Volume 25, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2011, Page 43-115


Diagnosis of some pathological causes of respiratory infections in broilers in Al-Hamdaniya

M. Y. Al-Attar; N. S. Mekhael; B. I. AL-Taii; S. Y. AL-Barrodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 83-86

Pathological causes of respiratory infections in five broilers flocks in Al-Hamdanyia region were studied. Each flock consisted of 5000-7000 birds at 20-40 days of old which suffered from respiratory infection signs with high mortality ratio. Specific ELISA kit for avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and infectious bronchitis disease virus (IBV), were used as sera diagnostic tests as well as bacteriological isolation. Results shows (AIV) infections at all flocks with nearly similar percentages which were 14%, 15%, 18%, 13%, 10% respectively, (NDV) were recorded at three flocks of older ages with 8%, 12%, 20% at the flocks number 3-5 respectively but no any infection of (IBV) infection was recorded. Bacteriological isolation shows E.coli infections in three flocks with 20% at each of the flocks number 3 and 5 but it was 10% in the flock number 4, also three Gram positive bacteria were isolated, Streptococcus fecalis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, and Staphylococcus aureus at nearly similar percentages ranged from 5% - 20%. In conclusion the real cause of respiratory infection in this study was (AIV) which causes bird immune suppression leading to other disease infections like (NDV), and other bacterial infections.

Effect of nitrate poisoning on some biochemical parameters in rats

J. S. Hassan; M. B. Mahmood; O. H. Azeez

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 47-50

The present study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of potassium nitrate on glucose, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the possible ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Male Wister rats are used as experimental model divided into three groups (each of 6-8 rats) and treated for six weeks as follows: Group 1: served as control; Group 2: received 2 % potassium nitrate added to the forage and Group 3: received 2 % potassium nitrate together with 1 % ascorbic acid added to rat's forage. Nitrate treatment in group 2 leads to high significant increase levels of glucose in 3rd, 4th, and 5th weeks, cholesterol level increased significantly in both 4th and 5th weeks, while ALT levels increased in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks, and AST increased significantly in the 5th and 6th weeks. Addition of ascorbic acid with potassium nitrate, lead to reverse all the parameters nearly to normal. It was concluded that potassium nitrate causes significant toxic effect on some biochemical parameters which was ameliorated by ascorbic acid.

Effect of omentum graft on esophageal anastomosis in dogs

A. K. Mahdi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 65-70

This aim of this study was to evaluate the complications and final function outcome of wrapping nonvascularized omentum graft around the suture line of esophageal anastomosis. Twelve adult local breed dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into two equal groups (control and treated), all animal induced into general anesthesia by injection of atropen sulphate in a dose 0.04 mg/kg B.W, intramuscularly then after 15 minute given mixture of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride in doses 15 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg B.W intramuscularly respectively. An oblique resection of about 1cm of the esophageal length and anastomosis by double layer of simple interrupted pattern by 2.0 cat gut suture (control group), same procedure was done in treated group except the wrapping the anastomosis site with patch of omentum tissue after lapratomy operation in the left flank region procedure. The clinical signs of treated animal revealed signs of dysphagia and regurgitation in treated group while this signs disappear in the control group. Radiological and histopathological examination of the anastomosis site performed at 15 and 30 days post operation. Radiological study recorded high degree of stenosis in the anastomosis site in treated group at 15 and 30 days post operation in compared with animals in control group that record mean degree of stenosis in treated group at 15 day (57.61±0.2) and at 30 day (55.78±0.2) while it recorded in control group at 15 day (39.34±1.04) and at 30 day (36.0.6 ±0.9), histopathological results recorded enhanced healing of anastomosis site in treated animals more than control animals. In conclusion we found that non vascularized omental graft prevent leak when used around the anastomosis line in esophageal and enhanced healing of anastomosis line but it increase the stenosis, fibrosis and adhesion of anastomosis site with surrounding muscle and this interferes with the swallowing as well as dysphagia and regurgitation.

Treatment of hyper-granulated limb wounds in horses

M. J. Eesa; O. A. Bader

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 71-80

This study was performed to investigate the different methods of treating hyper granulation tissue on experimentally induced wounds in equine limbs. Wounds were induced by removal of a skin patch and subcutaneous tissue for about 5-7 cm width and 6-8 cm in length from the dorsal and lateral aspect of the fore and hind limbs below the carpal and tarsal joints. The wounds were left open without treatment and the animals were trained 2-2.5 hours every day for about 3-5 weeks until hyper granulation tissue was developed. The schedule for the treatment of hyper granulation was divided into five groups each contained eight wounds of hyper granulation tissue; each main group was divided into two subgroups. The subgroups of first, second, third, fourth and fifth groups were treated by the following schedules: bandage alone; copper sulphate ointment 10%; silver nitrate ointment 2%; red mercury ointment 11%; and laser therapy (at a total dose of 9.72 Joule / cm2) respectively. While the second subgroups were treated by surgical resection of the hyper granulation tissue, followed by the same treatments applied on the first subgroup. The bandage for all experimental groups was changed every 48 hours until healing was occurred. The clinical and histological observation of the first group revealed that the healing take long period comparing with other groups. The mean of wound healing were 65 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup, while 57 days in surgical removed of hyper granulation tissue subgroup. The results of the second, third, fourth groups revealed that the caustic material especially red mercury has a role in healing processes through depressing the hyper granulation tissue. The mean of wound healing of the second group was 42.25 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 37.25 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. In the third group the mean of wound healing was 45.75 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 44.75 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. While in the fourth group the mean of wound healing was 39 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 36 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. In the fifth group the clinical and histological observation revealed that the using of laser lead to reduce the period for wound healing significantly comparing with other groups. The mean of wound healing was 25 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 20 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup, so that the laser was the best in this study and the using of surgical removal is better than of non surgical removal.

Effect of laser treatment on thyroid gland hormones in female rabbits

I. F. R. Mohammed; T. S. Al- Azawi; N. S. AL-Mustawfi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 61-64

This study was designed to investigate the effect of laser treatment on thyroid functions and hormones in female rabbits. A total of 18 female rabbits were used in this investigation. Six rabbits were used for examining the thyroid gland location and dissected to be sure that laser therapy will be directed to this gland. Twelve female rabbits were used in this experiment to study the physiological effect of laser therapy (4J/cm2) on normal thyroid function they were divided into two equal groups, six used as control and the others were exposed to laser therapy at the thyroid gland region for three successive days for 5 minutes on each side. Then blood was collected for hormonal assay from ear vein at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after the last dose of laser treatment. The results revealed a gradual decrease in serum T3 and T4 levels with a concomitant increase in TSH level at the first eighteen days of laser treatment, then normalization of hormones level were take place to be normal after thirty days. More work is needed on this subject to examine the specific role of laser on glands.

The effect of propolis feed supplementation on hygiene and performance of broiler chickens

T. A. Abdulla; M. G. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 77-82

Propolis is a natural substance produced by worker bees from trees and leaf buds. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of two concentrations (200, 400 mg/kg diet) of propolis on some performance traits and hygienic parameters of broiler chickens body weight, feed conversion, feed consumption, during an eight weeks experiment, weights of internal organs, and dressing percentage also recorded. The results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to significant increase (P<0.05) in eighth-week body weight (2306.27) g, feed consumption especially in the fourth week, maximum daily growth rate (55.52) gm was obtained from the treatment of 400 mg/kg in the seventh week period. Also propolis lead to improve feed conversion efficiency in the second, third and fourth week of age for the broilers fed diet with 400 mg/kg (1.35, 1.59, 1.95), respectively. Average of proportional weights for each of the liver, heart, thighs, and dressing percentage (74.0%) were improved among birds of this treatment, too.

Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

N. Y. Abou; N. M. Abdullah; A. K. Nasser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 87-92

The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM) at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP) and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME) diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

E. T. Butty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 43-46

A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot) and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107), while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107). This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

Isolation and identification of bacteria causing arthritis in chickens

B. Y. Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 93-95

Sixty chickens 30-55 days old with arthritis symptoms, were collected from different broiler chickens farms, all samples were examined clinically, post mortem and bacterial isolation were done. The results revealed isolation of 26 (50.98%) of Staphylococcus aureus, which were found highly sensitive to amoxycillin. The experimental infection of 10 chickens was carried out on 35 days old by intravenous inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis occurred in 8 (80%) chickens. Clinical signs and post mortem findings confined to depression, swollen joints, inability to stand.

Fate of macrosarcocyst of Sarcocystis gigantea in sheep

L.Y. Khalil; E. R. Kennany; N. S. Al-Hyali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 87-91

This study was conducted to detect the fate of macrosarcocysts of Sarcocystis gigantea in the tongue and eosophagus of naturally infected sheep, via collection of 25 samples, 10 of which showed calcification. The results showed presence of white different size grains on the wall of the pale eosophagus, in addition to presence of nodules containing white chalky materials and on cutting by knife produced grunting sound which indicated calcification. Histopathological results showed presence of granulomatous nodules that contained necrotic centers infiltration by inflammatory cells. Some of which were free from zoites in addition to presence of calcium salt precipitation, which represented dystrophic calcification. Eosinophilic myositis appeared in the tongue was associated with ruptured cyst and released zoites in muscular tissue. Some histological sections revealed ruptured macrocystis with thin wall deposited between muscle bundles. In conclusion, this study showed that the fate of macrocysts included the formation of granulomatous nodules associated with dystrophic calcification and dead zoites in eosophagous more than that in the tongue.

Effect of lysate of Sarcocystis gigantea in rats

A. F. Al-Taei; E. R. Kennany; N. S. Al-Hyali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 81-85

This study was conducted to examine the effect of lysate isolated from macrosarcocysts of Sarcocystis gigantea after inoculation into albino rats to follow up the pathological effect on heart, lung and skeletal muscle fibers. The results showed the presence of pathological changes, represented by hyperatrophy, congestion, associated with hyaline degeneration in myocardium of heart. In lung tissues severe congestion in each right and left lobes concomitant with emphysema, thickening was observed in wall of branchioles and blood vessels at 3-7 days have been seen. In skeletal muscles the result revealed the presence of multinecrotic areas which infiltrated with inflammatory cells accompanied by hyaline degeneration in muscle fibers at 3-7 days after treatment.

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mosul

Kh. J. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 111-115

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mousl, Iraq. Fifty two sera (9 males and 43 females) were examined by Latex agglutination test, Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test and Indirect ELISA test (Indirect IgG ELISA). The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys was 46.15 %. Acute cases 8.33% and chronic cases 91.67 % when differentiated by Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test. The percentages of female and male infections were 51.16% (22/43) and 22.22% (2/9), respectively by using latex agglutination test, and the titeration of antibodies ranged between 1:20 - 1:1280 and for Indirect IgG ELISA it was 22.72% positive cases.

Vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy and progesterone profile: breeding tools in bitches

K. S. Rao; K. G. S. Raju; K. C. S. Reddy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 51-54

The exfoliative vaginal cytology, vaginoscopic examination of vaginal mucosa and progesterone profiles were recorded in an attempt to identify the ideal time of breeding in bitches. A total of 18 anestrus bitches were selected and divided into 03 groups (Control, CABG and eCG groups). The bitches in control group did not receive any treatment and exhibited estrus. The estrus was induced with Cabergoline (CABG) and equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) in the other two groups of bitches. In control group, higher percentage of superficial cells (89.94 ± 0.64) and lower percentage of intermediate (7.30 ± 0.77) and parabasal cells (2.76 ± 0.30) were characteristic vaginal cytological changes during estrus. Vaginoscopic examination of CABG group of bitches revealed that the vaginal mucus was creamy and paper white with angular shrinkage during estrus. In eCG group of bitches, the plasma progesterone concentration was 1.55 ± 0.19 ng/ml on day 8.00 ± 0.71 of proestrus. The conception rates were 66.66, 83.33 and 83.33 per cent in Control, Cabergoline and eCG groups, respectively. The litter size varied from 3.50 + 1.12 to 4.83 + 0.83 in the three groups.

Electron microscopic study of ileum of mice infected experimentally with Salmonella hadar

M. M. N. AL-Naqeeb; A. A. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 25, Issue 2, Pages 55-60

Recently, Salmonella hadar has been isolated and identified from goat in Iraq. The purpose of the present study was to examine ultrastructural changes in the ileum epithelial cells of BALB/c mice experimentally infected with S. hadar. Mice were used as follows: Group A: 20 mice inoculated orally with phosphate buffer saline and considered as a control group. Group B: 20 mice inoculated orally with (100ID) by drenching the mice about 1 ml of the bacterial suspension which contain (1.5×109 cells) of Salmonella hadar and the ileum epithelial cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after infection. The ultra structural changes seen in the ileum of infected mouse at 24 hours were disorganization of the microvilli with severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, enlargement of the mitochondria and presence of intracellular Salmonella. Changes at 48 hours post infection, were detachments of many microvilli especially at the site of bacterial entry. Similar changes were observed after 72 hours but more severe; there was marked dilatation and proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum with cytoplasmic vacuolization of the infected enterocytes. After 96 hours there were severe cytoplasmic vacuolization with accumulation of the bacteria within phagosomes and there was marked damage to the microvilli of the ileum. After 120 hours there was hypertrophy of goblet cell and thickening of the nuclear membrane and there was several Salmonella containing vacuoles.