean values ± standard error of sg were: 33.3 – 6.71 mmol/l and 5.17±0.07 mmol/l, respectively, whereas the TC was 2.07 – 4.22 mmol/l and 3.01±0.05 mmol/l, TG 0.6 – 1.47 mmol/l and 1.06±0.02 mmol/l, HDL-C 0.93 – 2.25 mmol/l and 1.50±0.03 mmol/l, LDL-C 0.10 – 2.12 mmol/l and 0.91±0.04 mmol/l, VLDL-C 0.31 -0.67 mmol/l and 0.55±0.02 mmol/l, respectively and the atherogenic ratio 0.66±0.03. The data present reference values and mean ± SE for sg and lipid profile parameters in healthy racing horses in Baghdad.

Effect of aflatoxin on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in Toxoplasma gondii infected mice

A. F. M. Al-Taee; A. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 5-9

This study was conducted for the determination of the combined effect of aflatoxin and Toxoplasma gondii on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in sixty young inbred Swiss female albino mice BALB/C, which were randomly divided into six equal groups; Group 1(untreated control) animals were maintained without any treatment; group 2 were injected intraperitonealy with T. gondii tissue cysts; groups 3 and 4 were fed diets contaminated with 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin respectively; group 5 and 6 were fed 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin and injected with T. gondii tissue cysts. All animals were maintained for 40 days. One ml, containing 100 Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was obtained from brain tissue of naturally infected local breed rabbit was injected intraperitonealy. Aflatoxins (AFs) were prepared through inoculation of rice with Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and were incorporated into the diet to provide the described level of 0.5 and 1 ppm. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken to determine Heterophils/lymphopcytes ratio (H/L), while brain was taken to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde concentration. Results showed that mice injected with T. gondii tissue cysts alone and those groups fed aflatoxin at both rates of 0.5 and 1 ppm were exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in H/L ratio, and malondialdehyde, while there is a significant (P<0.05) reduction on the level of glutathione. The results revealed that aflatoxin could exacerbate T. gondii infection and induce stress through suppression of glutathione and elevation of malondialdehyde concentration and H/L ratio.

Relationship between mycotoxicosis and calcium during preproduction period in layers

T. S. Qubih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 11-14

This study was conducted to examine field cases of mycotoxicosis (A flatoxicosis and ochratoxicosis) and their effects on calcium during the preproduction period of 1SA brown pullets. Birds were 12-15 weeks of age. The feed was subjected to analysis for mycotoxin and blood samples were laboratory diagnosed for infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal viruses antibody titer and for determination calcium level. Clinical signs of affected birds were rubbery bone, ruffled feather, paleness and high mortality. Necropsy findings of sick birds were characterized by muscle dehydration, enlarged livers yellowished, kidney enlargement and urate deposition. Histopathological features of liver consisted of capsular thickening hepatocellular necrosis, subcapsular infiltration with inflammatory kidneys cells showed swelling of tubular cells, deposition of calcium between kidney tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells. ELISA test revealed the presence of 800 ppb aflatoxin and 100 ppb ochratoxin. Normal titers of infectious bronchitis virus and infectious bursal diseases antibodies were recorded. Low blood calcium level of 8.2 mg/dl was registered in the tested blood samples.

Antioxidant status in pregnant ewes vaccinated with Rev 1 against brucellosis

W. S. Al- Khafaji; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 15-19

The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the indicators of free radicals and antioxidant activity, represented by malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase in the sera of ewes vaccinated with Rev 1 vaccine. The experiment included 28 animals which were divided into four equal groups. Animals of the first and second groups were vaccinated subcutaneously with 2×109 and 2×107 colony forming units (CFU), respectively, whereas the animals of third and fourth groups were vaccinated conjunctively with 2×109 and 2×107 CFU, respectively. Sera were collected monthly for 6 months. Antibody responses were assessed by classical tests (Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination and 2-mercaptoethanol tests) in comparison with competitive ELISA. The antibody titers were higher and remained for along period in the subcutaneously vaccinated groups with the two doses compared those vaccinated conjunctively. There was a significant increase in serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the 8th week post vaccination in subcutaneously vaccinated groups and during the 12th week in those vaccinated conjunctively. Significant increase of serum malondialdehyde levels occurred during the 4th week in those vaccinated conjunctively and in 8th week in those vaccinated subcutaneously. This study concluded that the route of administration of the vaccine affects glutathione peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde level, which act as indicators of oxidative stress response, more than the vaccine dose.

Incidence of hydatidosis in slaughtered livestock at Mosul, Iraq

M.T. Jarjees; H.S. Al-Bakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 21-25

A study on the occurrence and seasonal incidence of hydatid cysts of sheep, goats and cattle was carried out during 2008 and 2009 by weekly regular visits to Mosul abattoir and other areas i.e. outside abattoir. All slaughtered livestock were of local breed, of both sexes, originated from various areas of Mosul and were of different ages having non descriptive features. Visual inspection and palpation of the lesions were followed in this study. Of 4800 sheep, 960 goats and 720 cattle were examined, 96 sheep, five goats and four cattle were found to harbour the cysts representing infection rate of 2%, 0.52% and 0.55%, respectively. The lowest seasonal incidence was observed in winter for sheep (3.16%) and goats (1.25%). The lowest level of incidence was 0.16% for sheep and 0% for goats was noticed in summer. However, in cattle no infection was taken place in winter and autumn but 1.11% infection rate was equally seen in summer and spring. The preponderant site of cyst was the liver in sheep (46.8%) and goats (40%). In cattle the commonest location of the cyst was the lung (50%) followed by mixed site of liver and lung (25%) and liver (25%). The results indicated that only fertile cysts were present in the sheep representing 83.33% of fertility percentage. The number of cysts in the infected organs ranged between 1-16, 1-6 and 1- 10 for sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. It can be concluded that only sheep play a major role in dissemination of hydatidosis. However, being anthrozoonotic, potential risk may be increased due to incorrect disposal of infected offal with unhygienic slaughter protocols.

Isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from suspected enterotoxaemia cases in lambs

N. S. Mechael

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 29-32

Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens), while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Trypanocidal efficacy of diminazene in diabetic rats

U. S. Chigozie; A. B. Maduka; J. G. Ifeanyi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 33-38

The experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of hyperglycaemia on the trypanocidal efficacy of diminazene aceturate. Groups of alloxan-induced diabetic rats infected with T. brucei and T. congolense were treated with diminazene aceturate, and trypanocidal effects compared with normal non-diabetic controls. Results showed that the prepatent period was shorter in the diabetic (11.25±1.65 days) than non-diabetic-T. congolense (15.0±1.73 days), and also variations in responses to the trypanocidal therapy between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups were detected. Parasite clearance time did not differ significantly between the diabetic and non-diabetic (43.2±8.89 versus 52.8±8.89 hours in T. brucei and 33.6±5.9 versus 36.0±6.93 hours in T. congolense, respectively). The relapse intervals were shorter in the diabetic than non-diabetic (16 days versus 23 days in T. brucei, and 7 days versus 14 days in T. congolense, respectively). Proportion of relapses was greater in the diabetic- (100%) than non-diabetic-T. congolense (66.7%). We also find parasite species-related differences in susceptibility to the trypanocide, with a higher apparent cure rate in the T. brucei than T. congolense group. We conclude from the results of this study that the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of diminazene aceturate may be diminished in patients with diabetes mellitus. Further study is needed to validate this hypothesis.

Use of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for detection of aflatoxin M1 in milk powder

S. D. Al-Sawaf; O. A. Abdullah; O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 39-42

Thirty five samples were collected from seven types of milk powder in Mosul city markets, and surveyed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Analytical results showed that 82.8% of the samples were contaminated with AFM1. The incidence of AFM1 in Al-mudhish, Angolac, Dielac, Lona, Nido, Melgro and Multi samples were 40, 50, 80, 100, 100, 100 and 100%, respectively. The occurrence of AFM1 in milk powder, 79.3% (23 out of 29) of positive samples were higher than the permissible limits, according to the European Commission (50 ng/kg), whereas 6.8% (2 out of 29) of positive samples were above the prescribed limit of US regulation (500 ng/kg). The level of AFM1 concentration in Melgro and Multi types was higher than Al-mudhish type and it had a low level of contamination, compared with other types of milk powder.

Detection of streptomycin residues in local meat of bovine and ovine

O. A. Abdullah; A. M. Shareef; O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 43-46

From meat retails in Mosul province, forty-five meat samples of local ovine and bovine (23 bovine samples and 22 ovine samples) were collected. The period of collection was during November 2010 to May 2011, by means of multistage random sampling for detection of streptomycin residues. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for detection of streptomycin residues. The results revealed that eleven ovine meat samples (50%) were positive to streptomycin residue, with a mean value 35.06 µg kg-1, while 14 bovine meat samples (60.86%) were positive to residual streptomycin with a mean value 59.56 µg kg-1. From the results, it is clear that all tested meat samples (ovine and bovine) were safe enough for human consumption.

Occurrence of Listeria monocytogens in raw milk of ruminants

B. A. Abbas; G. M. Jaber

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 47-51

The present study was performed on three hundred raw milk samples, 100 each from cows, sheep and buffaloes were collected from different places of Basrah city. 7.3 % of the samples were found to be positive for Listeria spp. Cow's milk was found to be more infected than other animals milk with this bacteria. All bacterial isolates were confirmed as L. monocytogens by colony characteristics, beta haemolysis, cold enrichment procedure, selective media, Anton test, tumbling and inverted pine tree motility and sugar fermentation tests. Most isolates were found to be sensitive to cefotaxine, sulfamethoxazol, chloramphenical and tobramycin. rifampicin was found to have less effect on these isolates. Effects of pH and temperature on bacterial growth were also studied to test the ability of this microorganism to survive in milk under severe conditions. The pH range for growth was from 4 to 9.5. The temperature range was between 4 – 45 ºC.