Volume 23, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2009, Page 29-131


Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

I. K. Zangana; N. A. Issa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 29-34

The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and fromasymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University ofDohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%), clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoidtype lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching wasreported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growthrate (85.71%) of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57%) from asymptomatic and from breeding cages,the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides ofT. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerousnumbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape,varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia werealso present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes andtreated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and synthetic nystatineointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranateand nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

Developmental toxic effects in suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone

M. A. Fadel; M. K. Shindala

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 81-87

Suckling pups of rats from dams treated with betamethasone 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. given once daily for 10 consecutive days (first nursing period) demonstrated in a dose – dependent manner significant decreased (P<0.05) the percentage of survival of the pups to weaning, body weight, index of development, whereas brain, heart, kindey, lung,liver / body weight ratio significantly increased (P<0.05) as well as delays in physical maturation (ear opening, fur development, tooth eruption, eye opening) in the pups. Swimming scores on postnatal day 9, 13, 15, 17, 20 was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in offspring from mothers treated with betamethasone 1.2 mg/kg, i.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that betamethasone induced developmental toxic effects in suckling pups exposed to its through the milk.

Diagnosis of causes of suppurative arthritis in sheep in Mosul, Iraq

Q. J. Khaleel; M. M. H. Al-Jammly; S. H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 115-119

The prevalence of suppurative arthritis in one hundred sheep from both sexes and different ages were studied. Aspiration of synovial fluid from knee joint of animals showed signs of lameness with reluctant to move in addition to decrease in the body weight and loss of appetite. Physical and bacterial examination of the synovial fluid was revealed green color, turbid and containing pus. Mucin clot showed difference in degree of clotting, and increased number in leukocyte, neutrophile but decreased in lymophocytes and monocyte. The result showed that Streptococcus dysagalactiae was predominate 61.1% while Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the less 5.5%, also the result showed that all the strains were more sensitive to the Ciprofloxacin. This study is considered to be the first attempt to isolate bacteria from Sheep joints in Mosul-Iraq.

Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul

H. S. Al-Bakry

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 105-109

The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul city during 2005-2007. In addition, the work aimed to investigate the effects of possible relationships between age, sex, season of the year, weight and health status on the incidence of the disease. Three species of pigeons were included viz, stock dove (Columba oenas), rock mountain dove (C. livia), and collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto).Examination of 250, 200 and 40 doves of the three fore–mentioned groups of birds indicated prevalence rates of 22%, 17.5% and 10%, for the three species, respectively. High infection rates were reported in squabs of all birds of the three groups. Regarding the effect of sex on the infection rate, the results revealed high percentage of infection were seen in male stock doves and female rock doves in comparison with their counterparts, however similar rates were observed in both sexes of collared doves. Also, it was found that there was an impact of season of the year on the prevalence rates of the parasite, so the infection was increased in spring and winter more than other seasons, for all birds studied. Depending upon our findings, factors such as body weight and health status have no effects on incidence of the disease.

Prevalence of brucellosis using indirect ELISA test in raw milk in individual cases of ewes and does in Mosul city

B. A. Mohammad; S. D. Hassan; Q. T. Al-Obaidi; S. H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 111-114

The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of brucellosis antibodies in individual cases of ewes and goats (3-8 weeks after parturition) using indirect ELISA test in raw milk in different areas of Mosul, and using Rose Bengal test in serum samples of same flocks of sheep and goats. Examination of 211 raw milk samples represented (1906) sheep and examination of 88 raw milk samples represented 102 goats randomly collected from individual cases. The study included examination of blood sera of 211 sheep and 88 goats. The prevalence of milk samples in ewes and does positive to antibodies of brucellosis was 6.6% and 11.3%, respectively. Highest percentage was in Al-hamdania area (20%), and lowest in Googjaly area (3.3%), but non recorded in Basheka, Bazwaya and shrazad areas. Examination of raw milk of does showed the highest percentage (22%) was in Al- Namrood area, and lowest (5%) in Hay-Alarabi area. Results of Rose Bengal test in serum samples of ewes and does were 8.5% and 5.8%, respectively. It is concluded that ELISA test on raw milk in individual cases can be considered a confirmatory screening test the with the Rose Bengal test in diagnosis of brucellosis in parturated ewes and does.

Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

M. S. Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 51-55

A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

Comparative study of three methods of esophageal anastomosis in dogs

M. J. Eesa; Z. T. Abd Al-Maseeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 45-50

This study was performed to compare three methods of esophageal anastomosis. Twenty four healthy adult dogs were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups; each one consisted of 8 animals. In group 1; two layers were used to perform the esophageal anastomosis. The first layer represented simple interrupted suture to close the mucosa with knot inside the lumen, and the second layer represented horizontal mattress interrupted suture to close the other layers of esophagus. While in group 2; one layer of cross interrupted mattress suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall, and in group 3; one layer of Schmieden's suture was used to close all layers of esophageal wall. The results of clinical, radiological and histopathological studies after 15 and 30 days of surgical operation revealed that most of the animals showed different degrees of difficulty concerning the moderate dysphagia and regurgitation. The radiological study showed significant difference of stenosis. The best results were recorded in the second group where the mean degree of stenosis was 7.69%, however the mean degree of stenosis was 42.80% in the first group, while the mean degree of stenosis in the third groups was 37.81%, through 30 days. The histopathological study of group 2 showed rapid healing of the site of anastomosis, lack of granulation tissue and consequently the less degree of stricture and other complications as compared with groups 1 and 3. The Schmieden's suture was characterized by its standard short time as compared with group 1 and 2, although accompanied by some complications. In conclusion this study revealed that the cross mattress suture used in the second group characterized by faster healing and minimal amount of fibrous tissue formation manifested by decrease in moderate degree of stenosis as compared with the two other suture patterns used in the first and third groups.

Hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx in Iraqi local breed cows

E.H. Lazim; H.F. Al-abidy; U. D. Naoman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 121-126

The aim of this study was to determine the bacteria associated with hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx. 260 genital tract specimens collected from Mosul abattoir randomly. Examination of specimens showed that18 genital tracts were affected with hydrosalpinx and 7 were suffering from pyosalpinx. Specimens were collected for bacterial examination from oviductal fluid for hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx and also swabs were taken from oviduct and uterus from same specimen. Samples were taken from oviduct and uterus for histological examination. The results of this study showed the prevalence of hydrosalpinx was 6.92% and unilateral case was 61.1 % (n=11) while the prevalence of pyosalpinx was 2.69% and in unilateral case was 57.1% (n=4). The bacteriological examination show no bacterial growth in 13 specimen (72.2%) in hydrosalpinx while bacterial growth in pyosalpinx 100%. The results of this study revealed no bacteria isolated from hydrosalpinx compared with bacteria isolated from uterus in same specimens and most frequent bacteria isolated were Actinomyces bovis and Escherichia coli in percentage (25.0%), (37.5%) respectively , The histological examination show no inflammatory reaction in hydrosalpinx associated with endometritis while Archanobacterium pyogenes isolated pyosalpinx in high percentage (33.3%), and there were an inflammatory changes in oviduct tissue in pyosalpinx with inflammatory reaction in uterus which effected with endometritis. It could be concluded that the hydrosalpinx caused by inflammation of uterus which extend to tube junction with accumulation of fibrin leading to closure of oviduct due to fluid accumulation while pyosalpinx is a result of inflammation of uterus and extending to oviduct leading to salpingitis and accumulation of pus and closing of the oviduct.

Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

D. Tabbaa; D. M. Taher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 127-131

Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis.), Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides),Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus.), and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis) in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C) with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors). On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the composting substances led to efficient and fast composting process in temperature, acidity and the power of biosecurity in hygienic bioremedication.

Toxic effect of carbon tetrachloride on the liver of chicken

M. G. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 89-95

The aim of the present study was assessment of gross and microscopic pathological changes resulting from sub acute and sub chronic toxicity of carbon tetrachloride CCl4 (99.5%) in the liver of chicken and its relation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The approximate lethal dose in three weeks old chickens was equal to (994 mg/kg i.p.). In the sub acute toxicity experiment the given dose was (497 mg/kg i.p.) twice a week for one week, the liver of treated animals with CCl4 grossly appeared pale and mottled with white yellowish color patches represent the necrotic tissue, the histopathological changes was severe hepatitis with infiltration of inflammatory cells specially heterophiles and diffused coagulative necrosis. In sub chronic toxicity experiment the dose was given (248.5 mg/kg i.p.) twice a week for eight weeks, in gross appearance the liver was severely congested, the histopathological changes was hypertrophy of hepatocytes, hyperplasia of lining epithelium of bile ducts and chronic venous congestion, growth depression and significant decreased in the body weight of the treated animals also noticed at this experiment in compared with control group, a significant increased in (ALT) and (AST) activities also recorded. The results suggests that pathological changes and response of the chicken’s liver to the CCl4 toxicity relatively differs from other laboratory animal models like rats and mice when used approximate dose in the same duration of exposure, so it didn’t appear fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver of chickens, therefore it can't use chickens as a model to induce experimental fibrosis or liver cirrhosis when treated with CCl4 according to the dose and duration of exposure of this study.

Effect of chlorpheniramine on acute dichlorvos poisoning in chicks

Y. J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 35-43

The protective and therapeutic effects of the H1–antihistamine chlorpheniramine against an acute poisoning induced by organophosphorus insecticide dichlorvos in a 7–14 days old chicks model were evaluated and compared with that of the standard antidote atropine. Chlorpheniramine or atropine at 20 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m.) given immediately after oral dichlorvos dosing increased the LD50 value of dichlorvos (10.85 mg/kg, orally) in the chicks by 77 and 123 %, respectively. Chlorpheniramine at 20 mg/kg, i.m. given immediately after dichlorvos (12 mg/kg, orally) significantly delayed the onset of acute signs, time of death, decreased toxicity score and increased the percentages of survivors (62.5 %) during 2 and 24 h after dichlorvos dosing. The antidotal effect of chlorpheniramine and atropine groups at a dose of 20 mg/kg, i.m. given immediately after oral dichlorvos were close to each other in delaying the onset signs of poisoning and time of death. They also significantly increased the percentages of survivors and decreased of toxicity scores. Chlorpheniramine at 20 mg/kg, i.m. significantly decreased plasma (34%) and brain (52%) cholinesterase activities in comparison with the control group. Dichlorvos dosing at 8 mg/kg, orally significantly reduced plasma (83%) and brain (93%) cholinesterase activities in comparison with the control and chlorpheniramine groups. Chlorpheniramine given after dichlorvos dosing significantly protected the plasma and brain cholinesterase from further decreased in its activities caused by dichlorvos dosing by 29 and 41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study suggests that chlorpheniramine have a protective and therapeutic effects in case of dichlorvos poisoning in chicks resembling that of atropine.

Using of competitive ELISA in detection of brucella antibodies in cattle sera

O. Kh. Al-Hankawe; O. M. Al-Iraqi; M. I. Al-Farwachi; M. O. Abdul-Majeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 97-103

Competitive ELISA test was used in this study to identify brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul, and assessing the results that are given by Rose-Bengal test. Results of testing 126 cattle sera revealed that the seroprevalence was 16.7% using C-ELISA and 18.3% using RBT. There were differences in seroprevalence according to sex of animals, females showed higher seroprevalence than males, it was 19.1% and 20.2% in females and 9.4% and 12.5% in males by C-ELISA and RBT respectively. Also there were differences in seroprevalence according to age of animals and pregnancy status of females. Kappa value revealed that there was little agreement between C-ELISA and RBT, (Kappa value was 0.229). RBT was not accurate in giving real seroprevalence, since there were 13 false-negative samples from 21 samples positive with C-ELISA, and there were 15 false-positive samples from 105 samples negative with C-ELISA. Results of tube agglutination test and 2-Mercaptoethanol test indicated a decline of titers from those of previous studies, lower titer of TAT was 1/10 (19.05%) and most of titers were lower than 1/40 (76.2%) in 2-Me test. This study concluded that the brucella antibodies in cattle sera in Mosul was increased from previous years and most of cases were acute.

Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

E. M. Abdul-Rassoul; N. A. Hassan; K. H. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 71-80

This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly), central nervous system activity tests (weekly), hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30). The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg) at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis) tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg). Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

Histological and topographical study of the skin of native buffalo: hair density

A. G. Al-Haaik; N. S. Ahmed; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 65-70

The study was done on the skin of native buffalo to detect the value of hair density in different regions of the body. This included cranial back, lateral and medial surfaces of the limbs, abdomen, scrotum and the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the tail. The skin specimens were fixed in alcoholic Bouins solution and processed routinely. The degree of shrinkage was calculated at the end of histological processing. The hair density was calculated from the prepared horizontal sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The hair density ranged between 2.65-4.9 hair follicles/mm² according to the different studied body regions. Using the correction factor for each region, the actual hair density was calculated to be ranged between 1.58-3.2 hair follicles/ mm² in different studied regions. It was found that the hair density in the dorsal surface of the tail, back, lateral surfaces of limbs was more than the hair density in the ventral surface of the tail, abdomen, scrotum and medial surfaces of the limbs. Hair follicles are characterized by variable sizes and their indefinite grouping arrangement, although some doublets or triplets groups were detected in some regions.

Effect of some hormones on reproductive performance and some serum biochemical changes in synchronized black goats

K. T. Mahmood; N. N. Maroff; F. T. Juma

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 57-61

In randomized block design, 58 indigenous black mountain goats were examined for the effect of different hormonal treatments in inducing oestrus on selected biochemical characteristics of blood serum that were (aspartate transaminase, AST. Alanine transaminase ALT, Akaline phosphatase, ALP, total protein, albumin and total cholesterol). The animals were randomly assigned into four groups according to their treatment. The control group (C) consisted of 10 females whereas the rest of the groups, each consisted of 12 females. The treatments included a double PGF2α (Dinoprost tromethamine) intramuscular injection (5 mg) at a time interval of 11 days plus an intramuscular injection of pregnant mare serum (PMSG) (400I. Uand 600I. U.) two days before second injection for (treatments, TI, T2) respectively. Treatment (T3) was as that of T1 except PMSG was not injected. T4 was treated as T3 plus an intramuscular injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) (12. 5µg) after 24 hours of second injection of PGF2α was added. The results indicated that oestrus was higher (P<0.05) in all treatment groups (100%, 91%, 100%, 100%) respectively than that of control group (70%). There was a significant effect (P<0.05) of hormonal treatment on kidding rate in which the ratio were (116%, 115%, 75% and 83%) for treatment groups respectively in comparison with 70% for control group, also there was significant effect (P<0.05) of hormonal treatment on litter size in (T3). There were significant increases in activity of AST, ALT, during late pregnancy and the first week of parturition, whereas the activity of ALP enzyme was increased during early pregnancy. The concentration of total protein, total cholesterol and albumin were increased (P<0.05) during late stage of pregnancy and then decreased during the first week after parturition. It was concluded that administrating of PGF2α to does on this synchronization regimen in the natural breeding season is desirable.