Volume 23, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2009, Page 1-63

Effect of magnesium deficiency on bone metabolism in female rats

H. M. Ahmed; E. M. Al-Khshab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 55-63

The present study undertakes the deficiency effect of dietary magnesium on bone metabolism and some biochemical parameters in female rats. Experimental diets included control diet (65 mg magnesium / 100 g) and the deficient magnesium (3 mg/100g) diet. Deionized water was supplied for drinking. Forty six albino female rats were divided into two main groups, the first group included 18 adult female rats, divided into 9 control and 9 animals given magnesium deficient diet. The second group included young female rats divided into two groups, the first group was treated from dams،and included 14 young female rats. They were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. The other one was treated at 28 days old and included 14 young female rats, which were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. Blood samples were obtained at specific times from each group for biochemical parameters: magnesium, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), albumin, calcium and phosphorus were estimated. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anesthetized and killed. The right femurs were obtained for mineral analysis in bone ash (Ca, Mg). The results of adult female (Mg deficient) group showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP activity, albumin, calcium (within normal range). Both young female rat groups showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP and albumin compared with control group. The mineral analysis in bone ash showed no significant differences in calcium level where a significant decrease in magnesium level was observed compared with the control groups. It was concluded from this study, that magnesium deficiency could be used for detection of osteoporosis and defect of bone formation in adult and young female rats, respectively.

Extraction of Staphylococcus aureus toxin from minced meat in Mosul City

E. R. Al-Kennany; I. A. Al-Juboori; O. H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 27-32

This study was conducted to isolate and identify of Staph.aureus with its toxin from (41) sample of minced meat from different areas of Mosul city collected between April to July 2007. The positive samples to bacterial isolation reached 14.6%.In order to search the effect of bacterial toxin 0.2 ml and 0.4 ml of the toxins have been give orally and injected interperitonealy , respectively in albino mice. Histopathological changes of this toxin were described, the results showed the presence of vascular degeneration and apoptosis in hepatocyt as well as vascular and fatty degeneration in the tubercular epithelium of kidney. In the brain tissue the lesion was characterize by presence of vacuolation, gliosis and privascular odema, also the results revealed elongation and blunting of villi associated with lymphocytic proliferation in lamina properia of intestine. The histopathological changes were more severe in dose 0.4 ml as compared with 0.2 ml bacterial toxin.

Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

Saraj; A. A. Al

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm) throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8%) among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%), encephalocele (6.1%), Oligodactyly (4.1%), Umbilical hernia (3.4%) and Short tail (3.4%); besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

Therapeutic efficacy of a mixture of ivermectin and closantel against gastrointestinal parasites in draft horses

B. A. Albadrani; M. K. Aldelami

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 37-42

Examination of 19 fecal samples showed positive results for nematodes. It was classified as a single and mixed infestation 58.0% and 42.1% respectively. The percentages of infestation with Strongylus spp, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum were 31.58%, 15.75%, 10.52% respectively. Administration of a single dose of mixture of ivermectin and closantel (0.05 ml/kg body weight) revealed a significant reduction in average egg count in feces of the treated horses with both single and mixed infection. Efficacy of mixture of ivermectin and closantel for was 100% in removing eggs of the Parascaris equorm and Oxyuris equi and 99.42% for Strongylus spp at 14 days post-treatment. The preparation was also effective in removing larvae of Gastrophilus nasalis.

Effect of soybean seeds alone or in combination with insulin or glibenclamide on serum lipid profiles in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

O. H. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 17-23

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soybean seeds administration alone or combined with either insulin or glibenclamide on serum lipid profiles in diabetic rats. Male Wister rats were induced diabetes by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg.b.w.The rats randomly divided into six groups (eight rats in each group): The first group served as a control, the second group was administered soybean seed 400 mg/kg.b.w orally as suspension, the third group injected insulin 10 I.U/kg.b.w, subcutaneously, the fifth group administered glibenclamide 5 mg/kg.b.w. orally. Accompaniment of soybean seeds with either of insulin or glibenclamide given the fourth and sixth groups, using the same routes and doses in the individual groups. All treatments were once daily for two weeks. Soybean seeds treatment alone resulted in an improvement of body weight and decrease of triglyceride and total lipids levels. While treatment with insulin or glibenclamide as alone or combination with soybean seeds showed a significant reduction in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and total lipids, beside a significant increase in both body weight and high density lipoprotein. Beneficial effects were seen when soybean seeds combined with either of insulin or glibenclamide treatment. These results indicate the usefulness of soybean seeds in the management of diabetes through the hypolipidemic effects of soybean seeds in diabetic rats.

Treatment of anestrous in buffalo cows by massaging the uterus and ovaries rectally

M. A. Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 23-25

This study was conducted to evaluate the application of the massage method of the uterus and ovaries by rectal palpation to treat true anoestrus in local Iraqi buffaloes. The study was conducted during the period from September 2007 to May 2008, on 236 buffalo cows including 113 multiparous and 123 heifers. Multiparous buffalo cows were divided into treated group (n=63) and control group (n=50), heifers were divided in to treated group (n=73) and control group (n=50). Results of the present study indicated a significant effect of the massage method for the uterus and ovaries in heifers by producing oestrus (80.82%), as well as a significant effect of treatment on multiparous buffalo cows was observed (58.73%). The response of heifers to treatment with massage method was significantly higher than multiparous buffalo cows. It could be concluded that using manual massage for uterus and ovaries by rectal palpation is a successful method for treating true anestrous in buffaloes.

Effect of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor on some biochemical parameters in normal male rats

M. S. Kalo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 5-12

Endogenous cholesterol acts as a precursor of testosterone and other steroids hormones, this study was conducted to evaluate if there is a counterproductive effect associated with inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway specially in high doses and the degree of these effects in normal male rats. Forty eight adult Wistar rats divided into four groups, the first is control while the remaining three groups were treated with simvastatin (cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor) in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 respectively. Serum samples were observed at the baseline then every fifteen days while tissue samples were observed at day 30 and 60. Results of statistic refered to a significant decrease (p≤ 0.05) in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (by 24 and 49% ± 3) respectively, also serum testosterone was significantly decreased (by 71% ± 2) in all groups compared to control after thirty and sixty days. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was increased (57% ± 3) versus to aspartate aminotransferase. Liver cholesterol was significantly decreased (by 72% ± 2) while testicular cholesterol was decreased except the group of 100 mg.kg-1 which in turns to elevate (61% ± 4), in addition also there was a decrease in body weight gain percentage neither the weights of liver nor testis was affected. In conclusion, the inhibition of denovo pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis negatively affects testosterone level in addition to cholesterol concentration in the tissues, body weight gain and alanine aminotransferase with no successful compensatory mechanism as related with testosterone level.

Effect of Nigella sativa meal in native milking cows rations on milk production and its composition and the digestion coefficient of the nutrients

N. Y. Abou; N. M. Abdullah; A. K. Nasser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 47-53

Two groups of Sharabi cows were examined, each consisted of four cows during the first month of labor, having about
equal live body weight and milk production. The cows in the first group were fed individually on concentrated ration containing 5% of soybean meal in an enough amount for maintenance and milk production according to N.R.C., 1984. Wheat straw was given in an amount equal to 1.25% of cow’s weight. The cows in the second group were fed on the same ration except that 70% of the protein of the soybean meal was replaced with protein of Nigella sative meal when it was added as 5% of the ration. The feeding process was continued for 6 weeks during which the amounts of milk production were checked and samples of milk were weekly taken for laboratory analysis. The cross over design was used for second 6 weeks. At the end of each feeding period the feces produced from each cow was collected for five successive days and samples for chemical analysis were taken. There were no significant differences between the cows of the two groups regarding to the amount of the milk 9.1 and 9.7 kg milk/cow/day with 3.5 and 3.3% of fat, respectively. Also the results indicated that there are no any significant differences in milk composition regarding crude protein, lactose, ash and total solid compounds percentages, as well as no significant differences between the two groups to produce one kg of normal or 4% fat adjusted milk. Where the values were 1.32, 1.48 and 1.43, 1.66 kg ration/kg milk produced respectively. The results showed a significant (P<0.01) improvement in all digestion coefficient, for nutrient of the experimental rations. Our conclusion is that the Nigella sativa meal could be used at 5% level of concentrate rations for native milking cows to cover 70% of the protein from soybean meal without any negative effects on milk production or its composition and improve nutrients digestion coefficient of these rations.

Diagnosis and classification of Eimeria species in cattle in Mosul

H. S. Al-Bakry

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 17-21

Examining 140 fecal samples of cattle from different regions of Mosul showed that the total percentage of infection was 25.71% with the oocysts of Eimeria, and the species of Eimeria recovered were: E. subspherica (11.42%), E. zuernii (8.57%), E. bovis (6.42%), E. alabamensis (5%), E. canadensis (4.28%), E. bakidnonensis (4.28%), E. ellipsoidalis (4.28%) and E. cylindrica (2.85%). The single infection with Eimeria constituted 12.85% of the animal infection. The incidence of infection was higher in cattle under the age of one year (30.92%) and the percentages of infection in both males and females of cattle were 24.13%, 26.82%, respectively.

Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–polymerase chain reaction

R. A. Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 43-46

To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

Detection of antibodies level for goat brucellosis in Mosul, Iraq

I. M. Ahmed; S. Y. Al-Baroodi; Aalim; A. M. Al; M. Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 33-36

This study included 184 serum samples collected from goats, the samples were distributed between aborted, vaccinated and unvaccinated females in the period between February–September 2007 in Mosul city. Rose Bengal Test and 2-mercaptoethanol test were used to evaluate antibodies in serum samples. The results showed that the percentage of positive cases reached 72% , 25.6% and 52.9% in vaccinated, unvaccinated and aborted females, respectively by using rose Bengal test. Where as the percentages of positive cases reached to 83.3%, 51.7% in vaccinated and unvaccinated animals, respectively and decreased to 11.1% in aborted animals when positive rose Bengal test samples were tested with 2-mercaptoethanol test.

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of ducks in Nineveh governorate

N. H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-5

The results of examining 100 fecal samples of ducks from different locations of Nineveh governorate revealed 77% infection with Cryptosporidium by using modified acid fast (hot) stain, whereas the percentages of infection were 63% and 56% by staining with iodine and flotation with sugar solution technique, respectively. The dimensions of the oocysts of the parasite were 1.9-6.6 (4.7) m length and 1.9-5.7 (3.8) m width. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between females and males and the percentage of infection appeared in high rate in female ducks (87.6%). No significant difference appeared between seasons. The percentage of infection with Cryptosporidium in ducks appeared in high rate in Al-Rashidiah and Quban region (90%).

Effect of dexamethasone on osteoclast formation in the alveolar bone of rabbits

S. A. Hamouda; A. Y. Yasear

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 13-16

This study was planned to determine whether a short period dexamethasone treatment induce alveolar bone loss or not, therefore, twenty six male albino rabbits were divided into three groups as follow: Test groups I (10 rabbits) received 1.56 mg/kg dexamethasone intraperitoneal injection daily for two weeks, test group II (10 rabbits) received 3.12 mg/kg dexamethasone intraperitoneal injection daily, and the control group (6 rabbits) received saline solution for same period. The animals were sacrificed and histological sections were prepared from the alveolar bone of molar areas of mandible, as well as morphometric analysis of osteoclasts number was performed. The results showed a significant increase in the number of osteoclasts, which indicates that bone loss, is quite inevitable secondary to dexamethasone treatment even in a short period of treatment for two weeks.

Effect of sesame seeds on blood physiological and biochemmical parameters in broiler breeder hens

M. M. Alkatan; A. F. Abdulmajeed; S. Y. Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 25-28

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of employing sesame seeds in broiler breeder diet on some physiological parameters. 30 Cobb breeder hens (36 week age) were divided into 3 groups (10 hens each). The 1st group was reared on standard ration (control), the 2nd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (250 mg /kg) and the 3rd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (500 mg/kg). The treatment continues for 4 weeks period. Results showed a significant increase in the RBCs, Hb and PCV in the 2nd and 3rd group compared with the control group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in MCV and MCH. Significant increase in the MCHC in the 3rd group compared with other groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment was noticed. Sesame seeds treatments for 4 weeks also caused a significant increase in the WBC count in the 2nd and 3rd group as compared with control. Hormonal Assay revealed that sesame seeds treatment with tow doses has no effects on plasma levels of LH hormone (4.94 and 4.48 miu/ml) compared with control (3.93 miu / ml), but the sesame seeds treatment (500 mg/kg) causes a significant increase in plasma levels of FSH (0.88 miu / ml) compared with the control (0.64 miu/ ml). Sesame seeds treatment, also, increased the egg weight, shell weight and yolk weight and it reached the levels of significantly in the 3rd group (66.15, 7.33 and 20.65 g) respectively as compared with control (61.48, 6.86 and 18.66 g), respectively. It is concluded that, sesame seeds treatment enhanced erythropoiesis, FSH activity and some productive parameters.

Lesions of urinary bladder in sheep slaughtered at Mosul slaughter house

A. M. Ali; A. A. Al-Hially; K. H. Al-Mallah; A. I. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 7-15

Urinary bladder samples (83) were collected from male sheep directly after slaughter. Gross and histopathological examination were performed for detection of any pathological changes, the collected samples included various groups of lesions that been diagnosed including the Disturbances of cell metabolism represented by cloudy swelling , zinker necrosis, liquefactive necrosis and caseous necrosis at the percentage of 3.6%, 10.8%, 1.2% and 1.2% respectively. Cell growth disturbance were manifested by epithelial hyperplasia, Connective tissue hyperplasia and smooth muscle fibers atrophy At the percentage of 6%, 4.8% and 10.8%. Circulatory disturbances also observed mainly as hyperemia 24%, Petechial hemorrhage 2.4% and edema 1.2%. Acute cystitis was noticed at 6 % and Chronic cystitis as a Granulomatous reaction at 3.6% and as Ulcer 1.2%. Crystal deposition appeared at 2.4%, Dystrophic calcification 1.2% and cystocele at 7.2%. One sample showed Congenital deformities represented by an excessive appendix from bladder wall appeared at 1.2% from total collected samples.