Volume 22, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2008, Page 59-169


Effect of vitamin E on cadmium toxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L

A. H. A. Al-Hamdani; S. K. I. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 119-126

The sublethal median concentration of cadmium chloride was used at concentration 1mg/L for 7 days ,with 0.2mg/1g body weight of vitamin E for 3 days which was used as an antioxidant there was no improvement in hematological parameters, but there was significant reduction in the serum alanine aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activity. Treatment with vitamin E and cadmium chloride could not repair the tissues damage result from cadmium which included grossly congestion of gills , hitopathological lesions revealed hyperplasia of epithelial cells with hyperatrophy of piler cells and inflammatory cells infiltration which lead to adhesion of the secondary lamellae of gills, In liver and kidney which appeared congested with presence of pale areas, histopathological lesions include infiltration of inflammatory cells specially melanomacrophage and mononuclear cells in hepatic tissue with thickening of the bile duct wall, haemmorrhage and necrosis in hepatic tissue, while in kidney there was congestion of blood vessels, deposition of hyaline casts in the renal tubule.

Bovine tunica vaginalis: a new material for umbilical hernioplasty in sheep

B. T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 69-76

In this study, fresh patches of bovine tunica vaginalis (BTV), was used as implants for the repair of experimentally-created umbilical hernias in eight sheep. The scrotum were harvested immediately after slaughter and thoroughly washed with sterile distilled water for 5-7 times. The scrotal skin together with the fatty tissues and the loose connective tissues and the tunica adventitia were mechanically stripped by means of a sterile surgical knife, and finally washed with sterile physiological saline solution for 5-7 times. The prepared patches were immersed in the sterile saline solution and preserved at 2-4 ºC in sterile jars, ready for use within 4 hrs from their harvesting for hernioplasty of sheep umbilical hernias. The eight implanted grafts were examined clinically and histologically, and all were successfully healed except one (87.5%). Clinically, the successfully implanted BTV patches didn't show signs of rejection, except for the presence of cardinal signs of local inflammatory reaction which were subsided 48 hrs post-operation, and disappeared within 4-5 days post-operation. The healing processes showed no significant abnormalities, except for the occurrence of a few simple multifocal stitch abscess infections. The histopathological examinations showed invasion of dense fibrous connective tissues, consisted of heavy bundles of collagen fibers, through which newly formed capillaries and mononuclear inflammatory cells and melanin pigments deposition, were infiltrated through the graft. As a first report on this new tissue implant in sheep, BTV is proved to be a suitable biocompatible heterogenic surgical patch for reconstruction of umbilical hernias, because of its availability as a cheap tissue, with a high tensile strength and flexibility. However, further investigation is required regarding preservation efficiency and employment for reconstruction of soft tissue defects in man and animals.

Efficiency immunization peritoneally with different antigens of Toxocara canis، Toxascaris leonina aganist infection with Toxacara cati and Toxascaris leonina larvae

A. B. Hosin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 111-118

This study includes effect of Immunizaton by intrapertoneal inoculation of unembryonated eggs, embryonated eggs , died larvae , live larvae and excretory / secretory products of larvae (L2) of T.canis and T.leonina to protect white mice (Balb/c) from the experimental infection by T.cati and T.leonina the results showed that the highest rate of protection is 69. 56% then , 68.77%, 65.83% , 65.20% and 55.70% when the mice immunized by excretory/ secretory products, Live Larvae, died Larvae, embryonated eggs and unembryonated eggs of T.canis antigens against the challenge dose of T.cati the highest protection rate against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by inoculation of live larvae of T.leonina (58.63%) by using a challenge dose same to the immunization dose. while the highest protection rate obtained by T.canis against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by immunization with live larvae(54. 74%).

Screening test for avian influenza virus antigen in poultry in Mosul

Th. M. Al-Nimma; M. Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 77-79

Rapid avian influenza virus antigen test kit and rapid H5 avian influenza virus antigen test kit were used to detect avian influenza antigens by examine 1143 samples taken from broilers, layers, house chickens, local poultry markets and poultry slaughters houses in period from January to December 2007 in Mosul city. Cloacae feces swab method was used for all samples and results showed that all tested samples were negative for both AIV and H5 antigens. In conclusion Mosul city was free from avian influenza virus till Dec 2007 and this test is rapid, easy and a reliable field test and can be done frequently.

Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

E. H. Lazim; A. J. Ali; O. I. Azawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 59-67

A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3%) of cases. Twenty two (5.4%) were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405) were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%), ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4%) and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%). Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.

Comparative topographical histologic study of the skin of native cattle

A. M. Elias; N. S. Ahmed; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 165-169

Six circular samples of a known diameter were taken from each of the different regions of the skin of the native cattle. Three samples of each region were fixed in neutral buffered formalin whereas, the other three samples were fixed in alcoholic boin´s fluid. All samples showed shrinkage in the surface area particularly after paraffin infiltration and embedding. The final shrinkage percentage were noticed to be relatively higher in sample fixed in boin´s fluid than those fixed in neutral buffered formalin .Accordingly, the correction factors for samples fixed in boin´s fluid were calculated to be 0.810 for tail region, 0.787 for scrotal region, 0.783 for frontal region 0.780 for back region and o.766 for abdominal region, whereas the correcting factors of samples fixed in boin´s solution were found to be 0.799 for tail region, 0.777 for scrotal region, 0.769 for frontal region, 0.768 for back region and 0.753 for the abdominal region. With the application of the above mentioned correcting factors the actual hair density at living condition were adjusted to be 18.48/mm2 for tail region, 14.07/mm2 for scrotal region, 11.72/mm2 for frontal region, 10.72/mm2 for back region and 9.16/ mm2 for abdominal region.

Changes in the ruminal contents of buffaloes suffering from digestive disorders

B. A. Al-Badrani; K. A. Philip

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 151-163

The objective of the study was to determine the digestive disorders in 45 of local breed buffaloes and their prevalence in Mosul city. Traumatic reticuloperitonitis was 33.3 %, then frothy bloat (15.6 %), simple indigestion was 13.3 % and left side abomasal displacement (11.1 %), where as the occurrence of ruminal acidosis was lesser than other digestive disorders and was about 6.7 %. Also the secondary causes of digestive disorders was (20 %) which included some infectious diseases, administration of some antibiotics like oxytetracycline 20 mg/Kg body weight or sulphonamide or Diacleane for 3 successive days to each drug. The results also showed significant changes in ruminal pH, sedimentation activity test and the time needed for methylin blue stain reduction from normal values.Also the ruminal protozoal activity showed significant differences between samples in different cases, and species of bacteria from morphology and stain characteristics with Gram's stain. The total and differential counts of ruminal protozoa was decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all cases. Ruminal protozoa were classified into 14 types firstly in buffaloes in this study.

Effect of Thymus vulgaris oil on some reproductive characters in adult male rats

S. M. Ahmed; S. J. Kakel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 83-87

The study was undertaken to show the effect of thymus vulgaris oil administration at (0.3, 0.6 ml/kg) orally for 60 days on male fertility and epididymal sperms characters in male rats at age of 100 days. The animals treated with thyme oil at a dose of (0.6 ml) revealed a significant decrease in the weight of testes, body of epididymis, percentage of live/dead sperms and epididymyal sperm count, with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. On the other hand the animals treated with thyme oil at a dose (0.3 ml) show a significant decrease in the weight of body of epididymis, epididymal sperm count and the percentage of live/dead sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. Its concluded from this study that thymus vulgaris has an inhibitory effect on reproductive system and spermatogenesis in mature male rats.

Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

N. S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 87-94

The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week) of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

Pathological study of experimental cadmium toxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L

A. H. A. Al-Hamdani; S. K. I. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 127-139

The median lethal concentration of cadmium chloride CdCl2 at 24 hour in Cyprinus carpioL was determined. The toxic effect of sublethal concentration of CdCl2 was studied for 4, 7, 15 day. There was estimated significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, Packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte counts, with significant increase (P≤0.05) in the serum alanine aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activity correlated with progression of exposure period. The elevation was more significant on the 15th day in all groups in comparison with non treated control group. The fish treated with sublethal concentration of CdCl2 showed behaviors of nervous signs manifested as abnormal swimming and jumping above the water surface. The gross lesions of sublethal concentration toxic effects included congestion of gills. Histopathological lesions revealed hyperplasia of epithelial cells with hyperatrophy of piler cells and inflammatory cells infiltration which lead to adhesion of the secondary lamellae of gills. The same lesions were observed on the 15th day of exposure but were more severe. In liver and kidney which appeared congested with presence of pale areas, histopathological lesions include infiltration of inflammatory cells, specially melanomacrophage and mononuclear cells in hepatic tissue with thickening of the bile duct wall, hemorrhage and necrosis in hepatic tissue. In the kidney, there was a congestion of blood vessels and deposition of hyaline casts in the renal tubules. Accumulation of cadmium in gills, kidney and liver after 4, 7 and 15th day of exposure showed an increase in level of accumulation with progression of exposure period.

Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

M. B. Taha; E. B. Basheer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 89-99

The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g) and tylosin (2 g), second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml) 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %). Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %). Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome) 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin) 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution) 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological and histopathological examination and revealed the importance of the early treatment of endometritis especially using of cephquenome sulfate.

Prevalence of some parasitic helminths among slaughtered ruminants in Kirkuk slaughter house, Kirkuk, Iraq

S. A. Rasheed; M. A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 81-85

A retrospective study was carried out in year 2003, to show the prevalence of hydatid cysts, liver flukes and lung worm among slaughtered sheep, goats, calves, cattle and buffaloes in Kirkuk slaughter house. The number of ruminants slaughtered in Kirkuk abattoir was sheep (40233), goats (9223), calves (9577), cattle (2855) and buffaloes (50). It was found that the highest rate of hydatid cysts was seen in cattle (4.38%), followed by sheep (1.17%), calves (0.52%) and goats (0.32%) respectively. The rate of liver flukes was observed in sheep (0.50%), goats (0.43%), cattle (2.63%) and 2(4%) in 50 buffaloes slaughtered. No liver fluke was seen in calves. The distribution of lung worm was in sheep (0.55%), goats (0.22%), and cattle (2.98%). No cases were detected from calves and buffaloes. In addition to that there was seasonal fluctuation in the rate of helminthes infection. Hydatid cysts in sheep and cattle were highest in autumn (1.97 & 8.33%) respectively, in goats it was highest in winter (1.01%), while in calves was highest in spring (1.24%), followed by winter (0.84%). The rate of liver flukes in sheep and goats was highest in winter (0.88 & 0.68%) respectively, while in cattle was highest in autumn (5.0%) followed by winter (2.80%). In sheep and goats, the rate of lung worms was highest in winter (0.88 & 1.08%) respectively, while in cattle it w as highest in autumn (5.0%) followed by winter (3.91%).

Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats treated with alloxan

A. Y. Jasem; H. K. Ismaiel; H. M. Jassem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 75-82

This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight). The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight), caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight) with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

Gross histological changes in some lymphoid organs in broilers after vaccination against infectious bursal disease

S. F. Habash; M. D. Kako

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 101-109

This study was designed to detect the reactions grossly and histologically on the lymphoid organs (Bursa of Fabricious, Spleen, Thymus) in 8 day old broiler chickens vaccinated with infectious bursal disease vaccine (Intermediate plus)-(Ceva- IBDL).The study revealed no clinical signs on post vaccination days 2, 4 and 6. Gross lesions were swelling of the bursa due to the edema which obviously appeared as yellowish transudate covering the serosal surface area, and the bursa appears congested, the longitudinal striation on the surface become more prominent and congested while small gray foci appear on the surface of spleen. Microscopically there is degeneration and necrosis of lymphocytes in the medullary area and lymphoid follicles, edema between lymphoid follicles, hyperemia, lymphocytic depletion and cystic cavities developed in the medullary area of the follicles. In spleen, there were degeneration and necrosis of reticuloendothelial cells in the germinal center of the white pulp, with hyperemia in spleen and thymus. It was concluded that the intermediate plus vaccine which used in this study induced severe pathological changes in the bursa and spleen and less in the thymus on post vaccination days 2, 4 and 6.

Effect of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves on the growth and development of ovary and histological structure of the mid gut in the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera : Muscidae

N. S. Gorgees; S. M. Mahmood; A.T. Yaseen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 141-149

Four sub lethal concentrations 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5% of aqueous extract of Melia azedarach L. were used against the second instars larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L.. The results of the microscopical preparations and statistical analysis have shown that this aqueous extract had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development on the ovaries and ovarian follicles of the adult flies obtained from previously treated larvae with four stage of age, 24, 48, 72, 96 hour after birth. The extract also led decreased in the numbers of ovarian follicles and their degradation. In some instances the microscopically preparations of the mid gut of the housefly have also shown that this aqueous extract has seriously affected the histological structure of the alimentary canal particularly the mid gut. It has led to the separation of the muscular layer from the epithelial lining.

Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites

E. D. Al-Mawla; T. M. Al-Saffar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 95-100

The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old), from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village), for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken) 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 %) and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae). One species of flies (1.4%) (Pseudolynchia canariensis). One species of mites (4.3%) (Dermanyssus gallinae) were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8%) (Argas persicus) were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird). Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily) infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis) with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.