Volume 20, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2006, Page 1-176


Changes in alanine aminotransfearase, aspartate aminotransfearase in blasma, kidney and liver in rabbits treated with cadmium chloride

K. A. Mohi-Aldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

The study was designed to investigate the subchronic toxic effect of cadmium chloride administered orally on alanine aminotransfearase (ALT), aspartate aminotransfearase (AST) activity and certain tissues in adult male rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups (6 animals lgroup). The first and second groups were administered cadmium chloride (30 and 60 mg/kg respectively). The third group was given distilled water and served as a control. All groups were treated daily by gavage needle for a period of eight weeks. The results demonstrated that cadmium chloride(30 and 60 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in alanine aminotransfearase activity in treated animals,
while a significant increase in aspartate aminotransfearase activity was reported only in animals administered cadmium chloride at a dose of 60 mg/kg.
Histologically, cadmium-treated groups showed lesions in liver and kidney. These lesions were more severe in animals treated with 60 mg cadmium chloride than those treated with 30 mg cadmium chloride.

Comparative anatomical and histological study on the trachea of native awasi sheep and black goat

A. G. Al-Haaik; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 9-21

To explore the various constituents of the trachea of the local awasi sheep and black goat, gross anatomical, histological and morphometrical studies had been carried out.
The study revealed that the average length of the trachea is directly proportional to the number of tracheal rings and it was also noticed that the length, diameter and wall thickness of the trachea of the sheep were greater than those of black goat. These parameters decreased gradually toward the posterior third of the trachea in both species. The free dorsal ends of the tracheal rings of the sheep overlapping each other at the cranial third, but they gradually move a part at the mid – third, and they become again very close to each other and run side to side dorsally to forming a dorsal crest at the caudal third. However, the two free ends of tracheal rings of the goat remain considerably apart throughout the entire length of the trachea forming a (U) shaped configuration. The cartilaginous rings were so oriented that they disposed one beside the other at the ventral and lateral aspects of the tracheal wall. But they overlapping each other at the dorso – lateral aspect of the tracheal wall in both species. Three main cells were detected in the surface epithelium of the trachea of both species (ciliated columnar cells, basal cells and goblet cells), another cell type was restricted to the posterior third of the trachea of both species. The tracheal glands were found to be compound, mixed tubulo – acinar type. The majority of the secretory units were mucous, the others were serous. Most of the tracheal glands occupied the triangular area between the successive tracheal rings particularly at the medial side of the ventral aspect of the trachea. The density of the tracheal glands decreased gradually anterio – coudally in the both studied species. The percentage of goblet cells in the trachea of sheep was greater than that of goat, and decreased gradually toward the lungs in both species.

Comparative carbohydrate histochemical study of the trachea of native sheep and goat

M. H. Abdul-Raheem; A. G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 23-37

The aim of this work was to explore the different types of carbohydrates histochemically in the trachea of local Awase sheep and to compare it with that of the local black goat. Ten tracheas from each sheep and goat were used for this study. Different histochemical methods were used to explore types and locations of carbohydrates in trachea’s wall of both animals. It was observed that the amount of mucus secreted from the anterior third of trachea was comparatively greater than that of the middle and posterior thirds due to its higher content of
tracheal glands and goblet cells. The carbohydrate histochemistry of different constituents of the trachea showed that there was no noticeable difference between the two studied species. However, the glycogen was found in a greater amount in goat's trachea in comparison to sheep. The goblet cells and the mucous secretory units of the trachea showed a considerable amount of carboxylated glycoprotein together with a little amount of other forms of carbohydrates. The mucus that covers the lumen of the trachea contained almost all the carbohydrate substances with the exception of neutral glycoproteins. Chondrocytes contain glycogen, sulphated and neutral glycoproteins but didn't show any form of GAGs, whereas, the territorial matrix of the cartilage contains a mixture of carboxylated and sulphated GAGs with the predominance of the latter, but glycoproteins could not be detected. The interterritorial matrix contained mainly carboxylated glycosaminoglycans together with a little amount of glycoproteins. The columnar cells and the basal surface epithelial cells showed no reaction to any form of carbohydrates.

Detection of Staphyl ococcus aureus capsules producer isolated from bovine and buffaloes mastitis

G. N. Shamoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 39-47

This study was done for the detection of capsulated Staphylococcus aureus strains which were isolated from bovine & buffaloes Mastitis. 23 (57.5 %) & 8 (53 %) strains of these bacteria were isolated, 6 (26 %) & 2 (13.3 %) were capsule producing strains, and that 9 (39.1 %) & 4 (26.6 %) were slime producing strains, respectively. An increase in the number of capsules and slim producing strains was observed following growing of these bacteria in culture media containing glucose and milk. The experimentally performed histo-pathological study, revealed presence of capsules in lung sections stained with Hematoxylin–Eosin as a halo areas appeared around the bacterial cells. In addition to a strong positive reaction with periodic acid shiffs.

The effect of methionine supplementation to diets free of animal protein on broiler performance

N. A. Katab; A. S. Al-Saigh; T.A. Az-Aldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 49-58

The effect of methionine supplementation on growth performance of 180 briolers type (Cobb) during growing period (1-21) days, fattening period (22- 42) days and the entire rearing period (1- 42) day, and carcass traits were examined. Three levels of methionine (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%) were supplemented to corn-
soybean diet and compared with a normal diet (as control), for broiler feeding. Increasing methionine supplementation levels significantly improved weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, particularly at (0.15 and 0.20%) levels. Feed intakes were not significantly different among treatment groups. Carcass yield and breast yield increased at (0.15 and 0.20%) levels of methionine addition (P<0.05). Abdominal fat content and liver relative weights were not significantly different among the various treatments due to different methionine levels. Results of this experiment suggest that addition of methionine to corn-soybean diets had improved performance and carcass traits of broilers.

Effect of the natural serum (non-immunized) on the bacteria isolated from pneumonic lung in sheep

Attar; M. Y. AL; M. A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 59-64

Normal serum bactericidal activity study were carried out against nine bacterial species (Mannheimia haemolytica, Staphelococcus aureus, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Moraxella ovis) isolated from pneumonial lungs in sheep by the use of a normal non immunized serum collected from normally healthy sheep, cattle, horses. All species of bacteria were resistant for serum effect except B. subtilis and Pseudo. aeruginosa which were sensitive for all types of serum, while Moraxella ovis was sensitive for horse serum only, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were resistant to complement free serum.

Comparison of therapeutical efficacy of ivermectin and oxybendazole in treatment of draught Horses naturally infected with Gastrointestinal worms in mosul

M. O. Abdul-Majeed; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 65-70

Twenty draught stallions, 4-10 years old, were used in this study. The horses were divided into two equal subgroups (10 horses for each) to compare the
efficacy of a single dose of Ivermectin (oral paste), 0.2 mg/kg B.W., with a single dose of Oxibendazole (oral suspension), 10 mg/kg B.W. The parameters that used were EPG, RBCS, Hb and PCV pre- and post-treatment. Results indicated reduction in EPG to zero within 14 days after treatment with Ivermectin, while there were gradual reduction in EPG without complete absences of eggs after 21 days of treatment with Oxybendazole. Also there were increase of RBCS, Hb and PCV after 14 days of treatment with Ivermectin and after 21 days of treatment with Oxybendazole. Results of evaluation of therapeutic agents indicated that Ivermectin in a dose of 0.2 mg/kg B.W. given as oral paste as a single dose was more effective than Oxibendazole in a dose of 10 mg/kg B.W. given as oral suspension as a single dose in the treatment of draught horses affected with gastrointestinal and lung worms.

Clinical and pathological effects of gastrointestinal and lung worms on draught horses in mosul

M. O. Abdul-Majeed; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 71-80

A total of 150 draught stallions 4-10 years old were used in this study, included 125 horses were naturally suffered from gastrointestinal and lung worms infection and 25 clinically normal draught horses served as control group. Coprological examinations revealed that draught horses were infected with many specieses belonged to nematodes and cestodes. The mean EPG were 2020 in McMaster method. Results indicated that diseased draught horses exhibited emaciation, rough coat, pale mucous membrane, black spots on the gum & lip, loss of appetite, diarrhea and/or constipation, worms with feces, mucous with feces, colic, anal pruritis, moist ralse, coughing and strong heart beat. Statistically, significant increase (P<0.01) were encountered between respiratory and heart rates of diseased horses in comparison with control, while there were no changes in body temperature among the two groups. Significant decrease (P<0.01) were encountered in the RBCS, Hb and PCV values of diseased horses, and significant increase (P<0.01) were also encountered in the sedimentation rates of RBCS, while there were significant increase (P<0.01) in WBCS and eosinophils. Results of biochemical tests indicated decrease in total protein and albumin values, the decrease was statistically significant (P<0.01). Levels of BUN and AST were increased significantly (P<0.01), while there were no significant changes observed in ALT levels. Presence of worms causes macroscopical and histopathological lesions in many organs of dead horses.

Clinical and pathological study of equine babesiosis in draught horses in mosul

G. M. AL-Mola; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 89-101

A total of 128 draught male horses (4-12) years old were used in this study. Among these 100 animals were naturally suffered from babesiosis and 25 clinically normal horses served as control, three dead infected horses served for gross pathological and microscopical changes. Results revealed that diseased horses were affected with the acute form and they exhibited general weakness, loss of appetite, congestion of mucous membranes with petechial hemorrhages in some of them, pale and/or icteric mucous membranes were seen in others, hemoglobinurea, edema of fetlock joint and supraorbital fossa, colic with signs of diarrhea and constipation, profuse sweating, dehydration, rough coat, ticks were observed on various parts of the body. Statistically significant increases were encountered between body temperature, respiratory and heart rates and significant decrease were detected in the RBCS, Hb, PCV, platelets count and fibrinogen. However statistically significant increase were encountered in the sedimentation rate of RBCS, clotting time, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Anemia was macrocytic hypochromic type, the percentage of parasitemia ranged between 6-28 %. Reticulocytes detected in blood smears prepared from blood of diseased animals with mean of 3.07 %. Significant increase WBC count, lymphocytes and significant decrease in neutrophils were showed in diseased animals. The results of biochemical tests revealed significant increase AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and icteric index with significant decrease in total protein and calcium. The results indicated that equine babesiosis caused gross pathological and microscopical changes in different organs of dead animals.

Comparative study of imidocarb, buparvarvaquone & diminazinein treatment of draught horses affected with equine babesiosis

G. M. AL-Mola; K. M. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 103-112

A 30 drought male horses (4-12) years old infected with equine babesiosis were used in this study. The animals were divided randomly into three groups, 10 animals for each. First group was treated with Imidocarb dipropionate
intramusculary at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg B.W. repeated after 48 h., the second group treated with Diminazine aceturate intramusculary at dose rate of 3.5 mg/kg B.W. repeated after 48 h., and the third group treated with Buparvaquone intramusculary at dose rate of 6 mg/kg B. W. repeated after 48 h. The main parameters used were clinical signs, hematological changes, percentage of parasitemia and changes of some biochemical values pre and post treatment for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy against natural infection with equine babesiosis.
Results indicated that imidocarb at dose rate of 4 mg/kg B. W. intramusculary repeated after 48 h., is more effective in the treatment of equine babesiosis in comparison with diminazine and buparvaquone as well as buparvaquone used for the first time give good result but does not cause complete elimination of babesia bodies.

Clinical study of anestrous in iraqi buffaloes in nineva province

M. A. Rahawy; M. B. Taha; O. I. Azawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 113-124

The current study was conducted on 907 adult buffalo cows, 60 cows suffering from anoestrus located in buffalo breeding farm in Nineveh province during the period from September 2002 to March 2003. The aim of this study was identify the incidence of anoestrus in adults Iraqi buffaloes in Nineveh province. Some biochemical changes in anoestrus buffalo cows were studied including calcium, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, glucose, and cholesterol in blood serum. Different hormonal therapy with supportive treatment were used. Animals included in this study 28 adult buffalo cows suffering from inactive ovaries and divided in to three treated subgroups with control group, each group contain 7 adult buffalo cows, and 32 adult buffalo cows suffering from persistent corpus luteum which divided in to three treated subgroups. with control group, each group contain 8 adult buffalo cows the results of this study show that total incidence of anoestrus in adult Iraqi buffalo cows in Nineveh province was 6.6% and 3.1% due to inactive ovaries and 3.5% due to persistent corpus luteum.
The biochemical Analysis showed blood calcium level increase significantly in (P<0.05) and total protein level decrease significantly in (P<0.05) in adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from inactive ovaries while blood calcium level increase significantly in (P<0.05) and cholesterol level decrease significantly in (P<0.05) in adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from persistent corpus luteum.
Treatment regime using GnRH with vitamin AD3E and phosphorus salt in adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from inactive ovaries showed high response on estrus sign (85.71%) and conception rate (71.5%) followed the treatment of progesterone alone and then GnRH alone respectively. While treatment regime using PGF2 a alone of adult Iraqi buffalo cows suffering from persistent corpus luteum showed high response on observed Estrus (87.5%) and conception rate (87.5%) followed by PGF2 a plus GnRH in three day interval then PGF2 a with Estradiol benzoate respectively. It was concluded that from this study the hormonal therapy or with supportive treatment could be successfully used in anoestrus buffaloes.

Study the percentage of infection with endo and ecto parasites in dogs in mosui / iraq

S.H. Arsalan; E. Daham; Q.T. AL-Obaidi; E.G. Sulaiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 125-137

65 dogs from both sexes aged 2 months – 3years old were used in this study, included 42 stray dogs 11 guard dogs, 6 pet dogs and 6 clinically normal dogs served as a control were examined. Clinical signs observed and the study of blood picture. The percentage of infection with eggs and oocysts of endoparasites in stray dogs and guard dogs were 78.57%, 27.27% respectively Eggs of Toxocara canis 40.47%, eggs of Toxascaris leonina 30.95%, eggs of Taenia spp 16.6%, oocysts of Isospora spp 7.1% and Cryptosporidium spp 11.9% were diagnosed in stray dogs. The eggs of Dioctophyma renale appeared 4.76% in faeces of stray dogs. In guard dogs, eggs of Toxascaris leonina 27.27% were also diagnosed.
Examination of skin scraping revealed 100%, 45.45%, 16.6% infection with ectoparasites in stray, guard and pet dogs respectively. The most important ectoparasites observed in stray dogs were Rhipicephalus sanguineus 40.47% Rh. turanicus 30.95%, Ctenocephalides canis 54.76% Heterodoxsus longitarsus 23.8% Demodex canis 30.95%, Sarcoptes scabiei 19.04% and Cimex spp 7.1% while in guard dogs Hcterodoxsus longitarsus 36.36%, Ct. canis 27.27% Rh. sanguineus 18.18%, Demodex canis 9.09%. In pet dogs, only Rh. sanguineus 16.6% was recorded. Mixed infection with different endoparasites and ectoparasites was most common in stray and guard dogs 76.19%, 40% respectively. Conclusion was made that the highest percentage of endo and ectoparasites were in stray dogs.

Role of oxidative strees induced by hydrogen peroxid on intiation and development of atheroslerosis in mature femal rat

E. R. AL- Kennany; E. Y. Al-Khafaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 139-151

This study was conducted to determine the possibility of 0.5% H2O2 on drinking water, for the induction of oxidative stress status in mature female rats. Moreover, this study deals with the role of this stress in initiation and development of atheromatus lesions in these animals. Oxidative stress has been investigated via tissue malondiadehyde (MDA) & glutathione (GSH) (aorta, heart and liver) as indirect lipid peroxidation index. For atherogenous follow up, light and electron microscopical techniques have been applied.
The result elucidate significant elevation in lipid profile parameters namely cholesterol, Triglycerides TG, Low density lipoprotein LDL-C, Very Low density lipoprotein VLDL-C, atherogenic index and a significant reduction in High density lipoprotein HDL-C, level in all experimental animals. Parallely, this study revealed significant rising in tissue MDA concentration, concomitant with significant depress in tissue GSH level in all studied animals.

Preliminary study on the prevalence of giardia in ruminants in ninevah province

M. SH. Rhaymah; B. A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 153-163

The study revealed presence of giardia cyst in the feces of animals which was examined at 7%, 4.5% and 5.45% in the direct method for sheep, goats and cattle respectively, while 15.5%, 16.5% and 21.81% in concentrated method respectively at the same animals.
No significant differences recorded in rate of infection between different species of animals, although higher percentage of cyst was eliminate in cattle feces. There was no significant effect of age and type of breeding on rate of infection. However the animals in late stage of pregnancy and early stages of milking eliminated higher percentage of cyst in their feces, especially in goats. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode eggs with giardia was found to be 7.5%, 4.5 and 0 % in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively and with Eimeria; 3.5%, 11% and 5.45, in same animals, respectively. The most obvious clinical signs found were pasty feces mixed with mucous, emaciation and easily detached wool and hair.

CAPABILITY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII TO INDUCE AN OXIDATIVE STRESS AND INITIATION OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS IN CATS EXPERMENTALLY INFECTED

E. R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 165-176

This study was conducted to explore the capability of Toxoplasma gondii to induce an oxidative stress status via an experimental infection of 12 domesticated cats appear free of natural Toxoplasma gondii infection, by feeding tachyzoites infected mice. Tachyzoites have been isolated from 3 month aborted ewes fetus. The positive results of this infection were achieved by the isolation of oocysts from the fecal matter at 7 days post infection (p.i.), as well as the demonstration of tissue cysts in the brain tissue of infected cats at 14 days p.i. This study was revealed that an oxidative stress status appear at 30 days p.i., clarified by significance elevation of MDA levels in liver, brain ,and aorta tissues of infected cats, concomitant with a significance reduction in GSH concentration in the same tissues. Moreover, the present study suggest the correlation of this oxidative stress with progression of atherosclerotic lesions namely: fatty lesions and fatty proliferative lesions, that appear in the aorta of infected cats at 30 days p.i. on the other side, this study remarks the serum fatty profiles and the gross and the histopathological changes in infected cats.

SECONDARY AMYLOIDOSIS ASSOCITED WITH Salmonella typhi EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION IN WHITE MICE

K. H. Al-Jaboury

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

The present paper reported induction of amyloidosis by intraperitoneal injection of Salmonella typhi in white mice. The study was on young mice of 5–6 weeks old, after two weeks acclimatization period, mice were injected intrapritoneally with 0.25 ml of S. typhi suspension containing 2.5 x 108 bacterial cells and sacrificed daily for 28 days.
The amyloid was systemic, secondary in character and organs mostly affected were spleen, kidney and liver, respectively.
It appeared that this is the first report remarks the induction of systemic secondary amyloidosis by intra peritoneal injection of Salmonella typhi in young white mice.

NATURAL CONTAMINATION OF SOME BROILER'S FEED COMMODITIES WITH OCHRATOXIN

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 9-17

Ninety eight samples of feed commodities (wheat, soybean and corn ) were collected during the period 2000–2004 from various broiler farms showed clinical signs of ochratoxicosis. Feed samples were divided into two equal parts, one for mycological study, for detection of feed commodities contamination with A. ochracous, and the other part for ochratoxin analysis using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mycological results showed that wheat samples show the higher percentage of contamination with A. ochraceus (73%) with log 10 CFU/gm of 2.77. Toxicological analysis shows that wheat samples had the highest rate of ochratoxin contamination (86%) followed by soybean (76%) and then corn samples (70%). Ochratoxin levels in all feed samples were ranged from < 100 ppb to 400 ppb. The importance of ochratoxin in poultry health was discussed.

ISOLATION OF Brucella abortus FROM ABORTED LAMBS IN THE GOVERNORATE OF SULAIMANIA /SAID-SADIC DISTRICT

J. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 19-23

Brucella abortus was isolated and identified from aborted lambs in the Governorate of Sulaimani /Said-Sadic district. The blood agar, candle jar and 37°C incubator were successfully used. Microbiological and biochemical tests were used for identification of the isolates. Although previous incidence of brucellosis prevalence has been reported serologically in the area but the present study could represent the first attempt for B. abortus isolation, with local available facilities in the Governorate of Sulaimani.