Issue 2

Study of efeect of eimeeria tenella vaccine attenuated by x –ray wtth using levamisol on pathogenictty in broiler

A. F. AI-Taee; E. G. Zakaria

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 169-183
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46960

This study has been administered to broilers which were given vaccine prepared form sporulated oocyst of E. tenella that attenuated by X-ray (10, 15, 20) K rad, in its 1st day with dose 1×104 oocyt /bird orally. Levamisole was used as an immunostimualant with 15mg/kg- body weight during 4 days after the vaccination. The broilers were divided into 8 groups they were watched during the 1st–2nd weeks after vaccination, as well as clinical signs, mortality rate 5 – 8 days post vaccination and oocyst detection was performed too, blood picture was also performed , Packed cell volum (PCV ) and Diffrential count ( DLC). Challenging of immunized group and 7th group in 22 days was done using the 6×104 oocyst/bird The results neither showed any clinical signs and mortality rate for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th, groups in spite of noticing oocyst in their excrement, mean while the 5th and 6th groups showed milde clinical signs, and blood picture variations between immunized and the sontrol group were noticed.

Effect of ultraviolet and ultrasound on newcastle disease virus

M. Y. AL-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 185-192
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46961

The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on Newcastle disease virus( virulant and vaccinial strains) was studied .Results showed decrease the titer of virulant strain about 1.5 Log 10 and 1.2 Log 10 at254and 366 nm respectively such effect was less on vaccinial strain .Haemagglutination (HA) activity of the same viruses was also studied and showed that HA titer of virulant NDV was decreased 1Log2 when treated at 254 nm and 366 nm , but vaccinial NDV was not affected at 366 nm. The effect of ultrasound on viability of same viruses showed that the titer of virulant NDV was decreased 2.5 Log 10 and 3.5 Log 10 when treated with ultasound at the frequency 14 Ampittute (AM) and 22(AM) respectivly but the vaccinial NDV was less affected .Both viruses were lost their HA activity completely at 22(AM) for one minute .

Preparation of local inactivated hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome vaccine

M. Y. Al-Attar; Th. M. Al-Nima

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 193-199
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46962

Monovalent and Bivalent formalin inactivated vaccine was prepared using two different in pathogenecity local isolates of adeno virus serotype 4 which causing hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome in chicken The efficacy evaluation was carried out by S/C injection of prepared vaccine in 10 days old chickens . Antibodies titer was calculated after 1 and 2 weeks post injection , challenge test after two weeks of injection was performed by the virulent isolates separately and compared with imported monovalent vaccine as positive control . Results showed that the bivalent prepared vaccine was more efficient than monovalent and imported vaccine.

Pathogenicity study of hydropericardium syndrome virus in broiler

M. Y. Al-Attar; Th. M. Alnima

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 201-208
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46963

Pathogenicity of eighteen local viral isolates of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in broiler were studied in 1 & 21 days old age chickens using intraperitoneum injection and oral administration .According to macroscopic and histopathological changes , four isolates were found to be highly pathogenic in inducing pathognomic lesions of HHS than others which were characterized as moderate pathogenic isolates .
The results showed that I/P injection of 21days old chicken lead to histopathological changes in affected organs clearear than other routes of inoculations.

The effect of aflatoxins on the immunological response to hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome vaccine in broilers

S. Y. Albaroody; F. A. Danial; A. Z. Daood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 209-214
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46964

The immunosuppressive effect of affatoxin (AF) on the antibody titer level of broiler chicks vaccinated against hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) virus was studied . Four groups of chicks were used . The first group was vaccinated with HHS vaccine only; the 2nd group was fed AF contaminated diet and vaccinated with HHS vaccine , the 3rd group fed AF contaminated diet and kept with HHS vacceination ; the 4th group was not treated with AF or HHS vaccination and left as a negative control group .
The results showed that there was a significantly higher antibody titer HHS vaccine in the 1st group compared with the 2nd group . The challenge test with Adenovirus showed 100% protection in chicks of the 1st group compared with 80% in chicks of the second group .

Diagnostic study of infection with Schistosoma spp in sheep and cattle in Ninevah Governorate

E. Gh. Suliman; S. S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 215-227
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46965

Through the examination of 78 fecal sample of sheep and 52 fecal sample of cattle collected from different region in Ninevah governorate, the percentage of infection with schistosoma eggs in sheep and cattle were 7.69%, 19.23 respectively with significant differences between sheep and cattle, two types of eggs of schistosoma had been identified in sheep they were : S. bovis and S. indicum (first record) while in cattle S. bovis, S. indicum and S.intercalatum (first record) were diagnosed. Infection with S. bovis formed highest percentage in sheep and cattle 83.3%, 70% respectively. The results revealed significant differences between type of infection in sheep with significant difference between the type of infection in cattle, and the single infection formed highest percentage in sheep and cattle 83.33%, 70% respectively. The percentage of infection appeared with high rate in sheep and cattle with aged more than 3 years 9.8%, 40% respectively with significant difference between groups of age in cattle. No significant difference appeared between males and females of sheep and cattle.
The worms of S. bovis were diagnosed in portal hepatic and mesenteric veins of sheep in Akra area(first record) and a number of sheep in this area were died.

Toxicity of sarcocytis gigantea detected From sheep in ninevah governorate

N. S. Al-Hyali; A. F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 229-243
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46966

This study was included the detection of the infection with Sarcocystis gigantean in sheep, the mature cystic stages was appeared oval or cylindrical shaped with a diameter of 7.8 2.8 mm and 1.5 μm thick striped cyst wall. The total rate of infection with the macroscopic type in sheep oesophagus reached 94.8%.
Isolation and precipitation of crude protein extracted from macrosarcocysts of S. gigantea was performed using saturated ammonium sulphate solution. Fractions of this protein (a and b) were isolated by employing Gel Filtration Technique on Sephadex G-50. The molecular weight of these proteins fractions were determined as about 63095 and 27410 dalton respectively using (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis technique.
The toxic effect of b protein fraction was studied in rats peritoneal injection at concentration 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mg /kg body weight. These animls experienced acute doxicological nervous signs including tremors, complete and partial paralysis. The highest dose (0.5 mg/kg) of b fraction was the most toxic among the injected concentrations. Blood picture in injected rats revealed a significant reduction in hemoglobin and packed cell volume and increase in total leuckocyte count. Significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes were observed. There was also a significant inhibition in the brain cholinesterase activity in the treated rats.

The effect of methionine supplementation to broiler chicken diets on body weight uniformity and relationship between economical triats

S. A. M. Dabdoub; Th. A. .A. .Azaldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 245-255
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46968

A Total of 180 day old male Cobb broiler chicks were raised, from day old untill 42 day of age to investigate the effect of adding graded levels of methionine (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%) in comparison with basal diet on broiler body weight, uniformity and the relationship between economical traits and economical efficiency. The birds were equally distributed into four groups , with 45 birds each,and were allocated in three replications.
Highest body weight was found in the chicks group that consumed ration consist in (0.15%)methionine at various ages.This treatment showed similar results for body weight uniformity and relative growth rate, in comparison with the other treatment groups. Feed conversion was significantly altered due to effect of methionine supplementation at (0.15 ,0.20%)levels vs first treatment. Feed intake and liveability were not affected by any level of methionine supplementation.
Economical efficiency of the third group was the best when compared with others. Regression and simple correlation analyses revealed that third treatment showed that relationships among the performance traits was the best at 42 days of age.

Role of Catheterization in Causing Urinary Tract Infection During Surgical operations in Dogs

M. M. H. A-Jammly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 257-267
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46969

This study investigated the role of urinary catheterization in causing urinary tract infection in dogs during experimental surgical procedure in addition to isolation and identification of micro–organisms which causes urinary tract infections (UTI).
Eighteen dogs from both sexes aged between (9 month – 3.5 years) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups each containing 6 dogs. During the surgical operation the dogs were catheterized and urine samples collected under aseptic condition. The urine samples were subjected to various tests; physical, microscopical examinations and bacterial cultivation on various differential media to identify the pathogenic micro – organism.
The results showed that crystals of calcium oxalate (14.2%) and triple phosphate in (7.1%) was precipitated in the urine of dogs that applied laparoscopic cystotomy at which the cystotomy wounds was closed by titanium clips. Also the results showed that E. coli was the most frequent bacteria (28.5%) while other bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Staphylocoocus epidermidis and Corynebacterium spp. was the least frequent (7.1%). Also the results revealed that the chance of UTI increased with prolonged catherization.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Bacterial Causes Urinary Tract Infection in Slaughter Sheep in Mosul City

M.M. Aljemaly; M.M. Zenad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 269-280
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46971

The study included isolation and diagnosis of causative microorganisms of urinary tract infection of sheep slaughter in slaughter house in Mosul.
(66) samples of urine collected from urinary bladder directly by sterile syringe from clinically healthy sheep (one animal suffered from dysuria) from both sex of different ages, followed by antibiotic sensitivity test for isolated bacteria. Urine were examined physiologically and chemically in a percentage of (5-10%) for the presence of pus, red blood cells, epithelial cells In addition of protein, sugar were determined and considered as a primary indicator for urinary tract infection.
Results revealed (34) isolate (51.5%) isolated from (66) samples of urine. The results also showed that Gram positive bacteria were dominants (except Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium renale) than Gram negative bacteria. Corynebacterium ovis with Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest percentage (20.58%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (14.7%) then Gram negative bacteria
E. coli give (11.7%). Pseudomonas spp. (8.8%) and Proteus (2.24%) also isolated Candida albicans in (5.8%).
The results of antibiotic sensitivity of isolated microorganism indicated that Ciprofoxacin and Gentamycin was the most effective while Pencilline and Nitrofuration had no effect.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Prototheca from Bovine Mastitis in AL-Mosul city

S. Y. AL-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 281-294
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46984

This study included the isolation and diagnosis of Prototheca microorganism from milk samples of 80 Cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city , from October 2006 to May 2007 . Prototheca were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics . The study showed that 16 samples ( 20%) were positive to Prototheca from total count included 14 (17.5%) P. zopfii and two isolates (2.5%) P. stagnora . The study show the ability of this microorganism to produce some virulance factors such as : Urease , Esterase , Lecithinase and Lipase . Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that all isolates were resistant to Ampicillin , Amoxycillin , Cephalexin , Neomycin , Streptomycin and Tetracycline , while they showed different percentages of sensitivity to Gentamycin , Polymyxin B and Nystatin.

A study of bacterial agents and lesions on urinary tract in bovine

S. Y. Mahmood; B. Y. Rasheed; M. Sh. Rhaymah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 295-305
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46985

This study was conducted on 50 cattle affected with inflammation of the urinary tract. Urine samples were collected from cattle that showed several lesions following their slaughter. Forty two bacterial isolates were found with a percent of isolation of 84% Escherichia coli constituted 42% of the isolates, followed by Actinobacter lwoffii and Aeromonas hydrophila (12% for each), Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6% for each), and Lactobacillus spp. (2%).
Results of the sensitivity test showed that the isolated bacteria were sensitive to chloramphenicol and highly resistance to penicillin G. The isolates showed variable sensitivity to the other antibiotics.

Comparative study of imidocarb, oxytetracycline 20% and diminazine in treatment of bovine anaplasmosis

K. A. M. AlSaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 307-316
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46986

Thirty local breed cattle (2-5) years old naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale were used in this study, the animals were divided randomly into three equal groups (10 animals for each), first group was treated with Imidocarb dipropionate, intramuscular at a dose rate of (3.5) mg/kg B.W. Second group treated with oxytetracycline 20%, intramuscular at a dose rate (20) mg/kg B.W. Third group treated with diminazine aceturate, intramuscular at a dose rate of (3.5) mg/kg B.W. All medications repeated after (48) hours. Clinical signs, hematological changes, percentage of parasitemia and some changes of biochemical values pre and post treatment used for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy against natural infection with bovine anaplasmosis.
Results indicated that Imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of (3.5) mg/kg B.W., intramuscular, repeated after (48) hours is more effective in the treatment of bovine anaplasmosis in comparasion with Oxytetracycline 20% and Diminazine aceturate.

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. In calves and different water resources

D. A. AL-Sawah; T. I. AL-Alousy; M. A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 155-165
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46987

The study was planned to show the prevalence of Cryotosporidium spp. in calves and water sources in Salahaddin governorate.
The study included 137 faecal samples of calves in the villages and indoor husbandry from Al-Ishaky private farm, 87 males and 50 females for period from beginning of July 2000 to end of April 2001. The age of calves was ranging from one month to one year.
Water samples were collected from tap water, panel of Tikrit city, pond water of rain, river water and sewage water.
Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was done by modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Carbol Fuccin Dimethyl Sulfoxide Methods, Direct Immunofluorescent Test was also used in water samples.
The rate of infection in calves was (37.95%); in males (40.2%) being higher than females (34%). The distribution of infection was highest among calves below one month (43.2%) of age. The highest rate of Cryptosporidium was in summer (50%) and the lowest was in winter (18.5%).
In the number of oocysts per liter of filtrated tap water was (0.2 oocysts/ liter), which was lower than infiltrated water of Tikrit planet
(3 oocysts/ liter), pond water (20 oocysts/ liter), river water (6 oocysts/ liter) and farm water (40 oocysts/ liter). In sewage water, oocyst was isolated only in one sample (0.1 oocyst/ liter). There was a strong correlation between turbidity of water samples and number of oocysts detected; as water samples with highest turbidity contained greatest number of oocysts.

Natural occurrence of t-2 toxin in broiler,s feed commodities determined with ELISA

A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 167-173
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46988

Two hundred and twenty six broilers feed commodities were collected from different broiler flocks in Ninevah governorate(Iraq), through the period from January 2004 toDecember 2005. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method was used for T-2 toxin estimation. Results showed that, 81.5% of the total examined feed samples were positive to T-2 toxin contamination. Individually these percentages were as follows; 95% for wheat; 87% for corn; 85% for soybean; 74% for barley; and 70% for mixed feed. The range for T-2 contamination was between 8-1200 ppb. Most of the samples (58.4%) had low T-2 toxin natural contamination levels. Thirty two percent of positive samples had medium contamination level, while only 18.6% experienced high natural contamination levels with T-2 toxin.

Prevalence of lice infesting goats in Mosul

T. M. Al-Saffar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 175-181
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46989

The aim of this study is to find the prevalence and diagnosis species of lice infesting goats in different seasons and different areas and farms in Mosul, and to determine the severity of infestation among 450 native goats during a period of one year. The result of the study revealed that 14.2 % of the examined goats harboured lice or their eggs (nits). Among the infested animals it was reported that 17% were considered as light, 38% moderate and 45% heavy degree of infestation respectively. It was found that the sucking lice Linognathus stenopsis was more predominating than the biting one Bovicola caprae (Damalina caprae). It was observed that the highest degree of infestation was in Winter. Mixed infestation was noticed. The clinical signs in infested goats were itching, emaciation, pale mucous membrane, restless and decrease milk production, hair loss or matted and rough haircut.

Etiological study on egg peritonitis of laying and parent stock hens

T. S. Ali; T. S. Qubih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 193-198
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46990

The aim of this study is to diagnose the etiologic agents of egg peritonitis. Sixty one chicks affected with egg peritonitis were examined clinically, pathologically, microbiologically and serologically. The results showed swelling of abdomen redding of skin, and abduction of legs. Necropsy showed peritonitis with presence of blood stained or caseated material.
The results of serology ( ELISA ) was negative for infectious bronchitis, Mycoplasma, Influenza and egg drop syndrome.
The microbiological examination revealed the presence of Proteus vulgaris (3 cases) (4.91%), Staphylococcus aureus (9 cases) (14.75%), Escherichia coli (48 cases) (78.68%) and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (one case) (1.63%).The results of sensitivity test has been discussed.

Possiblity of isolation of inclusion body hepatitis virus in layer hens

H. K. Ismail; F. A. Isihak; A. A. Shamaun

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 199-205
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.46991

The aim of this study was isolation of the inclusion body hepatitis virus (IBH) from infected commercial layer hens in Ninevah governorate and identification the pathological effects of this virus. The natural infection of IBH revealed pathognomic basophilic and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nuclei of many hepatocytes of infected chickens. Haemagglutination test of the allantoic fluid show titer 3Log2 of the isolated virus after one passage in the chiken embryos with 1% rats washed RBCs. The experimental infection is done by injection of layers and breeders at 20 weeks age by liver homogenate from infected chickens and revealed the same pathognomic gross and histopathological lesions.