Suppl. II

Changes in blood gases and electrolytes in local calves affected with diarrhea

Israa A. Al-Robaiee; Maab I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 41-45
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.166411

 The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the blood pH, blood gases concentration , electrolytes and changes in some haematological parameters and total protein in Iraqi local breed calves affected with diarrhea from both sexes, aged between 1– 30 days old during the period from November 2010 to March 2011. The study was conducted on 40 blood samples (30 calves affected with diarrhea and ten clinically normal animals served as a control group). Results of the hematological analysis revealed significant increased in the means of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and total protein concentration in those affected with diarrhea in comparison with the mean of the control animals. The results also indicated a significant decreased in the means of the blood pH, Partial pressure of oxygen concentration base excess and the sodium and bicarbonate ions concentrations with a significant increased in the mean of anion gap in calves affected with diarrhea in comparison with the means of the control animals. After calculation of the bicarbonate ion: carbonic acid ratio the results showed significantly decreased in this ratio in the calves affected with diarrhea in comparison with the values in the control animals. On the basis of this result, it have been concluded that there are three types of acidosis including uncompensated metabolic acidosis, mixed acidosis (respiratory and metabolic) and compensate metabolic acidosis.

Research Paper

Effect of diphenhydramine on the changes in cholinesterase activity and intestinal motility induced by imidocarb in chicks

N.K. Ibrahim; G.A. Faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 47-53
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166874

This study examines and evaluates the interaction between imidocarb and diphenhydramine on the level of cholinesterase activity and small intestinal transit (SIT) in chicks. Imidocarb at 45 mg/kg,s.c. significantly inhibited plasma and brain cholinesterases, 30 min after injection by 69 and 21%, respectively. Diphenhydramine at 5 mg/kg, s.c significantly inhibited plasma and brain cholinesterase by 29.7 and 35.7%, respectively and significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of imidocarb on plasma cholinesterase by 33.2%. Imidocarb at 40 mg/kg, s.c. significantly increased SIT 15 and 30 min after injection by 92, 100%, respectively. Diphenhydramine at 5 and 10 mg/kg, s.c., 15 min before imedocarb at 40mg/kg, s.c. significantly decreased SIT produced by imidocarb alone by 80.6 and 70.5 %, respectively and prevented the SIT when given immediately after imedocarb at 40 mg/kg, s.c. by 100%.The data revealed that diphenhydramine has a beneficial effect in controlling the SIT modulated by imidocarb in chicks and there was no adverse interaction between two drugs at the level of cholinesterase.

Chemical castration in local breed bucks

I. A. Zedan; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 55-65
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166875

Aim of this study was to evaluate some chemical agents to produce castration in bucks and compare with the traditional method of castration in goat by using the tool (Burdizzo), in order to find a way less harm to the animal. 25 bucks of the local breed were used weighting between 24-40 kg, the animals were divided randomly into five groups each group of five animals each, the 1st group (control) were injected with 3 ml of distilled water within the parenchyma of each testis as control group, the 2nd Group was castrated by using the tool (Burdizzo), the 3rd group was injected with a mixture of tannic acid 750 mg, and 600 mg Caffeine in 3 ml of each testicle, 4th Group was injected with 750 mg tannic acid each testicle, The 5th group injected with 500 mg of tannic acid in each testicle, Gauge 18 Needle was used with aseptic precautions of the injection site and tools. The animal were kept under observation for 1 month for studying the clinical and behavioral changes, the changes in size of the testes was calculated weekly by measurement of testicular circumference using a measuring tape additionally ultrasound was used for detection of pathological changes in testicular tissue, for estimation the level of testosterone and haptoglobin, a blood samples was collected from the animal before the castration as a control and weekly for 4 weeks while collected in 3 and 7 days after for estimation of haptoglobin level, the gross pathology of the testes was suited at one month after castration the testes was collected by several methods including scrotal ablation, closed surgical with a legation of spermatic cord. Closed surgical with using the thermo cauttery as well as after the slaughter of animals then a biopsy was obtained from the collected testes for histopathological study. The results showed of the 3rd group signs of pain and discomfort and increased measure the circumference of the testis, the changes were the presence of foci necrotic in the ultrasound examination and the macroscopic changes was clear and with histopathological changes showed loss of normal structure to the testicular tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the results of measuring haptoglobine of this group significant rise after a week from the injection, while the 2nd group (Burdizzo) has shown signs of discomfort and pain during palpation with the lack of sexual desire or attempt to jump and showed a significant increase in the circumference of the testis, the changes were clear during the examination with ultrasound, the level of haptoglobine significantly increased compared with the control group as well as changes macroscopic and histological which was degeneration of the whole testicular tissues (uniform degeneration), and the two groups of tannic acid, 500 mg and 750 mg showed signs of pain and discomfort did not appear significant increase circumference measure of the testis with the disappearance of sexual behavior of most animals, and changes were presence of necrotic foci with ultrasound examination and the changes were macroscopic and was histopathological changes showed loss of normal structure of the testicular tissue with infiltration of a mononuclear inflammatory cells, while haptoglobine measure showing normal level. The examination of testosterone hormone showed differences in the measurements and these differences were evident in the group (Burdizoo) as a significant decrease in the level of the hormone. We conclude from this study the possibility of using chemical castration in bucks, using tannin acid 750 mg or 500 mg with an expected failure rate. الاستماع

Effect of dermal administration of cypermethrin on some biochemical parameters in male rats

A.A. Azeez; N. A. Al-Hussary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 67-73
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166876

Cypermethrin is synthetic pesticide that has been in use for more than a decade with low mammalian toxicity. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of cypermethrin on some biochemical parameters in blood and both muscle and liver tissue. Adult male rats were used to determine the median lethal dose within 24 hours and been relied on them to take the 1/10 of the median lethal dose to expose the skin of rats daily for periods of 4 weeks. The results showed that cypermethrin caused a significant increase in levels of glucose, creatinine,urea, uric acid and malondialdelyde and activities of aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma glutamyl transferase in the serum. There were also reduced the levels of total protein, albumin, globulin and glutathione in the serum. Glycogen levels in both liver and muscle decreased significantly. It is concluded from the present study that daily skin exposure to cypermethrin induced alterations in some biochemical parameters in blood and tissues of liver and muscle in rats.

Effect of reproductive season and semen collection on the concentration of some reproductive hormones of Awassi rams

Sh.H. Ali; M.B. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 75-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166877

The study was conducted to estimate the concentration of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) and Testosterone (T) in Awassi ram serum, the effect of reproductive seasons and semen collection on the concentration of these hormones. Six Awassi rams, aged 3-4 years and weighted 55-60 kg, were used in this study. Artificial vagina was used for semen collection every two weeks along the study period (July 2010 to February 2011). Semen samples were evaluated immediately after collection to determine volume, mass, individual motility and sperm concentration. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 min. of semen collection. The concentration of T was evaluated by ELISA, and concentration of FSH and ICSH were determined using the Immunofluorescence assay. Results showed that the average concentration of T, FSH and ICSH were 2.33 ± 0.22, 1.60 ± 0.20 and 0.53 ± 0.17 ng/ml, respectively. There was no significant variation between rams in all three determined hormones. The concentration of T and ICSH was highly significant (P<0.05) in autumn than in summer and winter. There was a significant (P<0.05) variation observed in concentration of T between summer and winter, while no variation in FSH concentration between the year seasons. The concentration of T during the reproductive season was highly significant (P<0.001) than its concentration out of season. There was a significant (P<0.001) increase in T concentration after semen collection. The concentration of T and ICSH has a positive relationship with ejaculate volume, and negative relationship with other semen parameters. The relationship was negative between FSH and sperm concentration and positive with other sperm parameters. Only a significant (P<0.05) negative correlation (r = -0.773) was observed between T and sperm concentration. The relationship was negative between T and ICSH and positive between T and FSH, and a significant (P<0.001) negative correlation (r = -0.663) was observed between ICSH and FSH. It be concluded that the higher sexual activity of Awassi rams was in autumn especially in October, and only the T was affected by reproductive season and increased after semen collection.

Neurobehavioral biochemical changes associated with acute administration of omega-3 in male rats

Y. Z. Salih; F. A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 83-89
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166878

The aim of the study is to determine the toxic effect of omega-3 on the neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field in male rats after 2 and 24 hr of treatment with 2000, 4000, 6000 mg/kg. The toxic effect of the drug on serum glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), triglyceride (TG) and glucose levels in male rats was also studied. In the determination of median lethal dose of omega-3, the result showed wide range of dose 1000–10.000 mg/Kg of body weight given orally without any mortality among the treated animals. The study appeared acute toxic effect of omega-3 by 4000 and 6000 mg/Kg of body weight given orally when compared with the control group. These changes were noticed by a number of neurobehavioral tests after 2, 24 hr of treatment. In open field, there was a significant decrease in the number of cross of squares and time of standing up of the rats. There was also significant decrease in numbers of head entrance in holes in pocking test. A significant increase in the negative geotaxis and cleft avoidance test was noticed after only 24 hours. In swimming test there was a significant decrease in score of swimming, while there was no significant difference in tonic immobility test after 2, 24 hr. However, there was no significant effect on all neurobehavioral tests by the dose 2000 mg/Kg the only significant decrease was noticed in number of head entrance in holes after 2 and 24 hr. In the biochemical tests, omega-3 at doses 4000 and 6000 mg/Kg did not produce a significant changes for serum GSH, MDA, TG, and glucose, compared with the control group. In conclusion, omega-3 is a non-toxic drug. Omega-3 produced neurobehavioral changes in high doses, without any significant change in lipid peroxidation, and serum GSH, TG, and glucose.

Examination of the reproductive system of cows using the ultrasonography

D.M. Aziz; I.H. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 91-96
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166879

The aim of this study was examination of normal and abnormal cow reproductive system using the ultrasonography. Twenty one Iraqi local breed cows were examined; 6 cows were normal with different phases of estrus cycle, 6 cows were pregnant at different stages, one cow at postpartum period, 4 cows suffering from metritis, 3 cows with pyometra and one cow having luteal cystic ovary. The cows were examined transrectally using the 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Results of study showed, that presence of small black spots on the ovary at proestrus which were indicated that presence of growing follicles, while the black area at the ovary was large at the estrus phase which was an indicator for mature follicles. The ovary of cow with luteal cystic ovary appears larger than normal ovary and has a large gray structure. The normal uterus appears with thin uterine wall and narrow uterine lumen, while in metritis the uterine wall was thicker about 2-5 times than normal uterus, also the thickness and ecogenisity of the cervix was increased. There was an excessive accumulation of fluid in the uterine cavity which was appearing in grayish color, while the accumulated fluid in cases of pyometra was unhomogenized and more ecogenic. Pregnancy diagnosis was very easy by using of ultrasonography, the pregnant uterus has a thin uterine wall and large black area which was the first indicator for pregnancy, also presence of caruncles was an indicator for pregnancy, while appearing of ecognic fetal parts was the best indicator for pregnancy diagnosis. We concluded that ultrasonography is a very useful tool for pregnancy diagnosis and reproductive disorders differentiation in cows.

Comparison between ELISA and other serological tests for diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep in Ninevah Province

O.KH. Al-Hankawe; M.S. Rhaymah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 97-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166880

The study was conducted to compare between the ELISA test and other serological tests (Rose bengal, modified rose bengal, tube agglutination and 2-mercapto-ethanol tests), for diagnosis of Brucellosis in sheep, and to identify the prevalence of the disease. The study included 5723 heads representing 48 flocks, 364 sera were collected from adults of both sexes from different seven geographical areas in NinevahProvince. The total prevalence of abortion was (%2.4) this value varied according to different areas. The highest in Telkef and Mosul center was (3.5%) and the lowest in Bahsheka and Shamseat was (1.9%). using the Rose-bengal test as a screening test to identify the prevalence of the disease, the total prevalence was (%11.8) and this value varied according to the areas, the highest prevalence was in Al-Shekan (22.7%), then Telkef (18.5%), while the lowest was in Mosul city center (6%). The study revealed that the prevalence of the disease varied according to the type of the serological tests were used. ELISA recorded the highest (15.9%) then the modified Rose-bengal test (13.4%), Rose-bengal test (11.8%), tube agglutination test (6.9%) and 2-Mercapto-ethanol test recorded (8.2%). When comparing the positive results of ELISA and other serological tests (Rose-Bengal, Modified rose-bengal, Tube agglutination, 2-mercapto-ethanol tests) the degree of agreement was (74.1%), (84.5%), (43.1%) and (51.7%) respectively. The results reveals significant (P<0.05) difference between ELISA and other serological tests.

Pathological changes on stomach of rats treated with a high dose of ethanol and the protective role of licorice ethanolic extract

M. D. Nasir; S. H. Matti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 105-110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166881

This study aimed to identify the lesions resulting from administration high dose of ethanol in stomach of rats for 60 days, also to identify the protective role of the alcoholic extract of licorice to reduce effects of ethanol. This study included four groups, group one considered as control, while the second dealed with the effect of ethanol alone at a concentration 40% and a dose of 3000 mg/kg body weight orally, the third group was a protective (alcoholic licorice extract at a dose 200 mg/kg body weight orally before two hours of ethanol administration), while the fourth group using of alcoholic licorice extract alone. Results revealed significant elevation in MDA level as well as significant decrease in the GSH in all treated group. Gross pathological changes in ethanol treated group showed the presence of erosion in gastric epithelium. Histologically, it has been showed the presence of necrosis in gastric pits and glands with atrophy of some of them and infiltration of inflammatory cells and hemorrhage, while the protective group showed presence of necrosis in epithelial cells linning the gastric glands and desquemation from basement membrane at 60 day, while the histopathological changes was mild in the group given licorice ethanolic extract alone. In conclusion, inefficiency of licorice ethanolic extract in reducing the effects of high dose of ethanol on the stomach.

Using ELISA technique for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in thick cream

S.D. AL-Sawaf; O.A. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166882

This study involved a disclosure of Aflatoxin M1 in 50 samples of thick cream (Gaymer), 30 were manufactured from raw buffalo milk and 20 were collected from local markets of different regions in Mosul city, by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The results revealed that 90% of the manufactured thick cream were positive to residual AFM1, with a mean value of 16.164 ng/Kg. Only 3.3% of the manufactured thick cream samples had a concentration values above the permissible limits. Within the same subject, local thick cream samples showed a higher AFM1 level than the manufactured samples with a mean of 29.158 ng/Kg and 15% of local thick cream samples had higher AFM1 than the permissible limits according to European Commission. (i.e 50 ng /Kg).

A study of different composting methods using effective microorganisms for disposal of dead poultry

D.M. Taher; D. Tabbaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 115-120
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166884

Saw dust, hay, poultry litter, dead poultry, moulas, perforated plastic tubes and plastic covers were used to make six composting piles using effective microorganisms (EM). For getting the best, speed, and efficient procedure, different methods of composting were compared. The groups were distributed in different ways from each other, i.e. hay was used only in some group, moulas was added in another group of experiments. Regular observation to the experiment was carried out regarding temperature, acidity and odors. The finding revealed that the groups of saw dust mixed with EM and moulas had good results of temperature, acidity, rapid disintegration and breakup poultry carcasses. Also, the experiment proved that the sole application of fresh saw dust produced rapid and best composting process in comparing with other groups.

Contamination of imported beef and contact surfaces with Escherichia coli O157:H7 in local retails of Mosul city

M.G. Hassan; H.I. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 121-124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166885

The study was conducted for the isolation and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from imported beef and its contact surfaces in local retails of Mosul city. Isolation and identification of the organism was dependent on the morphological, cultural characteristics on selective media, and the use of Latex agglutination test (LAT) kit as a diagnostic technique for identification of the organism. Out of 50 samples, (25 samples of imported beef and 25 samples of meat contact surfaces), 43 were positive for E. coli (86%). In details, from 25 tested beef samples, the positive samples were 21 (84%) while 22 samples from contact surfaces of meat were positive (88%) for the presence of E. coli. Four isolates of E. coli (16%) of beef sample gave positive results with (LAT) tests as E. coli 0157:H7. All positive isolates of E.coli from contact beef surfaces showed negative results as E. coli 0157:H7 using the same technique.

Effect of Iraqi propolis extract on Escherichia coli isolated from minced meat

M.G. Hassan; T.A. Abdulla; A.S. Al- Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 125-128
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166886

 In this study, Escherichia coli was isolated and detected from minced meat at a ratio (88%), (24%) was represented by E.coli.O157:H7, the others (64%) was related to another serotypes of E. coli. The sensitivity of E.coli.O157:H7 strains to antibiotic was tested and revealed that all strains was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (5 µg). The antibacterial effects of Iraqi propolis was tested using different concentrations represented by (1 µg, 1.5µg, 2µg) and compared with the sensitivity of these strains to ciprofloxacin. The results showed that the Iraqi ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) has antibacterial effects against E.coli.O157:H7 strains at 2 µg which gave inhibition zones at (19.27±0.38) compared with the inhibition zones of ciprofloxacin (21±0.32) while these strains are not sensitive to EEP at the other concentrations, these results referred to that Iraqi EEP active against E. coli strains isolated from meat at high concentrations.

Effect of magnetic water on productive efficiency of Awassi sheep

Q.Z. Shamsaldain; E.A. Al Rawee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 129-135
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166887

Twenty four pregnant Awassi ewes were used in this study, and were randomly assigned into three groups, first group, were drinking tap water and regarded as control group, second and third groups were drinking amagnetic - treated water with 500 and 1000 gauss respectively. To study the effect of magnetic water intensities on milk production before weaning, commercial, daily and total milk production, milk composition, hematological, biochemical parameters of ewes and lambs growth. All groups of ewes were fed on the same ration during the experimental period. Results indicated that increasing magnetic water intensities from zero (tap water) to 1000 gauss (third group) had significantly (P<0,05) increased milk yield before weaning, commercial, daily and total milk production by 23.03 kg, 10.51 kg, 33.54 kg, and 149 g, respectively. Percentages of protein, fat and total solid of milk, some hematological (RBC, WBC, HB and percentage of lymphocytes cell), biochemical (total proteinand globulin) parameters, and which finally increased significantly weight of lambs and ewes. While no significant effect was found between first (tap water) and second (500 gauss) groups, and between second (500 gauss water) and third (1000 gauss) groups in all traits  studied.

Study of biting chicken lice and its seasonal fluctuation in Erbil governorate, Iraq

R. A. Al-Iraqi; K. A. Hamad-Ameen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 137-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166888

A study of the biting lice on chickens and its seasonal fluctuations of species on local chickens were conducted in four locations in Erbil governorate namely, Baharka, Kusnazan, Koshteba and Kanikurzala. Also the estimation of infesting percentage with lice and its kinds. Results revealed the occurrence of six species of biting lice on chickens, the chickens body lice (Menacanthus stramineus), the feather shift lice (Menopon gallinae), the chicken head lice (Cuclotogaster heterographus), the fluff lice (Goniocotes gallinae), the large chicken head lice (Goniodes gigas), and the wing lice (Lipeurus caponis). The infestation with M. stramineus was heavy in all locations and seasons in comparison with the other species. The highest average number of the lice on a single chicken through all seasons was in Baharka location (340.8 louse) and the highest number of lice on a single chicken was 249.6 louse during winter.

Evaluation of the therapeutic bioequivalence for veterinary formulation of cypermethrin from different origins

M.K. Shindala; K.A. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 143-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166889

The bioequivalence are comparison of therapeutic efficacy of veterinary formulations from different origins containing the same active substance thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of cypermethrin insecticides for both Jordanian and Indian origins for treatment of sheep were naturally infected with psoroptic mange in dependent on the changes of scores of infection severity, differential leukocyte count and monitor the reinfection (reappearance of skin lesions). Sheep were naturally infected with psoroptic mange and treated with dip solution cypermethrin twice (14-day interval between them) 1/1000 dilution from both origins demonstrate significantly decreased scores of infected severity at days 7, 14, 21, 28 compared with zero day (before treatment) accompanied with positive changes in the DLC manifested by significant decrease in percentages of both eosinophils and neutrophils with occurrences significant increase in percentage of both lymphocytes and monocytes at days 7, 14, 21, 28 compared with zero day (before treatment).In addition, insecticides provided protection against infection with psoroptic mange because reinfection did not occur after 4 weeks from the second treatment with insecticide.In conclusion, both Jordanian and Indian origins of cypermethrin insecticide were equally in their therapeutic efficacy.

Correlation of malondialdehyd and glutathione levels with pathological changes of sheep liver infected with hydatid cyst

H. Kh. Ismail; E. R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 151-157
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166890

This study was conducted to resolve the hypothesis that oxidation stress has been accompanied the hydatid cyst infection. For this purpose, 50 hepatic samples of sheep origin have been inspected and results revealed for that hypothesis via the elevation of MDA and reduction in GSH levels of the germinal layers of that hydatid cyst. Furthermore, the results elucidate that oxidative stress status will appear both of the liver infested only with hydatid cyst or accompanied with other pathological lesions namely, coagulative and liquifactive necrosis, fatty changes and liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Detection of Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts in the faeces of domesticated fowls in Ninevah governorate

H.S. Al-Bakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 159-163
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166891

The study was designed to identify Cryptosporidium oocyst with the determination of infection rate in the faeces of local backyard chicken in Ninevah governorate. One hundred and forty freshly voided fecal samples were randomly collected from both sex of local hens aging between 6-12 months old. These samples were taken from ten various regions of the governorate from the 1st Oct. 2010 till 1st Oct. 2011. Two techniques were applied in this study, hot modified acid – fast stain was used to define the parasite species, while iodine stain was followed for determination the infective rates. Using hot modified acid – fast stain, C. baileyi was diagnosed and identified based on the measurements and diameters of the oocyst using ocular micrometer. Such dimensions were (4.6 × 6.2) micron containing four sporozoites. Out of 140 fecal samples, only 59 samples harbored the oocyst parasite in a percentage of 44.5% hens more than 6 month-one year ages and 33.2% for less than 6 months. However, higher infection rates were noticed in the females which were 45% versus 17.9% in the males. The infection rate was variant among different places which ranged between 25% and 55.6 %. There were significant statistical differences (P<0.05) in the infection rates of the geographical regions of the governorate.

Use of ELISA technique for detection of streptomycin residues in milk

O.A. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 165-168
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166892

This study involved examination of 45 milk samples were distributed as: 15 imported milk powder, 10 imported liquid milk, 10 local cow's milk, 10 local sheep's milk. These samples were collected from September 2010 to April 2011 at different markets in Mosul city (Iraq) in order to detect level of streptomycin residue using Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. The results showed that the percentage of positive samples of streptomycin residue in milk was 53.3%, and as follow 15.6% in the local sheep's milk samples, 13.3% in the local cow's milk samples, 11.1% in the imported liquid milk samples and 13.3% in the imported milk powder samples with mean value of 22.8, 20.1, 12.6 and 19.9 µg/kg milk, respectively. From these results, it is clear that all samples of milk had residual streptomycin level within the permissible limits and it is regarded as safe for human consumption.

Clinical, hemato-biochemical studies of equine laminitis in horses in Mosul

K. M. Alsaad; A. A. Abdul-Hameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 169-178
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166893

A total of 125 horses, 4-12 years old from both sexes were used in this study, among these, 100 animals were clinically suffering from acute and chronic laminitis and 25 clinically normal horses served as controls. Results indicated to the presence of different etiological factors exhibited laminitis in horses, such as dietetic causes concerned with consumption of large quantities of carbohydrates and lush green food ,post parturient metritis, repeated and Iatrogenic use of corticosteroids, bad shoeing, lameness due to defective legs, enteritis of different causes, pneumonia, pleurisy and babesiosis. Diseased horses exhibited different clinical sings according to the severity of the disease, forward the forelimbs or downward the hind limbs under belly with uncomforted standing, pain and increased hoof temperature, palmer (digital) pulsation, severe sweating, lameness with uncontrolled movement and recumbency, moreover, because of chronic affection, deformities and fissures have been encountered on hoof wall. Statistically significant increase in body temperature, respiratory and heart rate were encountered in horses suffered from acute type of laminitis. Evaluation of lameness according to Obel grad were also encountered in this study and results show, (12%) of affected horses classified as grad (1), (61%) were classified as grad (2), (21%) were classified as grad (3) and (6%) were classified as grad (4). Results were also showed significant increased in PCV and TLC in horses affected with acute type of laminitis. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia were detected in horses show acute laminitis. Laminitis have substantial effect on clotting factor indices and the results indicated significant decrease in total platelets count with significant increase in their size and distribution rate, moreover, significant increase have been also recorded in clotting time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastine time, in animals affected with acute laminitis. Results of biochemical tests revealed significant increase in Matrixmetalloproteinaes-2, hapotoglobin in horses affected with acute type of laminitis, however fibrinogen values were increased significantly in horses affected with acute and chronic laminitis.

Biochemical changes induced by general anesthesia with romifidine as a premedication, midazolam and ketamine induction and maintenance by infusion in donkeys

A.A. Amin; A.F. Ali; E.A. Al-Mutheffer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 19-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.167130

 The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the general anesthesia on same biochemical changes in donkeys. The anesthesia was induced by intravenous (IV) injection of romifidine 0.1 mg/kg as a premedication, after 5 minutes induction of general anesthesia by (IV) of mixture midazolam 0.1 mg/kg and ketamine hydrochloride 2.2 mg/kg in the same syringe. The maintenance of anesthesia was performed by (IV) infusion of a mixture of the midazolam 0.065 mg/kg/hr. and ketamine 6.6 mg/kg/hr. The biochemical parameters changes in serum levels of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity as liver enzymes and serum glucose were estimated in zero, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes. The results revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in the means of AST (U/L) between zero 199.6 with 30 min 192.5 and 60 min 191.5. No significant differences (P>0.05) in mean enzyme activity of the ALT and ALP. Serum glucose results were shown no significant differences (P>0.05) in the (control, 15, 30 minutes) and (60,120 and 240) respectively and significant differences in between and within 480 minutes. The general anesthesia in this protocol was good and had little effect on the liver function and showed increase in serum blood glucose in donkeys.

Detection of microfilaria infection in horses in Mosul city

E. G. Suleiman; S. S. Aghwan; O. M. Al- Iraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.167131

The study was performed on 78 horses in Mosul city were examined from April 2007 to September 2009 for the detection of microfilaria in the blood Twenty five clinically normal animals served as control. The percentage of the infection with microfilaria of Setaria spp was 30.76% they were sheathed, measuring 204-228 µm within a mean of 218.4 µm in length and 4.5-4.8 mµ within a mean of 4.62 µm in width. A high percentage of infection was reported in females 54.28%) with significant differences from that of males. No significant differences were noticed between the healthy and these showing some clinical sings or between these treated with ivermectin or non treated. Haematological changes indicated decrease in level of hemoglobin concentration packed cell volume whereas there was significant increase (P≤0.05) in total leukocytes count, anemia was macrocytic hypochromic type.

Effect of Synertox® on broiler health and performance during aflatoxicosis

A.M. Shareef; E.K.S. ar Om

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.167132

Eighty, one-day-old commercial male broiler chicks (Ross 308), were distributed to four dietary treatments with two replicates of 10 chicks each, to study the effect of Synertox® on broiler performance during aflatoxicosis. Birds were reared for 42 days. All birds were fed on diet with or without aflatoxin (AF) in feed, and with or without Synertox (ST) (enzymes, organic acids and yeast extract) in water. The treatments were as follow: T1 (0 ppm AF and no ST); T2 (2.5 ppm AF and no ST); T3 (0 ppm AF and 0.5 ml/l ST); T4 (2.5 ppm AF and 0.5 ml/l ST). Body weights and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 42 of bird’s age, five birds were randomly selected for estimation of antibody titres against Newcastle disease (ND; for calculation of the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen as well as for scoring liver and kidney lesions. The results show that the total body weight gain through 42 days of rearing period that the gain was highest in T3. In the second order was the weight of the control group (T1), while in the third order was T4. The worst body weight gain was reported in T2, in which chicks fed AF. The same picture in body weight gain was obtained with feed consumption and feed conversion ratio. AF had a significant negative effect on the liver parenchyma of broiler chicks in treatment 2, by changing liver colour from mahogany to enlarged muddy or even to yellowish discolouration, with friable consistency with sub capsular haemorrhages. The addition of Synertox® was effective in restoring the normal red brown liver colour. Kidney were also affected by feeding AF (T2). They were enlarged, swollen and pale in colour. All lymphoid organs tested, thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen were negatively affected by feeding AF in broilers at 42 days of age. Synertox® was effective in counteracting the negative effect of AF on relative bursal weight, thymus and spleen relative weights. Aflatoxin had detrimental negative effect on the ND ELISA mean antibody titre. A significant restoring of ND antibody titre to those of control group (T1) was recorded by addition of Synertox® to the drinking water of broilers in (T4) compared with the AF fed T2 group. From the studied parameters it could be concluded that Synertox® could be used in counteracting the negative effects of AF on health and performance of broiler chicks.   

Effect of hyperimmunized egg yolk on maternal immunity of Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chicks

A.Z. Al-Zubeedy; M.Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 35-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.167133

Hyperimmunized egg yolk (HIY) was produced in two layer hens by four successive immunization with live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV) by seven days intervals for each vaccination process. Fifty broiler chicks were used for treatment with hyperimmunized yolk. They were divided into five groups. The first group was treated at 14th days of age by orally and intramuscular injection (five chicken for each route). The second group was boostered with (HIY) after 7 days of first dose at14 days of age. The third group as that of the first group but treated at 21st day of age. The fourth group was treated at 21st days and boostered after 7 days. The fifth group was ten chicks remain without any treatment used as control comparison of all groups. Immune response was measured using HI technique.The results showed that the group of 14th day of age with booster dose gave high antibody titer by intramuscular injection (second group).