Volume 25, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2011, Page 1-67

Diagnostic and experimental study of Corynebacterium renale isolated from urinary tract infection of cattle

S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 51-55

The study includes isolation and identification of Corynebacterium renale from urine of cow apparently suffering from urinary tract infection. C. renale represent highest isolate 49. 99% followed by Corynebacterium pyogenes 24.24% from the total number of Corynebacterium 74.23%. on the other hand Staphylococcus saprophyticus also isolated from urine samples 25.75%. Since C. renale was isolated at highest rate we studied its pathogenesis via inoculation of isolate intraperitoneally into white Swiss mice. Results showed that C. renale type I has ability to produce kidney damage after 48 hr. post inoculation revealed embolic glomeruler nephritis with less number of C. renale, also there is infiltration of polymorphnuclear inflammatory cell and nephrosis, in addition to vacular degeneration, coagulative necrosis with blood vessel congestion in liver tissue.

Effect of Marek's vaccine on some lymphoid organs in layers

T. S. Qubih; H. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 39-42

The aim of the study was to examine experimentally the gross and histological changes in layers (ISA Brown) inoculated with bivalent vaccine (CVI 988 and HVT) intramuscularly at one day of age. Samples of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were taken at different period post vaccination. Results indicate, gross changes were characterized by atrophy of thymus and congestion, congestion of spleen, with presence of serous fluid in bursa of Fabricius in some samples. Histologically, the spleen at early stage, infiltration of lymphocytes was low and then relatively an increased in number on post vaccination days 13 and 16. Also there was high infiltration of these cells around the splenic artery in addition to their aggregation in the nodes. The bursa of Fabricius showed decreased infiltration of lymphocytes on days 4, 7 and 10, where as these cells increased in infiltration on day 13 after vaccination.

Histopathology of virulent Newcastle disease virus in immune broiler chickens treated with IMBO®

T. S. Qubih; O. G. Mohammadamin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 9-13

The effect of feed additive IMBO was investigated on histopathology of Newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens. Result osf this study showed no differences in histological changes of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens treated with IMBO compared with non-treated chickens.

Diagnosis of some helminthic eggs in faeces of ducks and geese in Ninevah governorate, Iraq

N. H. Mohammed; R. G. Mohammed; A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 5-10

This study included the inspection of 80 faecal samples for each of ducks and from geese from different region of Ninevah governorate from December 2008 to July 2009. Mixed infection was the most predominant being 44.92% and 22.66% in ducks and geese respectively. Parasitic examination revealed the presence of 17 species or genera of internal warm in ducks and 12 species or genera of internal warm in geese. The most common nematode recovered in ducks and geese was Capillaria represented with 38.75% in ducks and 42.5% in geese, while the common trematode species were Noticotylus attenuatus represented with 10% in ducks and 17.5% in geese. Raillietina represented with 22.5% and 50% in ducks and geese respectively as a major cestodes genus recovered.

Changes in some biochemical parameters accompanied with Brucellosis in native goats

Q. T. Al-Obaidi; N. A. Al-Hussary; S. H. Arslan; M. M. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 23-27

The aim of the study was to determine changes in some of biochemical parameters accompanied with brucellosis naturally infected native goats. The study included examination of 102 blood sera representing 396 native goats from different areas in Mosul city using rose bengal test, indirect ELISA test and tube agglutination test. Results showed that prevalence of brucellosis by using rose bengal test and indirect ELISA test was (6.8% and 24.5%) respectively. Titers of rose bengal seropostive sera ranged (1/80 -1/640), whereas titers of indirect ELISA seropostive sera ranged (1/40 - 1/640) using tube agglutination test. Results also showed significant increase in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and significant increased in alkaline phosphatase, there were also significant increases in glucose concentration, total and direct bilirubin, triglycerides and cholesterol, whereas total protein and albumin values were significantly decreased. All these parameters examinated on seropostive sera for indirect ELISA and tube agglutination tests in goats naturally infected with brucellosis compared with seronegative sera for same tests.

A comparative study for lung biopsy in dogs

O. H. Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 35-40

This study was conducted to compare two techniques for obtaining lung biopsy in dogs. Twelve adult dogs from both sexes were used in this study. The animals were divided into two groups, each group contained six dogs. In both groups, the animals were applied under right thoracotomy for lung biopsy collection from the middle lobe. In group one the lung biopsy was obtained by removal of a piece of lung tissue with a scalpel and the cut edge was sutured by two rows of continuous horizontal matters and simple continuous patterns where as in group two the biopsy was collected using a therom-cautery device and the cut edge was left without suturing. Gross and histopathological changes were examined on postoperative days 15 and 30. The gross pathological changes in group one after 15 day revealed presence of severe adhesions between the cutting site and pleura where as the adhesion was less after 30 postoperative day. The pulmonary tissue at site of biopsy collection relatively became hard especially near the suture line. Group two showed no adhesion on postoperative day 15 but the adhesion appeared on postoperative day 30 between the sites of cauterization with the other lung lobes which varied from simple to moderate adhesion while the lung tissue at cauterization site had approximately the same consistency of normal lung tissues. The histopathlogical changes in group one was characterized by formation of inflammatory nodules and high infiltration of inflammatory cells particularly polymorphonucular cells with presence of pulmonary hemorrhage and edema in the cutting site. Group two showed lesser histopathological changes and they were associated with lesser mononuclear inflammatory cells where as hemorrhage and edema were not developed on the cutting site. In conclusion, the use of thermo-cautery device to obtain the lung biopsy is simple, fast, less invasive and more aseptic than use the cutting and suturing method.

Isolation and identification of conjunctival bacteria in cattle in Mosul

N. S. Mechael; H. F. Al-Abidy; H. H. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 11-14

This study included examination of (120) eye swabs, from cows from different ages and regions in Mosul city. This study extended from September – December 2009. The samples were collected from clinically healthy and infected eyes of animals. 11 bacterial species were isolated they included Staphylococcus spp. 22.4%, Bacillus spp. 18.2%, Corynebacterium 17.6%, Streptococcus spp. 7%, Staphylococcus aureus 8.2%, Moraxella bovis 10.6%, E. coli 5.9%, Pseudomonas spp. 4.7%, Klebsiella spp. 2.4%, Micrococcus spp. 1.8%, Proteus spp. 1.2%. The isolated bacteria were 170, Gram positive bacteria were 128/170 while Gram negative bacteria 42/170 (24.7%). Many types of bacteria isolated from healthy swabs 110 (64.7%) and 60 (35.3%) from infected swabs.

Effect of Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S® on rumen ecosystem in rams

M. O. Abdul-Majeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 29-33

The effect of two antimicrobials (Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S®) on sheep rumen ecosystem (pH, viscosity, microbial activity and protozoal activity) was investigated in adult rams. The rams were randomly divided into two groups; each group included four rams dosaged orally one time daily for three successive days according to the manufacturer recommendations. Ruminal fluid was analyzed before dosage, after 24 hrs of the first, second and third doses, and after 3, 7 and 10 days after the last dose (3rd dose). No significant differences in ruminal fluid pH and viscosity with oral antimicrobial administration were noticed. Microbial activity tests used (methylene blue reduction test and floatation/sedimentation test) showed a significant reduction of microbial activity of rumen (P<0.05) without differences in staining characters of bacterial population. Protozoal activity of the rumen was influenced significantly (P<0.05) by oral antimicrobials with some differences between Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S®. It was concluded from this study that dosing of Diarrheastat® and Enrosol-S® orally to rams one time daily for three successive days had an obvious effects on microbial and protozoal activity of the rumen.

Experimental histopathological study of chicks infected with Cryptosporidium baileyi isolated from wild pigeons in Mosul

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 43-49

The aim of this study was to investigate naturally occurring cryptosporidiosis in pigeons in Mosul city as well as the pathology of experimental C. baileyi infection in chicks. Prevalence of the naturally occurring cryptosporidiosis in the pigeons was 30% according to morphological features of the isolated oocysts and distribution of the lesions of the experimental infection in chicks, the cryptosporidium was diagnosed as C. baileyi. Using a dose of 1000 oocysts, the infection was induced in chikens. Oocysts shedding was noted in the infected chickens at the 7th post – infection (p.i.) day and increased till the 15th p.i. day. Infected chicks showed dullness and anorexia. Microscopically p.i. day 7, there were necrosis of the tips of some of the intestinal villi, mucinous degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, and the presence of large numbers of the parasite in the tips of the intestinal villi. On p.i. day 10, necrosis of the tips of the villi was more extensive and the necrotic cells were sloughed into the lumen and accumulated as debris. Inflammatory mononuclear cells were seen infiltrating the various layers of the intestine. Similar but more extensive lesions were seen on p.i. day 15.

Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil) on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

H. S. Alnaemi; S. D. Alsawaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 21-27

The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g) in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05) in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1%) was significantly more affective (P<0.05) as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3%) respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05) in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3%) and oil (0.3% and 1%) were observed in treated soft white cheese.

Detection of parasitic nematodes in some fresh water fishes in khazir river in Ninevah governorate

M. Gh. Zangana; A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 29-38

A total of 200 freshwater fishes belonging to 7 species include, ALburnus capito, Barbus gryous, B. xanthopterus, Chondrostoma regius, Varcorhinus trutta and Liza abu, were collected form Al-Khazir river, Ninevah governorate (about 37 Km east of Mosul city), during the period from October 2006 to April 2007. All fishes were inspected for detection of nematode worms. The study reveals presence of 12 fishes infected with nematode worms, from the total fishes inspected with the prevalence of 6%. In this study also recorded 10 species of nematodes infecting freshwater fishes 3 genera of them recorded for the first time in Iraq are Raphidscaris sp., Anisakis sp. and Eustrongylides sp. in addition to the species Cucullanellus minutus, and Rhabdochona khazirensis as new species.

Humoral immunity resulted from vaccination with Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine given subcutaneously and intraocularly in goats

B. M. Yahiya; M. J. Mohamed; I. I. Aldabagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

The aim of this study was to evaluate the humeral immune response induced by administration of smooth strain of B. melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine (1-2× 109 viable organism per dose) given by subcutaneous and intraocular routes in goats. Rose Bengal test was done to ensure the absence of Brucella infection in experimental animals and the 2- ME agglutination test was used to evaluate the antibody titers. The results showed that subcutaneous group showed positive results in 80% of animals whereas 38.5% of intraocular group showed positive results.

Changes in some blood parameters in lactating female rats and their pups exposed to lead: effects of vitamins C and E

A. A. Hassan; H. M. Jassim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

The present work was designed to examine the changes in some blood parameters in lactating rats treated with lead acetate (10 mg /kg B.W. orally) and its interaction with vitamin E (600 mg/kg diet) or vitamin C (100 mg/kg B.W. orally) during lactation period (20 days) and their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant decrease in packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), body weight, mean corpuscular heamoglobin concentration (MCHC) whereas the white blood cells count (WBC), total proteins, the percentage of monocyte and mean corpuscular volume(MCV) significantly increased administration of lead acetate to female lactating rats produced a significant decrease in PCV, Hb, RBC, MCHC, body weight, and the percentage of the neotrophils in their pups. But the WBC count, total proteins, the percentage of lymphocyte, monocyte, MCV a significantly increased in their pups. Treatment dams with vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate increased the PCV, Hb, MCHC, whereas percentage of monocyte significantly decreased, PCV, Hb, RBC, the percentage of neutrophils a significantly increased, whereas WBC count, the percentage of lymphocyte decreased significantly in their pups of this group of dams. Treatment dams with vitamin C concomitantly with lead acetate significantly increased the PCV, MCV, whereas percentage of monocytes significantly decreased, but Hb, PCV and RBC significantly increased in their pups. It could be concluded that treatment female lactating rats with vitamin E or C concomitantly with lead acetate exert an antioxidant effect on blood constituent in dams and their pups and vitamin E more effective than vitamin C.

Study of pathological changes of kidney associated with some diseases in broilers

M. Z. Mahmood; H. Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 15-21

Seventy kidney samples of broiler chickens 3-6 weeks old were collected from private chicken farms in Mosul province, used to study gross and histopathological changes in the kidneys. The most prominent gross pathological changes were variable ranging from swelling and congestion of kidney with petechial hemorrhage on the cortex to swelling and congestion w while other cases of kidney appears pale and small in size. Histopathological changes of the kidneys were characterized by acute tubular nephrosis leading to necrosis and desquamation of epithelial lining the renal tubules degeneration of the epithelial cell of renal tubules to diffuse degeneration of the epithelial cells of renal tubules leading to necrosis and desquamation of epithelial cells. Additionally there is infiltration of inflammatory cells (Lymphocytes) in the interstitial tissue of the kidney. In other samples the histological changes appears as proliferation in the mesengial cell of glomeruli with sever hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue. Also there is hyaline degeneration in the renal glomeruli. Moreover visceral gout was seen in some samples of kidney characterized by deposition of urates as clefts in the lumen of renal tubules with infiltration of inflammatory cells especially foreign body giant cell and macrophages in addition to congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue. From the result of the present study it was concluded that renal pathological changes occurred in broiler chicken associated with many diseases.

Isolation and identification of some bacteria causing subclinical mastitis in cows

A.S. Sadoon; M. M. H.Al-Jammaly; B. A. Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 63-67

Isolation and identification of different type of bacteria from milk samples of 20 clinically healthy cow from different area in Mosul city between the period from May 2007 to May 2008 was carried out. The quality of the milk was screened using white side test. Identification of the isolate was carried out depend on the morphology of colony and biochemical test. The results indicated that total percentage of the infectivity of milk was (80%). The coagulase negative Staphyloccoci (CNS) was dominant. The more frequent from them was Staphylococcus sciuri which was (21.8%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (18.7%), Streptococcus spp. (15.6%) then G-ve Coccobacill, Arcanobacterium pyogenes (9.3%) and Micoccocus (3.1%). Staphylococcus sciuri and CNS were more sensitive to Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin but resistance to Ampicillin and Penicillin G.