Issue 2


The correction factor of hair density in the skin of native cattle

N. S. Ahmad; A. M. Elias; M. H. Abdul-Raheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 177-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45789

The hair density of the native skin cattle was calculated by counting hair follicles from the Hematoxylin and Eosin stained horizontal sections taken from skin samples which were fixed in either formalin buffered solution or alcoholic Bouin's solution and processed by the routine paraffin embedding method. The hair density of the formalin fixed samples was counted to be 13.68 ± 2/mm2 while the hair density of the Boins fixed skin samples was found to be 14.12 ± 5/mm2.
The surface area of skin samples showed variable skin shrinkage percentage during the different stages of histological procedure. The shrinkage percentage was especially obvious in paraffin infiltration. The final shrinkage percentage of the surface area of formalin and alcoholic Bouin's fixed samples was 13.94 % and 15.03 % successively. The increased shrinkage percentage of the samples fixed in alcoholic Bouin's fixed compared to that of the formalin fixed samples lead to a false increase in the hair density of Bouins fixed samples compared to formalin fixed samples. Therefore the increase in the hair density is directly proportional to an increase in shrinkage percentage, and this reflects on the values of the correcting factor which becomes 0.67 for the Bouin's fixed samples and 0.69 for the formalin fixed samples. Thus we reached to a conclusion that the shrinkage percentage is inversely proportional with value of the correcting factor. Taking the correcting factor in consideration, the high false hair density of the stained skin sections is corrected to become 9.44/mm2 only in the back region of the living native cow.

The effect of different laboratorial concentrations of ammonia on interior egg quality ,chick embryo vitality and hatchability in broiler breeder eggs

T.A. Az-Aldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 183-189
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45790

The effect of different concentrations of gaseous ammonia was studied. Six batches (27 eggs each of Cobb broiler breeders were used). The six batches were exposed to 0.25; 0.50; 1.01; 1.51 and 2.53 mg/lit. of ammonia, respectively, in special dessicators for 12 hours before incubation for the purpose of the complete ammonia evaporation in the disscators. In the mean time another non treated batch of eggs was kept as control .
Ammonia gaseous significantly (P<0.05) affected the interior egg quality as indicated by the PH which was gradually increased in both albumen and egg yolk, so by albumen height and yolk index depression at the different concentrations.
The early embryonic mortality was significantly affected (P<0.05) by the groups which was exposed to (0.50 and 1.01) mg/lit of gaseous ammonia. While, high significant effect (P<0.01), was shown at the concentrations of (1.51 and 2.53) mg/l of gaseous ammonia, However no significant impact of gaseous ammonia was detected in the group subjected to (0.25) mg/l comparated with the control group.
Hatchability in the treated groups was significantly reduced (P<0.05) reaching to 45% , 40% and 36% due to the exposure to ammonia at a concentrations of 0.50, 1.01 and 1.51, respectively in comparison with the control group. A further reduction (p<0.01) was noticed in the group which was received the highest percentage of the ammonia gaseous (2.53) mg / lit.
No statistical differences were observed in the group, which was exposed to 0.25 mg/lit.ammonia gaseous.
It was concluded that significant differences were observed in early embryonic mortality and hatchability, more than (0.50) mg/lit. due to eggs exposure to heigh ammonia concentrations.

Effect of dichlorvos on cholinesterase activity in pigeons (rockdov)

A. S. ALIAS

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 191-202
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45797

The aim of this study was to examine the toxicity of organophosphorus insecticide Dichlorvos in wild pigeons (Rockdov), and measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the serum, plasma, brain, liver and Pectoralis muscle using a modified electrometric method.The maximum activity of ChE was in the serum (1.03 ∆pH/30 min) and the minimum ChE activity in liver (0.04 ∆pH / 30 min) as well as inhibition effect of Dichlorvos on ChE activities in serum, plasma, brain, liver and Pectoralis muscle. Whereas the maximum inhibition appear in plasma 88-95% in the pigeons that treated by (10-20 mg /kg B.W) of Dichlorvos. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of Dichlorvos in pigeons is 21.4 mg/kg B.W. Atropine at 20 mg / kg S.C lead to decrees in toxicity signs in the pigeons that treated by 20
mg /kg B.W of Dichlorvos orally, decrease of death 33 % and delay time of death. Where as pigeons treated by atropine at 20 mg / kg and diazepam 5mg/kg subcutaneously was effective in reducing toxicity signs and 100 % protected the birds that treated by Dichlorvos from death.

Detection of Cryptosporidium spp in zoo of Mosul and Dohuk cities

W. A. Ahmed Al-Obaidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 203-212
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45798

This study includes detection of Cryptosporidium spp from fecal samples taken from different animals in Duhok and mosul Zoo , and parasite from workers in these Zoo in 2002 .The total infected percentage reach to (54.5 % , 46.6 % , 41.6 % , 80 % , 71.4, 60 %) in Monkeys, Deer, Parrot, Finch, Fox and Zoo Workers. Four laboratory method were used for diagnosing parasite oocysts, The results showed that efficient diagnostic method was modified acid fast stain method (100%), followed by Iodine staining method and flotation in saturated
sugar solution method. While, formalin sedimentation method gave low confidence for diagnosis the oocysts of parasite in fecal samples. Features of oocysts were varied according to the technique was used for examination of fecal samples, but there are no morphological differences appeared in oocysts. The average of oocysts sizes were shown to be within the normal range of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. The average of oocyst sizes was shown to be within the measure of oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp.

Isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from the infected eye of sheep and cattle

M. A. Hamed; B.E. Rasheed; G.H Shamoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 213-218
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45799

The study included isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi associated with the mycotic keratitis in sheep and cattle, the observed study Aspergillus niger was the most frequent species isolated and was accounted to 62.5% of all isolates, while other fungi included Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus, Alternaria sp isolated in 12.5% for each .

Diagnostic study of microfilariae in blood samples of cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

E. T. Butty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 219-224
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45802

The result of this study revealed to diagnosis the infection of microfilaria in blood samples of cattle which were collected from veterinary hospital and Mosul abattoir. The total percentage of infection was 25.76% and the high percentage of infection appeared in May was 35.7%, with no significant differences in percentages of infection between the months of this study. There were significant differences in the infection rate between male and female of the cattle, and the high percentage of infection appeared in female was 37.97%. High percentage of infection appeared in age 3 years and more was 37.09% with significant differences from age less than one year with P-value (P<0.01).

Study of some parasitic disease of pond fish in Mosul area

A.H. Azziz; A.H. Al-Hamdane

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 225-228
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45816

Parasitic disease of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. from ponds in Mosul area were studies for one year period from March 1999, to the end of February 2000. The parasites were noticed on the skin, gills and in the eye. The percentage of crustacean infestation of the skin was 39.1 % which were due to both anchor worm Lernea cyprinacea and fish lice Argulus foliaceus. The protozoan skin infestation was with Trichodina 7.2%. The gill parasitic infestation was both the monogenetic trematode Dactylogyrus 35.1 % and the Crustacean Ergasulus 6.2 %. The parasitic infestation of the eyes was by the metacercarial stage of Diplostmum 12.37 %.

Capability of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress and atheromatous lesions in female pregnant rats

A. Al-Khafaf; E.R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 229-240
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45817

This study was conducted to determine the capability 0.5% H2O2 on drinking water, for the induction of oxidative stress status in female pregnant rats. Moreover, this study deal with role of this stress in initiation and development of atheromatous lesions via estimation the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation index and Glutathione (GSH) as antioxidant index in aorta, heart and liver tissues as well as the histological examination of the that tissues.
The result elucidate study the levels of lipid profile parameters in all studied animal. In addition, the results showed histologizal lesions, represented by localization of fatty vacuoles foam calls in intimal media layers associated with lymphogtic in filtration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells toward the intima, these lesions appear at 21 day from treated H2O2 in female pregnant rats. The study also remark hitopathological changes in placenta.

Pathological study of toxoplasma gondii expermintally infected in broiler chicken

O. S. Beyon; E. S. AL-Alaf; E. R. AL-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45818

This research was conducted to explore the pathological changes produced from the infection with oocyst of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from infected cats in broiler chicken. The research showed histopathological lesions in liver, intestine, spleen, brain and lungs.
Histopathological examinations of liver revealed perivascular tachyzote cuffing and localization of tissue cyst in hepatocyte, and intestine showed hyperplasia with presence of tachyzoite in epithelial lining of villi and submucosal glands, while in spleen localization of tissue cyst in arteriosclerosis have been seen, moreover, in brain there was parasitemia associated with penetration of tachyzoite in red blood cells have been seen and in the lung, showed proliferation of tachyzoite in epithelial lining alveoli associated with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells.

Pathological and histochemical study on cats and mice experimentally infected with TOXOPLASMA GONDII

E. R. AL-Kennany; A. M. A. Al-Saidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 249-263
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45821

In this Study, Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed and isolated successfully from domestic (Stray) cats at Mosul city, Iraq using Latex test and the flotation method of fecal material. The study also included experimental induction of the condition by giving orally oocysts of T. gondii to albino mice at a dose of 1000 sporulated oocysts and leaving the mice for 14 days. All infected mice (15 with tissue cysts) were fed to 8 cats negative for latex and fecal flotation method. The pathogenesis of the isolated T. gondii has been followed through daily fecal examination which indicated the presence of oocysts at the 5 th post infection
(p. i.) day. Postmortem examination of 2 cats was done at 3, 7, 14, and 21
days p. i. with preparation of histological section from the intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas and brain. Additionally, histological techniques were done for the intestines and liver. Clinical sings were not seen in cats infected experimentally. Grossly, multifocal areas of necrosis and severe congestion were seen most prominently in the brain. Histiochemically, there was an increase in mucopolysaccharide in the intestine and in glycogen infiltration in hepatic cells.

THE CORRECTION FACTOR OF HAIR DENSITY IN THE SKIN OF BUFFALO

M. H. Abdul Raheem; A. M. Elias; N. S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 101-106
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62487

The hair density of the back region in water buffalo was calculated by counting the number of hair follicles in the horizontal sections prepared by conventional paraffin embedding method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin . The calculated hair density was 3.53 hair follicle/mm2 of the buffalo skin. All the hair follicles were of primary type and distributed randomly.
The skin samples showed different variable shrinkage percentage during routine histological technique. The shrinkage percentage of surface area of the stained sections was found to be 21 % of the original value. Thus the correction factor of the hair density was calculated to be 0.79, this leads to conclusion that the actual hair density of the back region of the skin of living buffalo is 2.78 hair follicle/mm2 only .

EFFECT OF COX-2 INHIBITOR, ROFECOXIB, ON EPIDIDYMAL SPERM CHARACTERS AND ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS

F. K. Tawfeek; S. M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 107-115
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62488

The effect of long term administration of cox-2 inhibitor (Rofecoxib) on epididymal sperm characters (male fertility) was investigated in adult male rats by two separate experiments. Rofecoxib was administered orally at two doses 0.35 mg/Kg B.W., and 0.71 mg/Kg B.W. Animals received 0.35mg/Kg B.W. rofecoxib showed a significant increase in weights of head, body of epididymis, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities with a significant decrease in sperm count in the epididymal head and the percentage of live sperms. On the other hand, rofecoxib at a dose 0.71 mg/Kg B.W. caused a significant decrease in the percentage of live sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, and the diameter of seminiferous tubules. It is concluded that the administration of rofecoxib was associated with an unexpected incidence of adverse effect on male rat fertility. However, the future might not look quite as satisfying as at first imagined, because it has become apparent that cox-2 inhibitors dose not simply have a significant role in pain and inflammation it might also work disadvantageously.

THE EFFECT OF LASER AND LASER PHOTOSENSITIZER COMBINATION ON LEISHMANIA TROPICA PROMASTIGOTES IN VITRO

H. S. Al-Obaidi; M. A. Kadir; A. M. A. Al-Sammaraie; G. A. Al-Mula

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62489

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common disease in Iraq, especially in the central part of the country. Several treatments have been suggested for this disease but none is completely effective and without side effects. Several research studies are focused on the development of alternative treatments.
The study was carried out in College of Medicine, Tikrit University, to show the effect of laser and laser photosensitiser (ultrameladinine) combination on Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro, after exposure for 3, 6 and 9 minutes. It was found that exposure to light from 5 mw lasers in the presence of ultrameladinine lead to destruction of L. tropica promastigotes in vitro. The effect of laser and laser photosensitiser was greater than laser light alone. Their effect on the parasite after exposure for 9 minutes was significantly greater than exposure for 3 and 6 minutes.

EVALUATION OF GLUTARALDEHYDE AS DISINFECTANT OF LAPAROSCOPE

E. A. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62490

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of glutaraldehyde as disinfectant to laparoscope. 30 dogs under going laparoscopy for different surgical intervention, the laparoscope was soaked for 20 minutes in 2% glutaraldehyde before the procedure. After standard skin preparation with 5% tincture iodine. Cultures of the umbilical area, the laparoscope and the peritoneum were taken to document the type of organisms commonly encountered under clinical condition. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as for fungi were taken. The result demonstrated growth of common skin organisms even after skin preparation with tincture iodine. The organisms cultured from the skin and peritoneum were similar but the organisms of laparoscope cultures were different. The study proofed that glutaraldehyde successfully can be used as disinfectant for laparoscope.

A COMPARATVE STUDY OF TWO METHODS OF PROSTATECTOMY IN DOGS

B. T. Abass; M. J. Eesa; L. M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 133-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62491

The present investigation was designed to determine the differences between two methods of prostatectomy in dogs. The study conducted on eight aged, male street dogs of local breed. The experimental animals were randomly divided into two equal groups. The animals were surgically treated by two surgical techniques; first, Complete Prostatectomy (CP), and second, Subtotal Intracapsular Prostatectomy (SIP). The results showed that dogs in group1 underwent urinary incontinence after prostatectomy of normal glands, and one animal died from complications. As compared to that in group 2, the urinary obstruction was not a postoperative complication as appeared from the clinical signs. In conclusion, CP led to a series of complications could lead to death, and is indicated only for those patients with proliferative prosthetic disease and for patients with prostatic neoplasms. While, SIP procedure indicated affectivity, because urethral obstruction and urinary incontinence have not been a postoperative complication, in addition, to the fewer complications occurred, when it's compared with CP.

EPIDURAL INJECTION OF XYLAZINE /NOVOCAIN MIXTURE IN DONKEYS

L. M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 139-143
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62492

This study was conducted on nine adult donkeys from both sexes to determine the ideal dose and efficiency of Xylazine/Novocain mixture for inducing a good and safe epidural analgesia. This mixture was injected between the first and second coccygeal vertebrae. The results indicated that the efficiency of Xylazine 2% at a dose 0.8 mg /kg.BW mixed with Novocain 2% at the dose 0.1ml/kg.BW induced good safe epidural analgesia in donkeys.

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF CROSS LINKED CHITOSAN-POLYURETHANE MESH IN TISSUE REPAIR IN SHEEP

A. A. Al-Obaidi; H. I. Al-Sadi; S. Sh. Hashim; N. H. Markas

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 145-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62493

In the present study, an interpenetrating polymer network (cross-linked chitosan-polyurethane mix) was successfully prepared. It was found that the mixing of 70% chitosan and 30% polyurethane gave the best results as far as the mechanical properties of the network are concerned. Toxicological evaluation of the network was done in 15 rabbits, and it was found to be pathologically non-toxic. The possible effects of the network on the liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles of sheep with clean or infected open wounds were studied through the measurement of plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase. In sheep with clean open wounds that were implanted with the network, the levels of the enzymes were 11.04  0.54; 30.83  1.20; 36.37  1.52; and 5.52  0.37, respectively. In sheep with contaminated wounds, the levels of the enzymes were 11.29  0.30; 38.58  1.16; 38.20  1.21, and 6.31  0.46, respectively. Statistically significant differences were not encountered in the values of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and acid phosphatase in sheep with clean wounds and those with contaminated wounds. However, the level of aspartate aminotransferase was higher significantly (P<0.01) in sheep with contaminated wounds than in sheep with clean wounds. Histologically, the healing of the clean and contaminated open wounds proceeded through the same processes as described in the literature. Bacterial infection was not observed in any of the wounds that were implanted with the network.

THE EFFECT OF BONE MARROW AUTOGRAFT ON FRACTURE HEALING WITH DESTRUCTION OF PERIOSTEUM AND

M J Eesa; Thanoon M G; Ibrahim S M

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 163-172
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62494

Ten mature rabbits was used in this study. The animals were divided into two equal groups. Femoral mid–shaft fractures were induced, and destruction of both periosteum and endosteum for about one centimeter around the fractured ends was performed. The fractured bone was immobilized by intramedullary pinning. Group 1 considered as control, while group 2 was implanted by sufficient amount of auto–bone marrow at the fracture site. The radiographic results revealed that, the destruction of both periosteum and endosteum leads to delayunion and some percentage of nonunion. While the bone marrow in group two promoted and enhanced the fracture healing.

EFFECT OF ALOE VERA GEL ON EXPERIMANTAL TENDON HEALING IN DONKEYS

E. R. Al-Kennany; A. H. Allawi; Z. T. Abd-Almaseeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 173-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62507

This study was conducted to explore the effect of Aloe vera gel on healing of experimentally incised superficial digital flexor tendon in donkeys. Results of this study showed that healing of severed tendon in all experimental animals was through proliferation of fibroblasts and angioblasts and collagen fibers formation, and also presences of newly oriented tendenous tissue like the original tissue in 21 days postoperatively for the animals treated with Aloe vera gel, while this tissue never seen in control group for same period. As well as notice of mature irregular granulation tissue which was still poorly oriented in control group within 21 days postoperatively, whereas the animals in group treated with Aloe vera gel showed mature regular (organized) granulation tissue within 14 days postoperatively. This study proved that Aloe vera gel has ability to accelerated tendon healing through prevent wound infection and protect the tissues from contamination.

CLINICAL STUDY ON FETAL CONGENITAL DEFECTS CAUSING DYSTOCIA IN AWASSI EWES

E. B. Basher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 181-189
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62509

Out of 193 clinical cases of dystocia in awassi ewes were treated, 27 (13.9%) ewes were suffered from dystocia due to fetal congenital defects. Various forms of congenital defects were observed including arthrogryposis 25.9%, brachygnathia and anasarca 18.5% for each, hydrocephalus 11.2% ascitis and dicephalus 7.4% for each, cyclopia, conjoined twins and schistosoma refluxes 3.7 % for each. The defects were occurred more frequently in male lambs (74.1 %) than in female lambs (25.9 %). Prenatal losses were reported in 96.2% of the cases.
Dystocia cases caused by congenital defect were treated by caesarian section (74.1%), manual correction and traction (14.8 %) or by fetatomy (11.1 %). The results indicates increasing the morbidity rate of fetal congenital defects in Mosul at this period, and showed that caesarean section was the best and safest method for the treatment of dystocia caused by congenital defects.

CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PERITONITIS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAUMATIC RETICULOPERITONITIS, RUMINITIS, AND RUMINAL TYMPANITES IN WATER BUFFALOES

K. M. Al-Saad; H I AlSadi; M. J. Eessa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 191-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.62513

The Objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical and pathological aspects of peritonitis secondary to traumatic reticuloperitonitis, ruminitis, and ruminal tympanites in water buffaloes. Results of this study have showed that cases of acute peritonitis were more frequent than cases of chronic peritonitis. Body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were higher significantly in cases of acute peritonitis than in cases of chronic peritonitis (P0.05) and that these parameters were higher significantly in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. Ruminal motility was higher significantly in acute cases of peritonitis than in chronic peritonitis but it was lower significantly in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. Inappetance, grunting, and scant feces were more frequently seen in cases of acute peritonitis than in cases of chronic peritonitis. Arching of the back, rough coat, dripping urination, disinclination to move, and lying down with care were seen in cases of acute peritonitis only. Loss of body weight was seen in cases of chronic peritonitis only. Decreased milk production was more frequent in cases of chronic peritonitis than in cases of acute peritonitis. The packed cell volume values were higher significantly in cases of acute peritonitis than in control and chronic peritonitis. In contrast, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher significantly in cases of chronic peritonitis, and in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. Plasma fibrinogen levels were higher significantly in cases of chronic peritonitis than in cases of acute peritonitis, and in cases of peritonitis than in control animals. The total lymphocytes count and neutrophils values were higher significantly in cases of acute peritonitis than in chronic peritonitis, and in peritonitis than in control animals. The lymphocytes value was significantly lower in cases of acute peritonitis than in chronic peritonitis and in control animals. Histologically, the lesions were in the form of congestion, extensive hemorrhages, and edema of the peritoneal tissue. Thrombosis of some blood vessels, areas of necrosis, and minimal mixed type inflammatory cells were also seen. Erythrocytes were the main consitituent of the exudate and deposits of hemosiderin were visualized in areas of hemorrhages.