Volume 26, Suppl. IV - Issue Serial Number 5, Summer and Autumn 2012, Page 1-1000


Research Paper

Synthesis of new 1,2 dithiol 3-thione fluoroquinolone esters possessing anticancer activity in-vitro

B.B. Saeed; M.A. Al-Iraqi; F.T. Abachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 115-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168748

Three 1,2 dithiole 3-thion fluoroquinolone esters (2-4) were prepared via condensation of (p-hydroxyl phenyl) -1,2dithiole- 3-thione with fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin, Gatefloxacin and Moxifloxacin). The biological activity of these compounds was assayed against 60 types of cancer cells in vitro. The compound 2 (NSC=760553) showed anticancer activity against renal cell, while the comound 4 (NSC=760555) show activity against three types of cancer cell. The expected mechanism of their activity is that 1,2dithiole 3-thione derivatives may give H2S as new gas transmitter which play an important role in the biological systems.

Vaginal bacteria flora concurred with vaginal sponges in black Iraqi goats

A.F. Majeed; H.M. Al-Rawi; S.M.A. Al-Kubaisi; T.M.N. Al-Jumaily

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 123-124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168749

The aim of this study was to identify the vaginal bacteria flora in black Iraqi goats subjected to estrus synchronization. Sixteen multiparous black Iraqi goats presented in the farm of the College Veterinary Medicine, Al-Anbar University, were included in this study, during the breeding season, from May 2011 to July 2011. The ages of the animals rwere 2-4 years. A polyurethane sponge containing 20 mg of micromsed cronolone (fluorogestone acetate progestagen) was inserted in the vagina for 14 days. Standard bacteriological procedures were performed on vaginal mucus swabs obtained before application of the sponges and at sponges withdrawal. Results of this study revealed that the most bacterial flora was Gram positive Bacilli before insertion of sponges, while most of Gram negative Bacilli were present after sponges withdrawal. Bacterial culture of vaginal swabs taken before insertion of sponges showed 8 isolates (50%) G_ and 8 isolates (50%) G+, while after withdrawal of sponges the bacterial culture showed 10 isolates G_ (45.4%) and 12 isolates (54.6) G+. The most prevalent bacteria isolated were S. aureus (10 isolates) 26.3%. E. coli (6 isolates) 15.8%, P. vulgaris (6 isolates) 15.8%, C. (4 isolates)10.5% and other bacteria where having 2 isolates 5.2% for each one includes, Entercoccus fecalis, Entrococcus, Entrobacter, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Salmonella. In conclusion, using progestagen impregnated sponges in the vagina for estrus synchronization could stimulate inflammation of the vaginal mucous membrane and increase of bacterial infection.

Prevalence and pathological study of schistosomiasis in sheep in Akra/Dohuk province, northern Iraq

I.K. Zangana; K.J. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 125-130
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168750

The occurrence of Schistosomiasis was detected by fecal examination (Formalin- ether centrifugalsedimentation technique) and abattoir Survey during a period from October 2006 to March 2007,andhistopathological study. Schistosomabovis was identified with prevalence rate 11.37% by fecal examination where as 1.6% by abattoir survey. Diseased animals exhibited acute clinical signs, which included emaciation, sunken eye, pale mucus membrane and diarrhea. The Infections was more prevalent in age 1-3 years 15.9%. The histopathological findings reveal characteristic lesions in blood vessels and some tissues including thrombosis in veinuoles and mesenteric vein and minute granuloma around the eggs in portal area and fatty necrosis in the liver, cystic structure of some mucosal glandsof the intestine containing eggs, with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in different tissues.

A comparative study of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy by clamp-crush and ultrasurgical techniques in rams

A.A. Ajeel; M.J. Eesa; R.N. Al-Asadi; M.A. Alkhilani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 131-139
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168751

The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy via two techniques in rams. Twenty-four adult local breed rams were used, which divided randomly and equally into two groups. All animals subjected to laparoscopic partial hepatectomy. operations were performed under the effect of general anesthesia by using 5% thiopental sodium at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg B.W., intravenously and maintenance was done by inhalation (halothane) (2- 2.5%). Animals placed in a reverse Trendelenburg (30º) and left lateral position. Pneumoperitoneum was achieved under (10 - 12mmHg). Four (10 mm) ports were made on ventral abdominal wall. Liver parenchyma was controlled with modified liver clamp. In first group, partial hepatectomy was done by Clamp-crush forceps. While in second group, Ultra- surgical device was used. Following operations, certain parameters such as rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, food intake, and secondary health problemes had been recorded. Also the operative and resection times and blood loss were estimated. Liver enzymes (alinine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphate, total serum bilirubin and total serum proteinswere measured. Histopathological examination of liver biobsies was performed at 3rd, 7th, 15th days and four months post-surgery. The main intra-operative complication was the bleeding. Result indicated that the vital parameters were within the normal rang. Shorter operative and resection times were noticed in second group when compared with first group. There were no significant differences in the mean values of blood loss in both groups. Also no bile collection were seen in the abdominal cavity or subphrinic region during the exploratory laparoscopy at (3, 7, and 15 days) and four months post-surgery. There were no significant differences in the mean values of the liver function test (liver enzymes) in two groups. Macroscopic examination revealed the presence of adhestion between liver and adjcent structures with varing degree. The normal structures of the liver which consist of hepatocytes and central vein returned within 4 months post operations in second group. We can conclude that the laparoscopic partial hepatectomy in rams can be safely performed under Ultra-surgical technique with a modified liver clamp which reflected minor secondary complications and early liver regeneration.

Immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in male rabbits treated with dexamethasone

J.A.A. Al-Saaidi; Kh.A. Dawood; A.D. Latif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 141-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168752

The potent ameliorating effect of ethanol extract of N. sativa seed on the immune system has been assessed in dexamethasone-induced immune-suppressed male rabbits. Fifty mature male rabbits were randomly assigned into five equal groups (control and four treated groups). Animals were daily treated, for 42 days, as follow: C: was orally administered with drinking water; T1: was orally administered with N.s.S.E. (1.5 g/ kg, b.w.); T2: was injected with dexamethasone (2 mg/ kg, b.w., im); T3: was combined treated concomitantly with N.s.S.E. and dexamethasone; T4: was treated with dexamethasone for 21 days followed by N.s.S.E. for 21 days. The results of body weight gain revealed significant increase in T1 and significant decrease in T2 among the experimental groups. Submandibular lymph node weights of T1, T2 and T3 were significantly higher than that of C. Kidneys weights in T2 and T3 registered significant increase compared with C. Bone weight in T1 and T4 groups was significantly higher than that of other groups. Liver weight in T2 was significantly higher and in T4 was significantly lower than other groups. Total leucocytes count and lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils percentages were significantly decreased in T1, while showed no significant differences in T2, T3 and T4 groups compared with that of control. Phagocytes activity and bone marrow mitotic index were significantly reduced in T2 group, while returned to normal in T1, T3 and T4 groups compared with control. Titers of IgM, IgA, C3, and C4 showed no significant differences among groups, while IgG titer was increased in T1 and T4 and decreased in T2. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the examined extract showed a certain immunomodulating effect. Of the immunological aspects, cellular immunity was potentially ameliorated in intact and dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressed- male rabbits.

Isolation of bovine herpes virus type-1 (BHV-1) from cattle in Syria

S. Y. AL-Baroodi; A. Kurdi; A. Alomar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 309-320
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168753

In order to isolate Bovine Herpes virus type -1- (BHV-1) from cattle using cell culture (Bovine fetal kidney cell) and diagnosis by neutralization test,  592 swabs (230 Nasal swabs,  102 Vaginal swabs, 230 Ocular swabs, 12 swabs from Balanus and penises, 8 swabs from skin lesion in udder and 10 Anal swabs) were collected from animals suffering from respiratory signs, ocular discharge with congestion in conjugtiva and opacity in the eye, abortion in different stages of pregnancy with vaginal discharge,  inflammation in balanus and penis with discharge in ox older than 2 years,  some cattle suffering from mastitis with chronic skin lesions in udder and teat,  some young calves suffer from bloody diarrhea, and healthy cattle. The result of isolation and diagnosis of virus showed (30.57%) total percentage of infection using cell culture and (21.62%) using neutralization test. The highest percentage of infection was in Jub ramla farm, and the lowest percentage infection was in Dura farm using both methods. The study also showed the high percentage in vaginal swabs (49.01%) in cell culture, and in neutralization test (34.31%), whereas the lowest percentage of infection appeared in swabs from balanus and penises and swabs from skin lesion in udder (25%) in cell culture, while the lowest percentage of infection (25%) appeared in ocular swabs using neutralization test. The study detected the high percentage of infection in young calves (less than 6 months) of both sex by using both methods. The results of propagation of samples in cell culture appear one blind passage except anal swabs (two blind passage), the cytopathic effect (CPE) differ in appearance as the time decrease with progress passage. The CPE manifested by cell swelling shrink and rounded of cells. Cluster appearance and Vacuoles. The CPE variad in passage depending on type of sample, the highest potency was in balanus and penises swabs when compared with other samples.

Evaluation of role of probiotic IMBO reduce the effect of collibacilosis in newborn calves

A.J. Aletabi; J.M. Khalaf; A.S. Albana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 321-328
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168754

The aim of this sutdy is to evaluate the effect of using the (IMBO) as probiotic in the reduction of diarrhea caused by E.coli in newborn calves. Using 150 newborn calves naturally infected with E.coli which is divided into three groups 50 animals in each group. First group, the animals of this group were inoculated Biomin IMBO as probioric orally given daily for 16 day with 6 gm\animal, while second group, the animals of this group were inoculated IMBO as probitic with same previous dose after natural infected with E.coli and suffering from diarrhea. While the third group (control group) which was not inoculated the IMBO as probiotic. The E.coli was isolated and it is virulence was evaluated by k99 pili test, the bacterial count for the feces sample of the calves was done as many hematological test which include (leukocyte count, differential WBCs count, packed cell volume, as well as TPP concentration and albumin and globulin for day (1,7,16) of the study. The probiotic was positively effective in the decrease of the severity of clinical sings and significantly increase calves weight which were treated by the probiotic, in the day (16) of the study and increase in the mortality rate compared with control group. The study shows probiotics use contributed in decrease of the number of E.coli excreted by feces of naturally infected calves with colibacillosis. Hematology test results showed significant increase in total leukocyte count, neutrophil, monocyte count and significant decrease in pact cell volume in the first and second group compared with control group. While serum test showed significant increase in total protein and globulin and significant decrease in albumin value. From the results of the study we notice the positive effect of probiotic IMBO on the health state after causing infection by colibacillosis and decrease the severity of clinical signs and increase the immunity respond.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis by actinomycetes and it is relation to IgE and IgG levels

R. S. Al-Esayad; E. Gh. H. Al-Sammak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 329-338
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168755

Isolation and identification of the species related to actinomycetes which have a role in Hypersensitvity Pneumonitis (HP). A total of (241) samples were collected from different sources including 83 sputum samples, 83 blood samples from the workers in cows, sheep poultry farms, poultry slaughter house, textuary, flour, tannery factories, sawmills, and hospitalized patient as well as 25 samples from the worker environment (soil, air, water), through August 2008 to February 2009. The isolates were identified to species level depending on morphological, biochemical and physiological tests, including the species Nocardia spp, Rhodococcus equi, Saccharomonospora viridis, Nocardia nova, Coryneformbacteria were isolated in high percentage from individual with normal level of IgE 100 IU\ml with and without clinical symptoms, and with less frequency the species Nocardia spp, Citrococcus spp, Coryneformbacteria in individual with high level of IgE > 100 IU \ ml. The species Saccharomonospora viridis, Nocardia nova, Nocardia spp. also were isolated from individual with high level of IgG.> 25 IU \ ml compared with whom have normal level of IgG 25 IU \ ml. were the species Saccharomonospora viridis, Coryneformbacteria, Nocardia spp, Citrococcus spp, Rhodococcus equi, isolated. But not isolated from the control.

Effect of Peganum harmala on histological reactions after post Marek's disease vaccination in layer hens

Z.A. Dawood; T.S. Qubih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 339-346
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168756

This study was conducted on laying chick breed high line, 140 chicks one day old were divided into four groups: first control, second was given Peganum harmala in food, Third given vaccine and Peganum harmala. The fourth was given vaccine only. Bivalent vaccine Rispens, CVI988 and HVT was used at one day old by intramuscular injection. Sample of lymphatic organs, spleen, thymus, and Bursa of Fabricious were taken at days 3, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34, 42 for gross and histological study. Blood smears were taken at the same days for measuring stress factor and Phagocytic index. The gross reactions vary from congestion to enlargement of organs and hemorrhage after vaccination comparable with control. Paleness appear in those groups treated with Peganum harmala.Histological sections of spleen, thymus showed clear changes representing by hemorrhage, perivascular cuffing and depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of the most of lymphatic organs such as thymus, spleen, and Bursa of Fabricious, Phagocytic index showed significant increase in all groups vaccinated and unvaccinated groups compared to control group. Stress factor showed significant increase in all groups also.

Effect of antithyroid propyl thiouracil on male reproductive system development in local chicks

I.E. Jobury; N.A.H. Alkasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 347-350
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168757

The aim of this experiment is to study the effects of antithyroid agent (Propylthiouracil, PTU) on domestic chicks male reproductive system. 36 local male one day old chicks were used. Chicks were distributed randomly to three groups, first group (control group) fed standard diet, while 2nd and 3 rd groups were fed diet contain 0.01 and 0.1 % of antithyroid agent (Propylthiouracil PTU) respectively, from 1 - 25 days of age. Chicks were killed at the end of 4th week in order to study the effects of PTU treatment on some male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristic as well as some body organs. Results revealed that PTU treatment significantly decreased body weight, significantly increased right and left testis percentage and absolute weights in group treated with 0.1% PTU compared with the control group. Treatment also significantly increase comb length and height as well as in liver and heart weights.

A survey of vaccination programs used in some broilers and layers farms in Nineveh province

F. A. I. Danial; Sh. A. Ardwas; R. G. Behnam

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 351-354
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168758

The results showed that the vaccination programs in 10 farms of broilers nearly similar at the early stage of rearing, including vaccination against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease together by spraying, at 3 day age killed ND vaccine were used then IBD vaccine at 8 day age. After that the differences occurred according to the disease which affects the flock that lead some times to emergency vaccination against that disease. In addition, some farms used Swollen Head Syndrome (SHS) vaccine. The results of six layers farms showed also close similarity of vaccination programs at the first stage of rearing which included vaccination against Marek's disease at 1 day age by injection, coccidiosis at 7 day age and other live, killed bivalent or trivalent vaccines as well as the vaccination against avian influenza (H9N2).

A study of some biochemical parameters in serum of buffaloes affected with traumatic reticuloperitonitis

S.K. Al-Dawood; N.A. Al-Hussary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 355-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168759

The aim of the present study was designed to determine alterations in some biochemical parameters associated with traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) in the local buffaloes at Ninevah Governorate. Ninety six blood samples were collected from female buffaloes divided into three groups , the first group represented the control group and it included 16 clinically healthy animals , the second group included 40 animals suffered from acute TRP , finally the third group consisted of 40 animals represented chronic TRP. The results showed that TRP whether acute or chronic caused significant elevation in the activities of the following enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ,alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , creatine kinase (CK) , gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared with control group. It was concluded that TRP in buffaloes causes changes in some biochemical parameters in the serum.

Detection of brucellosis in sheep using PCR with other serological tests

H.A. Mohamed; A N. Saleem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 359-363
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168760

The study aimed to investigate the brucellosis in sheep herds that showed, disease and signs of abortion in different regions of the Nineveh province. The study involved randomly collection of three thousand blood samples from 22 herds of sheep and from each blood samples, 485 (sheep 425 and rams 60) were tested for Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) as well as Tube agglutination test (TAT), then confirmed these diagnosis of the positive and negative samples of RBPT and TAT by using the polymerase chain reaction technique. The results showed variation in abortion rates 11.9% in herds under study depending on the history of the condition, which amounted from 1.6 - 21.1 %, while the abortion rates in herds based on the examination of a Rose-Bengal reach 5.4%. It was also noted a significant increase in the proportion of infected males (rams) brucellosis which reached 50%. The study found that the percentage of compatibility between the RBPT and TAT of the serum was 90.7%. Using two pairs of primers, the first one, Brucella OMP2 (193 base pairs) use to identify the genius of the Brucella, while the other pairs of primers use as specific (731 base pairs) to identify the strain of Br. melitensis only. Application of Brucella OMP2 primers on some selected result of positive and negative samples of RBPT and TAT by using PCR technique gives compatibility rate reach 94.4%.

Detection of some genetic locations related to ascites in the DNA of broiler chickens using microsatellite marker

Th.A. Ezzulddin; N.M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 365-372
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168761

The objective of this study was to detect the genetic linkage map of ascites disease in broiler using microsatellite markers. Three different random groups were used. Three chromosomal regions distributed on two chromosomes were covered by this study, which were: The first chromosome the region 18.38-21.48 Mega base pair. The first chromosome: The region 127.01 Mbp. The ninth chromosome: The region13.5-15 Mbp. Four primers were designed; (PHS01, PHS02, PHS03, PHS04), for the purpose of detection and analysis microsatellite alleles which occur close to the selected regions. Existence of multiple alleles per locus was detected by genetic analysis, with a significant linkage for many of these alleles to the candidate genes for The Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome (Ascites); MAPK II, Rho- GTPase, AGTR 1. Therefore , there is possibility of using all the tested markers in the future programs selection associated with Ascites disease in broiler chickens.

 

Effect of dietary melatonin supplementation on semen characteristics in adult roosters exposed to oxidative stress

H.A. Hammodat; A.A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 373-379
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168762

The present study was designed to determine the effect of melatonin dietary supplementation 40 mg/kg in adult Ross 308 male chickens 24 weeks concomitantly exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (1%) with drinking water for 6 weeks on reproductive performance.Semen were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6 weeks. From the results no significant differences in the volume of ejaculates during the time of hydrogen peroxide treatment, while sperm concentration, mass motility and individual motility show significant decrease during the experimental period as compared with the control group, accompanied with a significant increase in dead and abnormal sperms during the experimental period as compared with zero time. Also, no significant differences in ejaculates volume in melatonin with hydrogen peroxide treatment compared with the hydrogen peroxide group and zero time, administration of melatonin with hydrogen peroxide caused significant increase in sperms concentration , individual motility at the 4th and 6th week and mass motility in 2nd,4th and 6th week compared with hydrogen peroxide group and the experiment period had no significant effects on sperm concentration and mass motility while significant increase appear in individual motility at the 6th week compared with zero time and 2nd week. Melatonin dietary supplementation in roosters exposed to oxidative stress caused significant decrease in percentage of dead and abnormal sperms at 2nd, 4th and 6th week compared with hydrogen peroxide group and there is no significant difference in dead sperms percentage during the experiment period while significant decrease appear at 4th and 6th week in abnormal sperms percentage compared with zero time. Melatonin supplementation alone had no significant effects on ejaculates volumes of compared with zero time and the control group , while melatonin administration caused significant increase in sperm concentration at 4th and 6th week compared with the control group and zero time and 2nd week and cause increase in mass motility and individual motility at 6th week of the experiment compared with the control group and zero time , the results showed that melatonin cause significant decrease in percentage of dead sperms during experiment period compared with the control group and zero time and in abnormal sperms percentage during the experiment period compared with the control group and then significantly decreased at 2nd,4th and 6th week compared with zero time and the control group. It was concluded from this study that the dietary supplementation of melatonin reduce adverse effects that produced by hydrogen peroxide on semen characters in adult male chickens, and dietary supplementation of melatonin alone has a good effects in semen characters in adult male chickens.

Affectivity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllus) supplementation as powder, oil and aqueous extract in feed and drinking water in amelioration of heat stress in broilers

Dh.Kh. Ibrahim; Kh.A. Salman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 381-389
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168763

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing powder, oil and aqueous extract of clove to diet and drinking water to alleviate heat stress of broiler exposed to cyclic temperature 28-35-28°C. One hundred and sixty one day old unsexed Ross broiler chickens were used. They, reared on litter for 4 weeks, and fed a starter diet containing 22.7% crud protein and 2935.7 Kcal ME/ Kg diet. From 4-8 weeks they were reared in five batteries, and fed a finisher diet containing 20.2% crud protein and 3034.8 Kcal ME/ Kg diet. Management and health instruction for rearing Rose broiler were applied.  Five treatments (four replicate each treatment) were carried out. Treatment T0 without supplementing clove to diet and drinking water; treatments T1, T2 supplementing 0.8, 0.4% of clove powder to diet respectively; treatment T3 supplementing 0.8% of clove oil to diet; treatment T4 supplementing 0.4% of clove aqueous extract to drinking water, this supplementation of clove to diet and drinking water was given to broiler daily for 9 hours from 900-1800 hours birds were subjected to cyclic temp. During which the highest environmental temperature 35°C from 1200-1800 hours. Records were taken during experiment period 4-8 weeks of age. The relative humidity was 45-50%. The results revealed that there were a significant increase in live body weight and weight gain in periods 4-8 weeks of age in T1 compared with T3, meanwhile feed consumption reduced in T1 compared with other treatments while that in T4 was increased compared with other treatments. Feed efficiency ratio improved in T1 compared with treatment T3. No significant effects in pattern of feed and water consumption at 6, 8 weeks of age except at 8 week of age since the pattern of feed consumption at 900 hour reduced significantly in T2 compared with T0. Body temperature decrease at 8 week of age at 900, 1200 hours in T1 compared with other treatments.T1, T2, T3, T4 reduced significantly at 1500 hour and increase at 1800 hour. Heat shock test at 8 week of age revealed a reduction in T3 compared with T1 at 26 ◦ C.No significant effects were observed in dressing, liver, gizzard, heart, spleen, abdominal fat percentage, however thigh protein content at 8 week of age increased significantly in T3 compared with other treatments. From this study we can conclude that there was some improvement in clove supplementation to diet and drinking water of broilers exposed to heat stress and that T1 (0.8% clove supplementing to diet) was the best treatments.

The effect of injecting hatching eggs with different concentrations of biotin on the quality and physiological characteristics of the hatched chicks

Kh.M. Abdul-Lateif; S.M. Abdulateef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 391-397
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168764

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of injecting hatching eggs with different concentrations of biotin at different times on the quality and physiological characteristics of hatched chicks. Six hundred eggs hatching (Arbo Acres) were divided into five groups (120 eggs for each group). Treatment groups were distributed as follows: To control group (without injection), T1 injected by 58 µg biotin at age of zero, T2 injected by 68 µg biotin at age of zero, T3 injected by 58 µg biotin at age of 18 days of incubation and T4 injected by 68 µg biotin at age of 18 days of incubation. The data showed that biotin injection contain 58 µg at age of zero lead to significantly increase (P<0.05) in body weight of the day-old chicks, length and width of breast, length of back, length of thigh, relative weight of the bursa of fabricia, spleen and glandular stomach. Significantly increase (P<0.05) in packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cells count (WBC), concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total protein, percentage of lymphocytes and significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentage of hetrophiles and the ratio of H/L.

Pharmacological safety and therapeutic efficacy of propolis preparation in experimental mastitis of ewes

K.O.S. Al-Jeburii; H.F. Hassan; D.A. Abaas

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 399-411
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168765

This study for the evaluation safety of uses propolis at (1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) concentrations (alone and synergistically with antibiotic) inside the intramammary the lactation period of the healthy ewes, compared with treated and control groups. The result of safety test indicated that the uses of propolis as intramammary infusion inside the teat cause some effects that disappeared later, like elevation of SCC in milk, decrease in milk yield, prolong residue time for propolis, in addition to the hardness in the consistency of the udder and enlargement the supramammay lymph node when compared with treated and control groups. Also there is significant difference between groups in milk composition. The second trial was to evaluate the Pharmacological activity of propolis preparation and synergism preparation and compared it with antibiotic and control groups in treatment of experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis in the udder of ewes, after confirmed the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus strains by Api 20 Staph, one isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was selected based on (its resistance to 10 of 12 antibiotic tested). The infected dose 5 cfu/ml of bacterial suspension was selected to experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in 25 ewes, After the appearance of infection 18 -72 hours post inoculation of bacterial suspension of Staphylococcus aureus in the udder by intramammary route in ewes, the ewes treated paraenterally by antibiotic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic drug and locally in four groups (propolis 1% and 10%) (8 ewes) which appeared very mild side effects, synergism between propolis and antibiotic (4 ewes), antibiotic (12 ewes) and (1 ewe) as control group. The results showed systemic cure in all ewes but with differences in the local clinical cure between groups according to the type of antibiotic and its company production without bacterial cure in all groups , so that make the ewes under the risk of reinfection under any stress condition.

Adrenal gland lesions and their correlation with cortisol level in calves slaughtered at Mosul slaughterhouse

M.M. Al- Hassany; K.M. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 413-419
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168766

Blood samples and the two adrenals were collected from 96 male calves at slaughtering in Mosul Slaughter-house through the period from 2/1/2011 – 1/3/2011 at ages ranged from 1-1.5 years. Cortisol level has been estimated in blood serum by using enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay (ELISA). Gross and histopathological examination was performed on adrenal sample. Lesions found were identified, classified their percentage of occurrence within the total collected samples percentages, unilateral-bilateral occurrence and also correlations between those lesions and cortisol level have been determined. The results demonstrated presence of multiple lesions at 68.43% of total adrenal samples, those were represented by congenital deformities included medullary tissue islets within cortex at 4.46% of the total examined samples, loubulated adrenal glands at 1.98%, accessory cortical tissue with capsule 4.95%, and accessory cortical tissue within medulla at 4.95%, also disturbance of cellular metabolism where noticed represented by cortical vacular degeneration, chromaffine cell vacular degeneration, cortical cellular cloudy swelling, chromaffine cell cloudy swelling and chromaffine cell coagulative necrosis at ratios 28.71%, 15.84%, 1.49%, 1.98% and 4.95% respectively. Disturbances of cellular adaptation included diffuse cortical hyperplasia, nodular cortical hyperplasia, diffuse medullary hyperplasia at ratios 11.88%, 2.97% and 3.47% respectively. Circulatory disturbances appeared as congestion and edema at 26.73%, adrenal hemorrhage at 1.98% and vascular wall thickening at 7.43% in total examined samples. Acute adrenalitis 2.97%, focal lymphocytic corticoadrenalitis 11.88%, capsular septal thickening at 32.67% represented the lesions of inflammation and repair in total examined samples. The results did not show an obvious correlation between blood serum cortisol level elevation and occurrence of adrenal lesions in calves, except accessory corticalm tissue within capsule , accessory cortical tissue within medulla, accessory medullary tissue within cortex, diffuse cortical hyperplasia and vascular thickening where the most effective lesions on cortisol level in calves blood serum.

 

Pathological lesions of respiratory system in pigeons in Mosul area

M.A.M. A. Al-Mola

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 421-427
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168767

Thirty pigeon were collected to study the most common lesions of respiratory system from 1/12/2010 to 1/3/2011, and performance the post mortem examination on these pigeons. The study demonstrate presence of respiratory clinical signs represent by sneezing, rales, respiratory distress, watery or mucoid nasal discharge and other clinical signs such as ruffled feather, loss of appetite, loss of ability of flying, watery or greenish diarrhea, restlessness, torticollis and mostly death. The most prominent gross pathological lesions were 43.3% of studied pigeons include congested pharynx, hemorrhage of larynx and congested of trachea. Petechial hemorrhage with congestion of bronchus and lung. 3.3% show tracheal and bronchus congestion, petechial hemorrhage on lung and opacity of air sacs with thickening. The prominent histopathological lesions observed about 26.7 % of lesions characterized by the presence of hemorrhage in mucosa of larynx, vaculler degeneration of epithelial cells of mucous gland in trachea and sloughing and desquamation of mucosa, hemorrhage in mucosa and congestion of blood vessels of trachea. In bronchus presence of congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage inside the bronchi. In the lung hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue and emphysema, 3.3% of lesions observed hemorrhage and hyperplasia of epithelial cells of larynx. Vaculler degeneration of epithelial cells of mucous gland in trachea, hemorrhage and thrombosis in bronchi with inflammatory exudate. In lung sever hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue with thickness of alveolar wall, hemorrhagic air sacs and thickened. This study conclude presence of sever pathological lesions in the lower respiratory system of pigeons due to infection with different diseases either bacterial diseases such as air saculitis, infectious coryza, or viral diseases like infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, Newcastle disease, circoviral infection, or mycoplasmosis and chlamydiosis, and also may be non infectious causes like increase ammonia level.

 

Pathological effects of subtoxic doses of selenium on broiler chickens

E.A. Al- Jubory; A.H. Al- Hamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 429-437
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168768

 
This study was conducted to determine the pathological sublethal toxic effects of selenium (sodium selenate) on broiler chickens. The 24h median lethal dose (LD50) of selenium was  0.72 mg/kg. Two sublethal doses were taken (0.02, 0.04 mg/kg) which constituted (3% and 6%) of the LD50. One hundred fifty one day old Rose broiler chicken were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, the first group was considered as control group (without treatment). The 2nd and 3rd groups were treated with natural requirement of selenium (0.3) mg /kg of diet. The 2nd and 3rd groups were treated with 0.02, 0.04 mg selenium/ kg (3% and 6%) respectively, orally. Eight chickens from each group were killed at 14, 24, 34 and 44 days of treatment and pathological lesions were recorded. The most important gross pathological changes in liver and kidney were paleness and petechial hemorrhage, congestion of the brain and heart blood vessels have been observed after 7 days of treatment in the 3rd group was more severe than that in 2nd group. The histopathological changes in liver were vacular degeneration of hepatic cells, hemorrhage and central veins congestion. Degeneration; coagulative necrosis of the tubular epithelial cells and interstitial hemorrhage in the kidney. The histopathological lesions were acute cellular degeneration; vacculation, hemorrhage and congestion of the brain blood vessels. In the heart there was hemorrhage with congestion and thickening of the walls of blood vessels. All changes were more severe in the 3rd group when compared with 2nd group.

A Pathological study of lesions in the liver of sheep in abattoir of Kirkuk province

F.M. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 439-447
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168769

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and classification of the hepatic lesions of sheep in abattoir of Kirkuk province in north of Iraq, the pathological lesions of liver was investigated on the sheep slaughtered in slaughter house during May 2010 depending on the gross and microscopical appearance. The results of this research represent the percentage of hepatic lesions which are 20.9%, out of 363 sheep that were examined randomly. The lesions that found are frequent and varied with different percentages. The gross pathologic lesions include parasitic infection in 26.3% percent. While the single and diffuse abscesses are about 22.3%. The congestions reach about 30.2%. Also enlarged pale liver observed and focal area of necrosis have been registered 10.5% respectively for each. Microscopically the most lesions that were observed are fibrosis with infiltration of inflammatory cells (Monocytes) which reach 39.4% percent. Followed by vacuolar degenerations and congestion of the central vein with sinusoids 34.21% respectively. The hydatid cyst were found reach about 26.31% percentage. Necrotic foci were recorded with infiltration of inflammatory cells (Monocytes) 25%.The percentage presence of various liver abscesses 22.36% while the percentage of coagulative necrosis which have been observed was 19.73%. Also the prevascular cuffing of the central vein reported in this hepatic lesions with proportion reach 15.87%. Fatty change recorded in 10.5% percentage and finally the dilatation of sinusoid observed in 9.21% of lesions. The conclusion of this study confirmed that sheep which slaughtered in slaughter house of Kirkuk province which clinically looks healthy, had hepatic lesions in a percentage of 20.9%

Effect of magnatic water on milk production and its components in Holestein cows

N.H. Alkudsi; H.R.H. Mazidawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 449-455
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168770

This study was conducted to explore the influence of magnetic treated water with different intensities on milk yield and its components in Holstein cows. This study was executed at the cow farm pertaining to the Department of animal Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdadduring the period from 2/11/2010 to21/2/2011. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows (average dailymilk yield 15 kg / cow/ day), aged between3.5to 4.5 years and with an average of initial body weight between410.5 to 505.67 kg. The cows were randomly divided into 4 equal groups according to their milk yield.The first, secondand third groups were drinking a magnetic water with 1000, 2000 and 3000 Gauss respectively, whereas. The fourth group drunk an ordinary water and regarded as control group. The magnetic water – treated groups were superior (P<0.05) in milk yield as compared with control group, from week 6 until the end of the experiment in particular. The average milk yield of the experiment groups during week 6 were 233.28, 220.28, 228.51 and 208.14 kg respectively. In week 14, the averaged milk yield of the three treated groups were 232.4, 223.92, and 232.75 kg respectively in comparison with 189 kg in control group. The difference among groups in milk components (fat, protein, lactose, solid non – fat) were notsignificant. However, significant difference in milk fat in treated groups was observed with comparison to the first and second treated groups.

Effect of some non-genetic factors in weight of Sharabi calves born under Nineveh province environment condition

A. K. Nassar; Q. Z. Shamsal-dain; N. Y. Abou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 457-461
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168771

The study was under taken to investigate the effect of some non- genetic factors (sex of calf, year and season of birth and parity of dam) on birth weight in Sharabi calves. Data from 137 Sharabi calves born in the Department of Nineveh Agricultural Research - Rashidia Station, during the period from 2005-2011.Analysis of variance indicated that sex of calf, year and season of birth and parity of dam had significant effected (P≤0.05) on birth weight. The least square mean for birth weight of Sharabi calves was found to be 22.96 ± 0.798 kg. The effect of calf sex on birth weight was highly significant (P≤0.05) , Male calves were 1.41 kg. heavier than females at birth. The spring born calves showed significantly highest birth weight (23.89kg.) than those born in winter season (21.84 kg.). Calves born in late parity dams (fifth parity) were significantly higher weight than those in early parities. Low repeatability estimate (R= 0.28± 0.01) was reported for birth weight in this herd. This implies that more records will be required per cow to improve the herd’s future performance.