Volume 22, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2008, Page 1-73

Effect of cadmium on CNS function and development in rat offspring: effect of vitamin E

H. M. Jasem; E. M. Abdul Alrasool; A. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 31-37

The work was designed to study the effect of vitamin E ( 500 mg /kg diet ) on the central nervous system function and landmarks development in offspring of rats whoser mothers treated with cadmium (50mg/L of drinking water) during lactation. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increase in righting reflex , olfactory discrimination tests in pups (aged one week) and in the onset of movement test in weaned pups. The results indicated a significant reduction in motor activity in the open field, cliff avoidance, click response and weight in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride caused a significant increased in negative geotaxic in weaned pups. Cadmium chloride did not affect significantly on landmarks development ( opening of eyes and ears , appearance of teeth and hair) with the exception of a significant increase in descending time of testis and a significant decrease in appearance time of vaginal opening . Administration of vitamin E caused a significant increase in motor activity in the open field. and significant reduction in the onset of movement test, negative geotaxic and weight of weaned pups and in descending time of testis . It is concluded from this study that vitamin E caused positive effects on central nervous system and some landmarks development in pups whose their mothers treated with cadmium chloride.

A preliminary study on the effect of employing bile liquid in a starter diet on performance of young heavy breed chicks

T. A. Ez Aldeen; S. H. Tohala; T. H. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 25-28

Heavy breed day-old chicks fed Isonitrogenous-Isocaloric diets supplemented with 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0% fresh bovine bile liquid, for three weeks. The three types of diets comprised the experimental dietary treatments, from which the effect of including bile liquid in heavy breed chicks diet on their most prominent economical traits were studied. Results showed that the three groups of birds, consumed almost the same amount of feed during the three weeks of experimental period. However, a significant increase in daily growth rate(DGR)occurred as a result of bile liquid in starter diets. The estimated superiority of this traits, DGR, was found to be 10.76% on an average basis, higher than that of the control group. A good reflection of this phenomenon on feed conversion ratio was observed, as birds fed diets contained 2.0 and 4.0% bile liquid surpassed the control group by 8.75 and 10.63%, respectively. Body weights at third week of age were 8.06 and 10.60% heavier for the two treated groups, respectively, than the control one. Results indicate that the nutritive value of starter diets supplemented with bile liquid warrant further investigation based on long term experiments to make a decision in this direction.

Effect of apple cider vinegar on the healing of experimentally–induced wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

A. H. Alawi; S. Y. Al Dabbagh; T. S. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 11-17

Standard wounds were made in the backs of 18 rabbits. The rabbits were then divided into 6 equal groups. Rabbits of group (1), constituted a control group and their wounds were treated with physiological saline solution. In group (2), the wounds were treated with Cefotaxime at a concentration of 500 mg. Wounds of the third, fourth, and fifth groups were treated with 5%, 3.75%, and 2.5% apple cider vinegar respectively. Wounds of the sixth groups of rabbits were treated with a combination of equal amounts of Cefotaxime and apple cider vinegar 3.75%. All of the wounds were infected with various isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the time of infected. Wound treatment was done each 48 hours until complete healing. Results of this study indicated that using apple cider vinegar 3.75% gave results similar to those obtained by using the antibiotic (same rates of bacterial reduction). However, using a combination of equal amounts of apple cider vinegar and the antibiotic lead to more rapid and more better healing than using each one of them alone.

Pathological study of gall bladder lesions in calves slaughtered at Mosul slaughter house

M. Y. Al-Mashhadani; S. O. Youkhana; K. H. Al-Mallah; R. T. Al-Rekani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

Eighty five samples of complete unopened gall bladder were collected from calves immediately after slaughtering at Mosul slaughter house for detection of any pathological lesions that might be present through gross and histopathological examinations. These examinations revealed various pathological changes which included lymphocytic inflammation (8.2%), fibroma (1.1%), gall stones (2.3%), bilirubin pigmentation (1.1%), congenital deformities (1.1%) appeared as Y shape gall bladder, growth disturbances manifested by hyperplasia (14.1%), coagulative necrosis as a metabolic disturbance (1.1%), hyperemia (20%), petechial hemorrhage (7%) and atherosclerosis (1.1%) of the total samples.

Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep in Mosul, Iraq

M. I. Al-Farwachi; E. K. Mohamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 5-7

Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole) group (10 mg/kg BW). Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%). Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

Effect of some plant extracts on the Culex pipiens molestus Forskal larvae

A. Al-Khazraji; M. A. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 9-12

A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of eight plant species collected from Ninavah governorate on the second instar of larval stage of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Three out of the eight plant extracts Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Cleome glaucescens Dc. and Quercus infectoria DL. caused 100% mortality of larvae at a concentration of 200 µg/mL after 3days of treatment. The LC50 values were less than 150µg/mL (62.5µg/mL-140µg/mL). The A. excelsa leave extract showed mortality on larval and pupal at low concentrations 40µg/mL-10µg/mL also affected in delaying larval development. The extracts of Achillea santolina L., Ammi majus L. and Ricinus communis L. caused high mortality to the larvae after 7 days of treatment, but the Datura stramonium L. and Carum petroselinum Benth extracts did not cause any mortality to the larvae at the same date.

A statistical study to evaluate the initial weight for fattening in local calves

N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 69-73

Data of twenty one local breed bull calves (Sharabi and Janoubi) were collected from previous work for this study, their ages ranged from 8-18 month with initial live body weight of 125-300 kg. They were fed for 100 days period a standard ration which consisted of 60:40% concentrate to roughages ratio and contained 12.4% crude protein, 19.9% crude fiber and 2.2 Mcal/kg ME. Feed was offered at 3% of live body weight. Calves weights were sorted out into three groups, according to their means of body weight and were 140, 210 and 280 kg. The first group of calves had a significant increase daily gain more than the other two groups and were 1200, 850 and 830 g, respectively. Also, feed conversion rate of the first group was better than the other two groups, and were 6.2, 8.9 and 9.9 kg. ration/1 kg weight gain, respectively. Cost of feeding to produce one kg of weight gain in the first group was more efficient than the other two groups, and were 1860, 2670 and 2970 I.D., respectively. No differences were found in carcass traits among the three groups of calves. The results of this study suggest that it is better to choose local bull calves at live weight less than 200 kg for fattening purpose, to obtain more economical benefit.

Acute toxicity of Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract in rabbits

B. A. Al-Badrani; M. S. Rhaymah; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

The median lethal dose was evaluated in rabbits subcutaneously injected with Nerium oleander aqueous leaf extract . The clinical signs , postmortem changes , hematological and biochemical changes were recorded. The results revealed that the median lethal dose was 157.37 mg / kg B. wt. The live animals showed nervous signs in the second days after treatment as crying, ataxia , abdominal respiration , inaddition to a significant increase in body temperature and loss in the body weigth then all animals die during 4 -5 day.The postmortem changes included hemorrhages , and congestion in all organs particularly in the subcutaneous tissue. Hematological changes including increase in the packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration ,and erythrocytic count and leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia .Significant increase in the aspartate and alanine aminotraferease activities , serum sodium and potassium ions , and inhibition in blood cholinesterase activity in both erythrocytes and plasma in 2 and 24 houres after injection as compared to the values in animals before injection.

Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 35-41

A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis) were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

Ameliorative effect of mycofix plus 3.0 in reducing intensity of Eimeria tenella infection during aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks

A. M. Shareef; D. M. Taher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 39-51

One hundred and sixty male broiler chicks were fed at one day of age aflatoxin (AF) at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg alone, or with groups injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts (40000) at 14 days of age. Adsorbent (Mycofix® plus 3.0) was incorporated at a rate of 0.25% in the above mentioned groups from one day of age till the end of the experiment. The study was conducted to reveal the effect of a aforementioned different diets and treatments on live body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, blood parameters (total red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume), biochemical profile of serum (alkaline phosphatase and β-carotin), liver weights, bursal and thymus indexes, caecal lesion scores and mortalities. The results indicated that AF was responsible for a significant (P<0.05) reduction. in body weigh gain (BWG), feed consumption, and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Afllatoxin was also responsible for reduction in blood parameters, β-Carotin, bursal and thymus indexes. While relative liver weight and alkaline phosphatase level were significantly (P<0.05) increased. Groups that fed AF at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg feed and exposed to sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella show a high significant (P<0.05) reduction in BWG, feed consumption and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Aflatoxin was also responsible for significant blood parameter, β-carotin, and also a significant (P<0.05) increase in caecal lesion scores, mortality, alkaline phosphatase level and relative liver weight, while they showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in bursal and thymus indexes in comparison with injected groups with E-tenella sporulated oocysts alone. The study approved that the groups maintained on mycofix plus 3.0 (0.25%) and contaminated with aflatoxin 3.5 mg/kg, revealed a positive noticeable effects in amelioration on BWG, feed consumption and feed conversion, blood parameter, β-carotin, alkaline phosphatase level, relative liver weight, bursal and thymus indexes in comparison with group fed aflatoxin alone. On the other hand, the groups fed on aflatoxin with mycofix plus 3.0 (1%) and injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocystes, showed some improvement in BWG, feed consumption, feed conversion, blood parameter, β-carotin, ALKP, bursal and thymus indexes, when compared with those fed AF and injected with doses of sporulated oocysts. It was concluded that the addition of mycofix plus 3.0 to broiler feeds had an alleviating effects in reducing the severity of coccidiosis during aflatoxicosis.

Endoparasites of the fresh water fish Liza abu in Mosul, Iraq

A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 25-29

Through examination of 176 samples of the fresh water fish Liza abu obtained from Tigers River in Mosul city 2005, the percentage of total internal parasites infection was 57.38%. They were the trematode larval stage Diplostumum spathaecum 44.88%; the cestode larval stage of Ligula intestinalis 32.95%, oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp. 28.97%, oocyst of Eimeria spp. 23.29%. Cryptosporidium was recorded for the first time in Mosul city during examination of intestinal contents. They appeared after staining with modified Zeihl- Neelsen as bright red spherical oocysts with a diameter of 3-7 µ. The effect of season on types of infection was also studied.

Clinical and microbiological study of otitis externa in sheep

M. M. Al-Hassan; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 43-48

In this study one hundred Awassi sheep were examined clinically and bacteriologically for isolation and identification of the bacterial agents of otitis externa in sheep. The main clinical signs appeared included weakness, pale mucus membrane, auricular discharge, cough, anorexia, emaciation, and nasal discharge. Results revealed isolation of bacteria from (45%) examined swabs. The most being from right ear. Younger animals were more frequently infected than older animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Staph. epidermidis, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Acintobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated. The results revealed that the most bacterial isolates were resistance to the bactericidal effect of the normal serum included Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica. While the most bacterial isolates were produced hydroxymate siderophore included Staphylococcus aureus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pneumonia. The obtained results indicated to the importance of determination of serum resistance as a bacterial virulence factor in otitis externa in sheep.

Correlation between broiler aflatoxicosis and European production efficiency factor

T. S. Qubih; O. S. Bayon; A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 49-55

Ten broiler flocks claimed to be suffering from aflatoxicosis in Ninavah governorate were subjected to study the correlation between natural contamination of feed samples with aflatoxin and European production efficiency factor (EPEF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was adopted for estimation of AF level in broiler feeds. Growth performance parameters were recorded including final body weight, mortality, feed consumption and conversion ratio. Aflatoxins levels in feeds were ranged from 31 to 2381.8 ppb and EPEF was between 91.55-151.05. There was a highly negative correlation between AF concentration in broiler flock feeds and their EPEF (-0.828).

Effect of age and stage of lactation on the milk yield and some of its compositions in Awassi ewes

A. K. Hassan; R. K. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 53-57

In this study 75 Awassi ewes 3-5 years old were used for the study of the following parameters; milk productionو time required for complete milking were recorded for each ewe twice a day. Fat and protein percentage were determined weekly, and somatic cell count was estimated one time each two weeks. The week effect on average milk production and time required for complete milking were significant (P<0.01), in favor of the first week which was the best one on milk production and a time needed to complete milking. Their values were 876.17 ± 22.94 gm/day and 67.23 ± 1.73 second/kgm respectively, while the effect on the percentage of fat and protein was significant for the favor of the last week of the study and were 7.1 ± 0.05 and 6.42 ± 0.06 respectively, compared with those of the first week of 3.43 ± 0.05 and 2.84 ± 0.04 respectively. It is concluded that milk production, time needed for complete milking and somatic cell count were affected by age. Better results have been seen in five years old ewes.

Effect of diazepam on some physiological and productive traits of Cobb hybrid broiler chickens

H. M. Hameed; S. H. Tohala

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 59-67

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of diazepam in drinking water on some productive and physiological traits of hybrid (Cobb500) broiler chickens. Forty birds (male and female) were used at age of three weeks to determine the suitable concentrations of diazepam per milliliter of drinking water which can be practically employed to calm down the birds , without producing too much sedation. Two levels of diazepam were chosen (0.02 and 0.04 mg/ml) from the four levels tested (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 mg/ml). At four weeks of age, 90 birds (45 males and45 females) were chosen, relatively homogenous in body weights, and divided into three groups. The first group (the control) was given drinking water free of diazepam, the second and third groups were given 0.02 and 0.04 mg of diazepam / ml of water, respectively. Data indicated that there was an increase in the average body weights for the groups treated with diazepam at age of five, seven and eight weeks .Also an increase in the amount of feed consumed ,an improvement of feed efficiency ,and an increase in dressing percentage for groups treated with diazepam. No significant differences were found between any of the treated groups for the diazepam and the control groups, in the levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides.

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in females buffaloes in Ninavah province, Iraq

O. M. Al-Iraqi; O. K. AL-Hankawe; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 19-24

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the females of the local breed buffaloes. A 400 sera samples were collected from 49 herds from different nine geographical area in Ninavah province by using latex agglutination and modified latex agglutination tests. The results shows that the total prevalence rate of the antibodies was 30%, and this percentage was differ according to the region. The highest percentage appeared in Badosh and Qnetra at 52.3%, 51.2% respectively, while the lowest was in Hawiaslan 4.3%. The antibodies titer most appear was 80 in percentage 30.5%, while the titer 640 was lowest in percentage 1.7%. Also recorded that numbers of the active cases was highest in percentage 81.4% compared with inactive cases was lowest in percentage 18.6%, also noted that the seropositive samples decreased with age.

Mycofix ameliorative effect on Newcastle disease antibody production in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis

A. M. Shareef; M. T. Gargees

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 29-34

Three experiments were conducted to elucidate the alleviation effects of Mycofix plus 3.0 on Newcastle antibody formation during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Three levels of Mycofix (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.25%) and aflatoxin (2.5ppm, 3.5ppm, and 5ppm) were used. Chickens were vaccinated at 8 and 18 days of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Haemagglutination inhibition tests were employed for determination Newcastle antibody titers at 28 days. The results showed that, Mycofix , and only at its high level of addition (0.25%) was effective in ameliorating the negative effect of aflatoxin at the rates 2.5ppm and 3.5 ppm levels of inclusion on antibody production but not at the high level of 5ppm on antibody production, comparing with titers in control groups.

Comparison of laparoscopic and conventional surgery of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

O. J. Ali; B. T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 13-19

The aim of this study was to evaluate operative laparoscopy in comparison with conventional laparotomy for intestinal resection and anastomosis in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs were equally and randomly divided into 3 groups: Group I: Intestinal anastomosis was performed extracorporeally, by laparoscopic-assisted surgery, in which a 5cm loop of small bowel was exteriorized through a mini-laparotomy opening (an enlarged trocar incision 1.5-2 cm in length), then surgically resected and anastomosed by simple interrupted suture 3-0 polygalactine. Group II: Underwent laparoscopic intracorporeal intestinal resection and anastomosis, in which the loop of the small bowel was suspended into the ventral abdominal wall, then it was resected and anastomsed with simple continuous suture by polygalactine 3-0. Group III: Small bowel resection and anastomosis was conducted by conventional laparotomy technique with simple interrupted pattern by polygalactine 3-0 suture. The result showed that laparoscopic intestinal resection and anastomosis by either intra- or extracorporeal techniques can be applied in dogs safely and have less morbidity rate. Intra abdominal adhesion of the omentum and even the bowel to the abdominal wall occurred in group III but not in groups I and II. The post operative hospitalization time was earlier in group I and II, as indicated by the earlier return of intestinal motility and appetite, in comparison to group III where it was delayed.

Evaluation of cell-mediated immune response in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus

S.Y .Al-Baroodi; A. Z. Al-Zubeady; Shahery; M. N. Al

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 21-24

The leukocyte-migration inhibition test for the evaluation of cell-mediated immunity was developed for the use in chickens vaccinated with newcastle disease vaccine and other infected with local virulant strain of newcastle disease virus. Results indicated that the leukocyte migration test was reproducible and relatively easy assay to be performed .Serological antibody titers were determined to study the correlation between haemagglutination inhibition titers and leukocyte-migration level using the HI macro-assay .By results of this study cellular immunity level very important for evaluation the level of immunity beside the humoral immunity.