Volume 26, Suppl. III - Issue Serial Number 4, Summer and Autumn 2012, Page 1-1000


Research Paper

Laparoscopic versus open total splenectomy in dogs

B. H. Jumaa; A. M. Al-hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 179-186
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168690

 Theobjective of this study was to evaluate a two total splenectomy laparoscopic techniquesand compare it with the conventional method.18 local breed dogs of both sexes was usedthey were divided randomly into 3 groups (A-C) of 6 dogs in each.In group A the dogs underwent laparoscopic total splenectomy with the application of titanium clips to close the splenic vessels in group B the dogs underwent total laparoscopic splenectomy by using the thermocautery while in group C the total splenectomy was performed by laparotomy. Blood samples were collected before and after operations to estimate the haptoglobin level in the serum. In group A the time needed for splenectomy was (47±5 min)in group Ba shortest time was consumed 2min) while in group C the operation time was (30±5min). The haptoglobin estimation revealed an increased level at the 1st postoperative day, and reached the peak at 3rd postoperative day, the started to decline at the 5th postoperative day and returned about the normal level in the7th postoperative day.

Interference of maternal immunity with immune response of broiler chicks vaccinated with Gumboro vaccine

A.A.K. Sheehan; M.N. Al-Shahery

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 187-192
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168693

This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of maternal immunity and to find the proper time for vaccination against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in broiler chicks with studying levels of total protein, albumin and globulin. One hundred twenty chicks were used and 20 of them were tasted respectively at age of 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 days. It was observed that the levels of maternally derived antibody (MDA) were detectable up to 14 days of age and then declined to low levels in 21 days using ELISA test whereas globulin level did not show any significant change during the period of study. One hundred forty chicks were used to find the proper time of vaccination; they were divided in to seven groups, and vaccinated with live attenuated intermediate vaccine against IBD with different vaccination programs. The study showed that the second group which vaccinated 7 days and boostered at 14 days old was the best one. Ten chicks of each group were scarified at 28 days and 35 days for blood collection. It was demonstrated that the second group presented a significant elevation in levels of specific antibodies against IBD and globulin.

Application of species-specific polymerase chain reaction technique depending on cytochrome b gene for beef authentication

E.A. Younis; R.A. Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 193-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168695

The study was conducted on imported beef meat (Indian, Brazilian and Australian), and spacement of minced beef meat (Al-jnobi, Al-sharabi) and Al-frezian collected from local grocery stores for beef authentication to differentiate them from others meats in order to protect consumer economically through applying Species-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction technique using n cytochrome b gene. Results of this study indicated that Species-specific PCR technique was very sensitive and highly specific for the identification of the meat type, also it was found that the designed primer on mitochondrial cyt b gene of beef proved practically proved to be applied on local and imported types of meat of different breeds, since gives the same molecular weight 365 bp in all the same bands. From five minced beef samples, one sample was pure beef, other one contained no beef at all, while the remaining three samples were mixed meat of beef, buffalo, goat and mutton.

Modified rumen fixation technique during rumenotomy in sheep

L.M. Alkattan; T.M. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 197-200
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168696

 The present study aimed to take an idea about the efficiency of modified using ruminal ring for rumine fixation in sheep. Five awasi ewes underwent digestive disorders according to its signs and case history these cases diagnosed as foreign body syndrome. Rumenotomy was performed, rumen fixed with modified winghart ruminal ring, time consuming and degree of contamination this criteria used as index to estimate the efficiency of this method of fixation during operation. Blood picture, physical criteria and clinical inspection include postoperative complications was recorded during one week to evaluate the activity, efficiency, its prognosis and postoperative complications of current method of rumen fixation.  The results exhibited bloat, loss of appetite signs accompanied with foreign bodies in most of operative animals, so fixation of rumen with such modified ring suitable for laparorumeotomy in sheep because of less postoperative complications. In spite of that there is some difficulty with using this technique as large volume of ring which some time led to slipping of ruminal hocks and the ruminal content may enter to the abdominal cavity.  There were no significant changes in physical and blood criteria. Data suggest hat rumenotomy can be easily done in sheep with a modified winghart ring.

Incidence of Eimeria spp in broilers in Al-Hamdania region-Ninevah

M.S.S. ALNeema; A.F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168698

This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and intensity of coccidial species in broilers (type Ross) in Al-Hamdania region, two hundred and forty samples were collected from the intestinal content of the broilers obtained from (20) farms located in the suburban regions: (Karakosh, Manara, Bazgertan, Karkasha, Kaberly,Karamles) within Al-Hamdania region by obtaining (12) birds from each farms. The results revealed the prescience of eight of Eimeria species in broilers these species were: Eimeria tenella; E.necatrix; E.maxima; E.mivati; E.mitis; E.brunetti; E.acervulina; E.praecox. The total percentage of broiler coccidiosis was 45%, the percentage of infection variant in different months, the highest, 80% during March and the lowest during October 11.11%, Eimeria tenella had the highest percentage of isolation in broilers 32.17%, while the lowest percentage of infection were E.maxima1.98%inbroilers.

 

Diagnosis and surgical treatment of the congenital defects in animals

F.M. Mohammed; R.M. Salih; R.I. Shiker; S.M. Hamoshy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 207-212
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168700

 A survey study was performed to record congenital defects in animals that brought to the veterinary teaching hospital of the veterinary medical college in MosulUniversity from July 1/7/2010 to March 1/3/2011. A total (15) cases of congenital defects were diagnosed and treated in this study including Atrasia ani 5 cases in ratio 33.33%, Atrasia ani et recti 2 cases in ratio 13.33%, Atrasia ani with rectovaginal fistula 1 case in ratio 6.66%, Umbilical hernia 3 cases in ratio 20%, Urethral diverticulum 1 case in ratio 6.66%, Ocular dermoid cyst 1 case in ratio 6.66%, Evisceratrion 1 case in ratio 6.66% and Contracted flexor tendon 1 case in ratio 6.66%. The most congenital defects recorded were in males 11 cases in ratio 73.33% more than the females 4 cases in ratio 26.66%. All of the surgical techniques used for treatment of congenital defects in this study were efficient and successful and performed under local analgesia by lidocaine 2%.

Immune response and interaction of avian influenza serotype H9N2 and Newcastle disease vaccines in Broilers

A.Sh. Ramadan; M.Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 213-217
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168701

 This study included measuring of immune response to oily inactivated Avian Influenza vaccine(AIV) serotype H9N2 injected alone in broiler at 1 day old (group1), also the measuring of Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV) Avenue VG/GA strain when given orally at 7and21 days old (gp2), then study the immune response interaction between these vaccines at same time (gp3), as well as the measuring of maternal immunity of both AIV and NDV vaccines (gp4), for this study 160 broiler chicks were used and ELISA test was used for detecting the antibodies in the serum of all groups. Results exhibited immune response to AIV (gp1) at 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 days post vaccination at the titer of 27.3, 28.2, 29.2, 46.2, 47.3, ELISA unit (EU), respectively. (gp2) show the formation of ND antibodies at 14 days post vaccination with titer of 31.3 EU which decline to 27.3 EU at 21 days, then elevated to 40.5, 44.1 EU at 28, 35 days respectively, then decline to 36.3 EU at 42 days post vaccination. The results of (gp3) show decline and irregular antibodies titers for both AIV and NDV in comparison with (-ve) control group. The results of (gp4) showed intermediate level of maternal antibodies against NDV but not detected against AIV. In conclusion, there was negatively immune response interaction between AIV and NDV when vaccinated in same broiler flock.

Role of age with some physiological and biochemical parameters in local female buffaloes

Kh.Ah. Al-Saedy; F.Kh. Tawfeek

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 219-223
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168703

The study included 90 buffalo from Yarimjah in the southern of Mosul city, divided in to three groups, the first group (30) buffalo (1-1.5 years), second group (30) buffalo (5-8) years and the third group (30) buffalo (15-20) years to study the effect of the age progress on some physiological and biochemical parameters as indicator of oxidative stress. The results showed that all of the red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume increased significantly in the middle ages compared with other groups of the study and the lowest value in the older age group, while platelets increased gradually and significantly with age increase. In addition, white blood cells increases significantly in the middle-aged compared with the study groups, and significantly decreased in older age group while the percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils showed the highest significant value in the older age groups and the lowest value at the small ages , lymphocytes showed a gradual significant decline with increasing age compare with other study groups. monocytes appeared in the highest significant value in the middle ages and the lowest value in the older and small ages groups, there was no significant difference in basophils between the studied groups. On the other hand glutathione appeared with the highest significant value in the middle ages and the lowest value in the older ages, while malondialdehyde increased significantly with gradual age progress, this is due to an increase in free radical production and oxidative stress that accompany aging process due to antioxidants exhaustion, which is a line of defense for the body against free radicals. It was concluded from this study that with age-progress have bad effects on blood constitutes revealed by reduced in red blood cells, white blood cells counts accompanied with decrease in glutathione levels and increase malondialdehyde and which are indicators of oxidative stress and this confirms and support the hypothesis of free radicals and oxidative stress and their roles in aging.

Effect of royal jelly on reproductive performance in cadmium-treated male rats

A.A. Hassan; A.S. Hammodi; Y.Y. Kasem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 225-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168705

 The present study was designed to know the effect of Royal Jelly at dose (400mg/ kg BW) to adult male rats receiving cadmium chloride at dose 0.5 ppm (0.5mg/1L) in drinking water given orally for 60 days on the reproductive system physiology. In this study 40 adult male rats 12 week old with average weight 200-300 grams were used and divided into four groups which are control group, cadmium receiving group, royal jelly receiving group and finally cadmium + royal jelly receiving group. The results showed that administration of cadmium chloride caused a significant decrease in the sperms count, the percentage of live sperms, decreased in the testis tissue level of ascorbic acid, number of pups / parturition in addition to that cadmium chloride caused a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperms, the days from mixing experiment males with normal females until parturition and decrease in pregnancy percentage compared with control group. Using of RJ alone caused reduce in the abnormal sperms but did not affect significantly on sperms count, the percentage of live sperms, ascorbic acid concentration compared with control group. Treatment of rats with RJ whose receiving cadmium chloride caused significant increase in the sperms count, the percentage of live sperms and the testis tissue concentration of ascorbic acid, associated with significant decreased in the abnormal sperms and testosterone hormone, luteinizing hormone and number of pups / parturition and pregnancy percentage was return normal values to compared with cadmium group. We concluded from this study that RJ has a protective role against cadmium induced changes in the physiological functions of male reproductive system in rats.

Pathological changes in liver and intestine of rats experimentally intoxicated by the alcoholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits

A. M. Rahawi; S. O. Youkana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 233-239
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168706

This study reports the clinical signs and gross and histopathological changes that occurred in liver and intestine of male rats given alcoholic extract of citrullus colocynthis fruits. The LD50 was determined by the up-and-down method. The second part aimed to determine the dose that does not cause death of rats but revealed the toxic effect of alcoholic extract of citrullus colocynthis fruits and reveal the toxic signs and pathological changes at 1-6th week of treatment at 300 mg/kg, orally. Result showed that the LD50 of citrullus colocynthis fruit extract was 373.7 mg/kg of body weight, while the dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight was the best dose that lead to appearance of clinical signs of toxicity during 1-2 hours after administration. The main clinical signs were depression, inappetance, accumulation in groups and hemorrhagic diarrhea; these signs increased in the second week and decreased in severity at the end of the experiment. The gross pathological lesions were congestion of the internal organs especially liver and mucus material was found in the intestinal lumen. The histopathological changes included fatty change with congestion of sinosoids and infiltration of inflammatory cells in portal areas. Mucinous degeneration with sloughing of epithelial cells and hyperplasia were seen in the intestine.

Survey on the most important diseases of the digestive system in laying hens and parent stock in Mosul

A.A.M. Al-Niema; S.O. Youkhana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 241-245
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168732

In this study investigate (100) pathogenic cases during examination 428 diseased hens (during production period) in Mosul city. The results of this study indicated that E.coli infection constituted the greatest percentage (34%) of the cases. The most common diseases caused by this bacteria found in this study were peritonitis (26 cases), followed by acute septicemia (7 cases), and one case of coligranuloma. Salmonellosis constituted 4% of the cases three cases of fowl cholera were recognized, two cases (2%) of Necrotic Enteritis were diagnosed and both were associated with coccidiosis (E.brunetti). Similarly, two cases (2%) of ulcerative enteritis were diagnosed. Among the most important viral diseases diagnosed in this study were Newcastle disease (the digestive form), six cases (6%) were recorded, two cases of lymphoid leukosis (one diffuse and the second nodular) were diagnosed. As far as parasites of the digestive tract, 7 cases (7%) of Ascaris spp., seven cases of coccidiosis were seen. Among the diagnosed syndromes, the fatty liver and fatty liver hemorrhagic syndromes, constituted 13 cases, Two cases (2%) of food poisoning particularly aflatoxicosis were seen.

Effect of mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus on milk constituents of Awassi ewes

A.K. Al-Hubaety; I.K. Al-–Radhwany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 247-255
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168733

The aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in milk constituents of Awassi sheep due to experimentally infection with Staphylococcus aureus which was isolated from milk sample of clinically infected ewe with mastitis. A total of 240 samples of normal and infected milk from both left and right halves of udder of 6 Awassi sheep before and after induced infection were collected from tested healthy ewes. Milk samples were collected through 10 days before and after infection with Staph. aureus. Experimental inoculums with Staph. aureus was done with effective dose 150 Colony Forming Unit. Milk constituents were evaluated with Ultrasonic Milk Analyzer (Ekomilk) before and after induction of mastitis to all milk samples to determine Fat, Proteins, Solids Non-Fat, Density, Lactose and pH. The results also showed that there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentages of Fat, Proteins, Solids Non-Fat and Lactose, but there is a significant increase (P<0.05) in pH. The right half of the udder after experimental infection of bacteria also showed the same significant results such as those in the left mastitic half due to transmission of the infection between the two halves, after inoculation of the left half.

Immune response for live and killed Newcastle disease vaccines (LaSota strain) in broiler chicks

A.A. Shamaun; A.A.A. Al-Hialli

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 257-261
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168734

This study was designed to determine the level of immunity and efficacy of body weight in different age in broilers by live attenuated with adjuvant and killed vaccines (LaSota strain). In this study used (8) groups of broiler, first five groups vaccinated with different vaccination program, another (3) groups as control. Results reveal that no significant increase in mean body weight at 18-28 days in all groups, but significant increase at 28-35 days age in groups (1,4) on groups (6,8) at (P<0.05). ELISA shows presence of not specific antibody in the sera at vaccinated groups in 18 days age, where presence of specific antibody at group 2 compare with group 3 in 28 days age, also specific antibody at group 3 compared with group4 in 35 days age at (P<0.05). HI shows presence of not specific antibody in the sera at vaccinated groups in 18 days age, where presence of specific antibody at group 4 compared with groups 1,2,3 in 28 days age, but where is 35 days age which presence of specific antibody at group 2 compared with group (1 and 5) at (P<0.05). The result of Maternal Antiboday revealed in ELISA & HI which decrease of specific antibody in broiler chicks at 8 days age. The result of Phagocytic index revealed occurrence of specific phagocyte at 35 days age in group 5 compared with group (7 and 8) and also presence specific phagocyte in group (2,3 and 4) compared with group 6 at (P<0.05).

Effect of cypermethrin and ivermectin against psoroptic mange in sheep

M. Kh. Shindala; B. A. Al- Badrani; O. A. Abdulla; N. A. Younis; R. K. Peters

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 263-267
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168735

The therapeutic efficacy of cypermethrin and ivermectin against Psoroptes ovis mites that caused psoroptic mange in sheep was evaluated in 10 naturally infected sheep of both sex 2-5 years old. Cypermethrin solution in 1/1000 dilution at once time for treatment of first group (n=5), showed better therapeutic efficacy against natural infection with Psoroptic mange, than ivermectin which used for treatment of sheep in second group (n=5) at dose of 0.4mg/kg body weight subcutaneously for once time also, the results was evaluated dependent upon the order of severity of skin lesion during 3, 7 and 14 day post treatment. Conclusion the results of that study was showed ivermectin can be used for treatment of mild and moderate cases of Psoropteic mange of sheep, while cypermethrin was used against sever cases.

Pathological lesions of kidneys in outdoor aviary chickens

S.M. Al-Hamadani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 269-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168736

 In this study forty (40) cases of outdoor aviary chickens from veterinary teaching hospital at University of Mosul. Gross lesions of Kidneys revealed 15% congestion of kidney, 10% from these cases was pale in color, 30% suffered from enlargement and congestion in the kidney, 25% from these cases showed enlargement and congestion and hemorrhage. The histological examination of the kidney show congestion in the blood vessels, also in other cases necrosis in glomerular renal tuft, while In the other histological sections cases show swelling and degeneration of epithelial cells that lead to narrowing the lumen of the renal tubule, in some cases showed infiltration of inflammatory cells (mononuclear cells), in additional there was another change represented necrosis and shrinking of renal glomeruli.

A clinical study for use of some reproductive programs in repeat-breeder dairy cows

A.H.J. Al-Bdeery; D.H.J. Al-Delemy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 275-281
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168737

The present study was carried out on 120 repeat-breeder dairy cows belong to the breed Holstien-Frriesian , Animals of the study was divided into two equal groups, first group (A) involved 60 repeat breeder dairy cows expressed nervous excitation signs and elevated heart rate at the time of artificial insemination, while second group (B) involved 60 repeat-breeder dairy cows did not express nervous excitation signs and have normal heart rate. Each group was further subdivided into six equal subgroups: A1 and B1 (control) was injected with 5 ml of distilled water, A2 and B2 was injected with Oxytocin after artificial insemination, A3 and B3 was injected with hCG after AI, A4 and B4 was injected with Propranolol before AI, A5 and B5 was injected with Propranolol before AI in addition to injection of Oxytocin after AI, A6 and B6 was injected with Propranolol before AI in addition to injection of hCG after AI. The result revealed significant differences of the conception and pregnancy rate among the sixth subgroups inside each group. The percentage of repeat-breeder dairy cows belonging A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 were 0% ,10%, 30%, 40%, 70% and 50%, respectively. The statistical analysis showed significant increase (P<0.01) in subgroup (A5) (70%) followed by A6 (50%), A4 (40%), A3 (30%) and the lowest ratio was recorded in A2 (10%) compared with control (A1) which did not record any instance of pregnancy. While the ratios of the repeat-breeder dairy cows subgroups which did not expressed nervous excitation (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 and B6) were 10%, 20%, 60%, 10%, 20% and 60%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P<0.01) in the conception rate of B6 (60%) followed by B3 (60%), B2 and B5 (20%) while the lowest ratio was recorded in B4 (10%) and (control) (10%).  On the other hand, in comparison between the groups (A and B), the results revealed higher ratios of all subgroups belong to A group at 0.01 level of significancy except A2 and B2 which revealed difference at 0.05 level of significancy, while A6 and B6 showed no significant difference.  The result of present study stated that the better reproductive program to increase the conception and pregnancy rate in the first group A was by injection of Propranolol in addition to Oxytocin hormone, while second group B was by injection of hCG hormone only.

Toxoplasmosis in high risk pregnant women and it's relation with some serological parameters in Nineveh governorate

B. A. Abdullah; G. Th. Al-Ubbyde

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 283-288
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168738

The present study included the serological screening of toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii as one of the abortion causes in (463) pregnant women aged between (18-40) years. They were consulted Al-Zuharaoy, AL-Salam and AL-Bitol hospitals in Nineveh Governorate. Tests for screening toxoplasmosis were latex agglutination test LAT and Modified MLAT by using 2-mercaptoethanol(2-ME) compound and ELISA to distinguish between acute or chronic infection. The level of Anti Cardiolipin antibodies type IgM (ACL-IgM), Anti-Streptolysin-O (ASO), Rheumatoid factor (RF), Anti-Nuclear Factor (ANF) were also estimated in the serum and the relation between these factors and the infection was also checked. Other important factors such as age, profession and contact with animals suspected in causing infection were also investigated. The results showed that frequency of infected cases was (79%) using LAT and(46%) using MLAT was (46%) while ELISA detected (37%). Eighty nine of pregnant women who have positive (ACL–IgM) also gave positive result for LAT. Seventy one percentage of them were active cases by using MLAT and (63%)by using ELISA. The result also revealed that (78%) of infected women were positive to ASO tests and only (9%) to RF test but no interaction between infection and ANF test were noticed.

Effect of Stymulan Cattle® feed additive on production and carcass traits in calves

A. k. Nasser; N. M. Abdullah; N. Y. Abou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 289-294
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168739

The feeding trial was conducted on twelve (14-18 month old) Sharabi calves of 184 kg mean body weight. The calves were randomly divided into three groups of equal number. The first group was fed a standard concentrate ration containing 16.3% crude protein and 2.8 Mcal/kg, the second and the third groups were fed the same ration supplemented with 0. 25 and 0.5 kg/ton for the 2nd and 3rd rations additives (stymulan cattle), respectively. The rations were given on base of 3% of the calves live body weight for 130 days and Wheat straw was offered ad libitum. Total feed intake and body gain were recorded. A digestibility trial was carried out on two calves from each group at the end of the feeding period. Body weights, slaughter and carcass characters were studied. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in daily body weight gain. The calves fed control and second rations were heavier than those fed third ration. However, calves of the 2nd group should better feed conversion and dry matter digestion index than calves of the 1st and 3rd groups. There were no significant differences in carcass traits and its meat dissection for the three groups. Also, the results referred approximately 10% of the total feeding in the cost to produce one kg live body weight or carcass weight. This decrease was in the 2nd group compared to other groups. It can be concluded that the supplementation of 0.25 kg/ton of stymulan cattle could improve the fattening growth of sharabi calves as well as improving the dry matter digestibility which in turn lower the feed cost. Which is in accordance with acclamation of the feed additive manufacturer.

Effect of vitamin E and C on sexual puberty, some biochemical characters and egg quality of quail (Coturnix coturnix)

S.Y. Abdulrahman; G.A.M. Alrahawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 295-301
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168740

 This study examines effects of vitamin E and C on puberty age of quail, some biochemical characters and egg quality. Birds were divided into 4 groups (14 day old), 3 replicates (20 birds/replicate) the treatments continued for 8 weeks. 1st gruop (control): reared on standard ration and Tap water. 2nd group: reared on standard ration and water supplemented with Vit. E (450 mg/ Liter). 3rd group: reared on standard ration and water supplemented with Vit. C (200mg/Liter). 4th group: reared on standard ration and water supplemented with (Vit. E 450 mg/Liter and Vit. C 200 mg/Liter). Results showed significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, total protein, globulin and the globulin: albuminratio of the females compared with males. Treatments decreased serum glucose and triglyceride and increased serum total protein, globulin and globulin: albumin ratio as compared with control. The interaction between sex and treatment revealed a significant decrease in serum glucose, triglyceride and albumen in all groups as compared with the female control, and a significant increase in serum total protein and globulin in Vit.E and Vit. C+E treatments. There was a significant improvement in globulin: albumen ratio in Vit. E and Vit. C+E group (females) and Vit. C+E (males) compared with other groups. The study revealed that the treatment with Vit. E and Vit. C improve some physiological and biochemical parameters and this was reflected in a reduction in puberty age and the age of 50% egg laying intensity and egg yolk cholesterol.

Relationshipe between lipid peroxidation and parasitic infection in birds

A.A. Ashour; A.I. Ahmad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 303-307
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168741

The present work was concerned with an effect of the different parasitic infection in pigeon on some importance biochemical changes in these birds such as malondialdehyde level (the last produce of lipid peroxidation) and cholesterol level. Stale these mode of studies are limited. This study include two major steps, the first stage includes diagnosis many types of parasitic infections in the pigeon body, which divided in three main groups; Blood parasitic infection, Gastro intestinal parasitic infections, and Mixed parasitic infections. After that the study was designed to investigate the role of biochemical changes (Lipid peroxidation and cholesterol) associated with parasitic infection in pigeons. Results of the present study show that Many parasites were diagnosed like Haemoproteus sp, plasmodium sp, Eimeria sp, Ascaridia sp, and Subulura sp. Healthy pigeon showed a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde when compared with the parasitic infected pigeon, in three types of parasitic infection, however blood, gastrointestinal and mixed infection. In comparative between the types or three group of parasites in pigeons, we saw that significant increasing in malondialdehyde level in blood parasitic infection compared with gastrointestinal infected, while there's no significant change between gastrointestinal infected and mixed parasitic infected, also there's no significant changeable between blood infection and mixed parasitic infection. The cholesterol level in serum of pigeon didn't show a significant change between healthy and infected pigeon.

Effect of different suture materials on healing of blood vessels in dogs

O.H. Al-Hyani; A.Kh. Al-Jobory; A.M. Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 77-82
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168742

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of 3 types of non absorbable suture materials in arteries and veins suturing. Twelve adult dogs of both sexes was used, the animals was divided into three groups of four animals in each. The right common carotid artery and left jugular vein of each animal was used for application of suture materials. In group one the blood vessels (common carotid artery and jugular vein) sutured with polypropylene suture after inducing about 2cm longitudinal incision on the vessel, in group two polyester suture was used in the same manner of group one, while in group three myo-steel suture was used in the same way of group one and two. The macroscopic and microscopic changes associated with each suture material were studied at 15 and 30 postoperative days. The gross pathological changes associated with polypropylene was that of very mild adhesion and very mild shrinkage and stenosis at the suture line with smooth blood flow, while the groups of polyester and myo-steel suture associated with severe adhesions, shrinkage at the suture line with poor blood flow. The histopathological changes showed that polypropylene suture lead to formation of very few amount granulation tissue at the line of incision, no signs of organized thrombus formation or significant changes of the blood vessels wall, but the polyester suture cause arterial organized thrombus formation and hypertrophy of endothelial wall, while the myo-steel suture lead to formation intense amount granulation tissue which cause to the thickening in the wall of blood vessels with subsequent changes in the normal shape of vessels. In conclusion the polypropylene suture was regarded better and superior than polyester and myo-steel suture materials in blood vesselssurgery.

Prevalence of helminthes, pneumonia and hepatitis in Kirkuk slaughter house, Kirkuk, Iraq

M.A. Kadir; N.H. Ali; R.G.M. Ridha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 83-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168743

The study was carried out in Kirkuk official slaughter house for the period from the beginning of July 2009 to end of June 2010. Macroscopic examination was performed to demonstrate the distribution of hydatid cyst, fascioliasis, lung worms, pneumonia and hepatitis and their impact on economic losses in the governorate. The number of animals slaughtered during the period of study was: sheep 50518, cattle 16177, goats 7662, buffalos 48 and camels 24. In sheep, the rate of hydatid cysts was 0.77%, with the highest rate was in autumn; liver flukes 0.36% with the highest rate in summer 0.33%; lung worms 0.19%, the highest was in winter 0.27%; pneumonia 0.58%, the highest was in summer 0.74% and hepatitis was 0.32%, the highest was in winter 0.42%. In cattle, the rate of hydatid cysts was 1.70%, the highest was in summer1.65%; liver fluke 1.27%, the highest was in winter 1.57%; lung worms 0.71%, the highest was in spring 0.94%; pneumonia 0.79%, the highest was in summer 0.88% and hepatitis 1.12%, the highest was in summer 1.16%. In goats, no hydatid cysts were seen; the rate of liver fluke was 0.14%, with the highest rate was in winter 0.51%; lung worms was 0.03% and only seen in winter and autumn; pneumonia 0.14%, the highest was in summer 0.25%; hepatitis 0.05% and only seen in summer and autumn. In buffaloes and camels, only 1 case of fascioliasis was seen for each in spring. The economic losses due to condemnation of organs of infected animals in Iraqi diners was: Sheep 4.840.00 millions, cattle 5.434.000 millions and goats 156.000 thousands. The overall economic losses were 10.430.000 Iraqi diners.

Formulation of oxytetracycline 20% injectable solution for veterinary use

D.A. Abbas; A.M. Saed; F. Majed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 89-93
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168744

Preparation of a new formulation of oxytetracycline 20% injectable solution was done for veterinary therapeutic use. Information about all the materials used in preparation of formula were collected from the well known pharmacopeia while analar material were provided and used to prepare about three pilot formulae, from which the final one was prepared. Stability of new formula was tested in different room environmental conditions by comparing any change in physicochemical properties concerning form, colour, transparency, pH in different storage room temperatures for 18 months as well their MIC value and bacterial inhibition rate formorethan 12 months. The results showed that the new drug proved its stability, antibacterial activity when tested both in vitro against E coli 0.78 was growth in which MIC was 0.2 µg /ml. It was also tested clinically in therapy of group of infected sheep and cows (4 each) with respiratory diseases, at the college of veterinary medicine, University of Baghdad as well as in the central veterinary hospital in comparison with other similarly infected group treated with common commercially used 20% oxytetracycline drug (Alamycin)® while control group treated with normal saline. The results showed improvement of the animals of both treated groups when compared with control one, which its animal health deteriorated and improved when treated with the formula. Both quantitative and qualitative results for oxytetracycline 20% formula as well as its physicochemical properties and steritity was tested by Board of drug and biological standardization, Iraqi Veterinary State Company (I.V, S.C.) and a certificate of approval of quality, quantity, antibacterial activity was issued by I.V.S.C. for new oxytetracycline 20% injectable solution and registered, it as new drug formulated by the College of Veterinary Medicine, university of Baghdad for veterinary use.

A study on epidemiology of hard tick (Ixodidae) in sheep in Sulaimani governorate - Iraq

M.A. Kadir; I.K. Zangana; B.H.S. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 95-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168745

This study was carried out for the period from the beginning March 2009 till end of February 2010 in three zones I, II, and III (Mountainous, Semi-mountainous and foothills and plane) regions, respectively in Sulaimani governorate for distribution of ticks (Ixodidae) that infested sheep. The prevalence rate of infested sheep in all zones was 298 (11.8%) in Sulaimani governorate, and the prevalence rate of infestation in zone-I was 85 (10.1%), in zone-II 94 (11.1%), and in zone-III 119 (14.3%). The rate of infestation was high in March, April, May and July in all zones; no infestation was observed in zone-I and zone-II in November to February, but was observed in zone-III. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, H. marginatum, Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were found and identified, two species were more predominant among sheep H. a. anatolicum in zone-III (Garmian region) 353 (70.0%) and R. turanicus in zone-I (Pishder region) 177 (59.4%), and H. a. anatolicum was found through March 61 (75.3%), April 89 (69%), May 92 (68.7%), and June 50 (74.6%) in zone-III. Hyalomma a. anatolicum and R. turanicus were found through March 22 (53.6%), 12 (29.3%): April 36 (41.4%), 38 (43.7%): May 46 (46.9%), 33 (33.7%), and June 41 (53.2%), 25 (32.5%) in zone-II respectively. H. marginatum and R. sanguineus were found in April 18 (14%), 11 (8.5%), and May 16 (11.9%), 13 (9.7%) in zone-III respectively, while R. turanicus was highly distributed in April 48 (71.6%) and May 57 (65.5%) in zone-I. According to linear model of the percentage of infested sheep in any zone by number of ticks was recognized and it was high in zone-III [3.1 + 0.23 Number of ticks (X)]. The ratio of male to female tick infested sheep was 1: 2 during the study. The site of attachment of ticks was observed; the highest number was noticed on the ears 492 (42.0%) and under tail 208 (17.7%).

Seroprevalence of piroplasmosis with tick distribution in northern Iraq

L.T. Omer; M.A. Kadir; J.S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168746

The current study was carried out on blood samples of 299 local breed female cattle in Erbil, Duhok and Suleimania, Northern Iraq, for the period from beginning of January till end of December 2006 for detection of piroplasmosis.  By direct blood smear examination, the rate of Theileria annulata alone was 45.1% while in mixed infections with Babesia was 11.7%. The total rate of Theileria infection was 56.9%. The haematological parameters of cattle infected with Theileria alone were PCV=27%, RBC= 5.6 million/ cm3 and Hb 9.5 g/liter did not vary from non infected ones. While in mixed infections (Theileria +Babesia) the blood picture values were decreased dramatically and were PCV=18%, RBC=4.08 million / cm3 and Hb 5.7 g/l. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA), the seropositivity of Theileria was 77.9%, while Babesia was 12.4%. The overall rate of seropositivity by ELISA was 90.3% for piroplasms while by blood smears examination the rate of infected animals was 56.9%. From 5804 ticks collected from animal body, the constituencies of the ticks were 81.7% H. anatolicum anatolicum, 15.3% H. marginatum marginatum, 2.82% Rhipecephalus appendiculatus and 10 ticks (0.2%) were not identified. The highest rate of ticks was found attached to udder and under tail (77%), followed by ears (20%) and hind limbs and around eyes (3%). The distribution of ticks was highest in spring 96.0%, followed by summer 4.0%. No ticks were detected in winter and autumn. The greatest number of ticks was in March (37.9%) followed by May (32.23%), April (25.85%), June (2.17%), July (1.68%) and August (0.17%).

Seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in domestic animals in Erbil, Iraq

K.A.H. Ameen; B.A. Abdullah; R.A. Abdul-Razaq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 109-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168747

 
Seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in cattle, sheep, goats and wild goats was studied in Erbil district, between January to December 2010. A total of 184 blood samples were collected from 44 cattle, 59 sheep , 70 goats and 11 wild goats for the preparation of blood smears and serum samples which tested against B. bigemina and A. marginale using the SVANOVIR®^ B. bigemina-Abs and A. marginale-Abs ELISA Kit. The overall prevalence of B. bigemina infection was 12 (27.27%), 4 (6.77%), 5 (7.14%) and 1 (9.09%) in cattle, sheep, goats and wild goats and for A. marginale 4 (9.09%), 2 (3.38%), 3 (4.28%) and 1 (9.09%) respectively. The co-infections between B. bigemina and A. marginale were 25% in cattle, 33.33% in sheep, 37.50% in goats and 50% in wild goats.The seasonal prevalence of B.bigemina , A. marginale and co-infection between them peaked in both spring and summer as revealed by blood smear examination and ELISA.