Volume 19, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2005, Page 79-201

Evaluation of two different methods for slaughtering in broilers

N A Khattab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 79-83

Two slaughtering methods (with and without electrical stunning) for broilers were used in this study, using 20 broilers (10 males and 10 females) at a rate of 5 birds for each method. The results showed that there was a significant (P<0.01) increase in the amount of blood collected from slaughtered females by using electrical stunning method when compared with the females slaughtered without electrical method. The amount of blood collected from male broilers of both gropes and methods showed no significant differences. It was concluded that electrical stunning of broilers gave better results of bleeding than birds stunned without electrical stunning. Moreover, it does not object with Islamic believes since birds were alive at slaughter time.

Contamination of the parentstock feed with salmonella in Ninava Government

A M Shareef; Z K Khather

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 85-95

A total of (180) feed samples were collected from three different parent stock flocks in Nineveh governorate during the period between September till March 2003, to determine the prevalence of salmonellae contamination of these samples. Fifteen isolates (8.3%) of six salmonellae stereotypes were isolated. they were S. typhimurium (4) isolates (26.6%), S. anatum (1) isolates (6.66%), S. good wood (3) isolates (20%), S. braenderup (3) isolates (20%), S. senftenberg (3) isolates (20%) and S. Amsterdam (1) isolate (6.66%). All of the isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantion but resistant to sulphamethoxazol, trimethoprim and amoxicillin (100%).

Occurrence of Eimeria spp. In goats in Mosul abattoir – Iraq

H S Al-Bakray; M S Daoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 97-103

Fecal examination using floating technique with saturated sugar solution revealed that the total infection rate with Eimeria spp. was 95.08% among 1140 slaughtered goats in Mosul abattoir. From October 2001 to July 2002 Nine species were recorded .E. apsheronica ( 65.6%) , E. alijevi ( 53.6%), E. christenseni (36.5%) , E. arloingi (35.4%), E. ninakohylakimovae (26.4%), E. hirci (18.5%), E. pallida ( 14.5%), E. jolchievi (11%), E. caprovina (8.5%). The highest infection rates were found (96.7%) in October, 2001 and (100%) during January, April and July 2002, respectively. The incidence of infection among male goats was (95.7%) and (92.3%) among females . Depending on the age groups, the results showed that the incidence of infection was (100%) in goats 3-5 years old, and (93.9%) in goat kids less than 1 year old. Multiple infection with more than 3 species was more common (79.15%) , than single infection ( 7.38 %) .

Pathological study of experimental infection of Enterococcus faecalis in broiler chichen

O S Beyon; G N Shamoon; E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 105-113

This study elucidates the isolation of the enterococcus from faeces of chickens and fellow up pathogenesis through the induction of Experimental infection in broiler chickens. The study showed the development pathological lesions in the heart represented by vegetative endocarditis, in liver represented by present of coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphocytes around central vein, as well as sever fatty changes, also the lesion included splenitis. Lung lesions characterized by presence of Bronchopneumonia and infiltration of serous and sero-fibrinous exudates with localization of lipid vacuoles in the wall of thoracic aorta & aortic arch.

Study of pathological effect of Newcastle disease virus isolated from upper respiratory system in broiler

S Y Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 115-122

This study was conducted to determine the pathogenicity of six local isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) obtained form different area of Ninevah province. Isolation procedures employed via fertile chicken eggs inoculation. This study processed on the 4th passage of this isolate. Depending on the embryonic lesion induced by this isolates, parallel with Mean Death time (MDT), Intravenous Pathogenicity Index (IVPI) and Intra Cerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI). The results
of the study demonstrate that four of the isolates were highly pathogenic, while the other two were mesogenics. The experimental infection using this isolate in broiler
chick revealed variability in respiratory signs and in mortality rates. However,
antibodies Hemagglutination titers (HI) showed elevation in all infected bird in the
first week post-infection (PI) and were more prominent in the second week of (PI).

Diagnostic study of some intestinal protozoa in domestic rabbits in Mosul area

E G Sulaiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 123-133

The current study reveals that the total percentage of infection with
Eimeria spp oocysts 57.14% , eleven species were diagnosed , according to their percentage they are : E. exigua 38.57% , E. perforans 32.85% , E. nagpurensis 25.71% , E. elongata 17.14%, E.stiedai 15.71%, E. media 14.28% , E. coecicola 14.28% , E. irresidua 10% , E. matsubayashii 8.57% , E. magna 5.71% and E. intestinalis 5.71% . Infection with three species of Eimeria or more was most frequent in rabbits with percentage 67.5%. The total infection with Cryptosporidium spp was 58.57%. The modified acid fast (hot stain) technique diagnosed all positive cases while the flotation with sheather’s sugar solution and iodine stain techniques were 42.85%, 48.57%, respectively.

Comparative study of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome vaccine in poultry

F A Jassim; M Y Al-Attar; F A Danial

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 135-141

Two commercial types of Hydro pericardium Hepatitis Syndrome (HHS) oily inactivated vaccines were evaluated. The first was (Angavac) French in origin (Merial Co.) & the 2nd is (Nobilis Hepatitis) Holland in origin (Intervet Co.). A unified program of vaccination had been used for both vaccines. One & ten days old chicks were vaccinated by subcutaneous & intramuscular route of injection with both vaccines in each age separately . Serum antibodies titer weekly measured by using Indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) & agar gel diffusion test. Challenge test at 4 week of age was done by virulent avian adeno virus serotype – 4 (VAAV-4) as well as virulent field isolate was used as challenge virus. The result showed highest antibodies titer at week age. Angavac vaccine gave highest titer than Nobilis Hepatitis vaccine & IHA was more sensitive than AGDT. All groups vaccinated with Angavac gave 100% protection in challenge test with (VAAV-4) at 28 days. While in Holland vaccine the protection ratio was 60-80% only, but the ratio of protection of both vaccines did not exceed than 40-50% when the field isolate was used as challenge virus.

Study of some endo and ecto parasites in domestic rabbits in Mosul/ Iraq

I D H Al-Moula

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 143-153

This study has been carried out in order to investigate the present of some endo and ecto parasite through the examination 30 of domestic rabbits of both sexes was 2 months – 2 years old. Our results revealed, (23) were infected (76.6%) Oocysts of Eimeria spp showed the highest percentage (73.9%) followed by the eggs of nematodes and Cestodes represented as Passalurus ambiguus ,Trichuris leporis , Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Oblelescoides cuniculi, Graphidium stigosum, Capillaria hepatica, Nematodirus leporis, Cittotaenia ctenoides, 52.1%, 30.4%, 17.3%, 13.04%, 8.6%., 4.3 % , 4.3%, 21.7% , respectively. Our results diagnosed One species of adult cestodes Cittotaenia ctenoides in percentage 4.3% also we observed Cysticercus pisiformis of adult parasite Taenia pisiformis at 8.6%.Species of nymphs Linguatula serrata (tongue worm) in domestic rabbits were diagnosed with percentage (17.3%) and it is the
first report in Mosul / Iraq .Mixed infection was most common with no significant differences appeared between males and females and between ages.

Effect of Eimeria tenella attenuated vaccine with levamisol on immunity of broilers

E G Zakaria; A F Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 157-167

This study has been applied on broilers which were given vaccine prepared from sporulated oocyst of E. tenella that attenuated by X-ray (10, 15, and 20) K rad, in its 1st day with dose 1×104oocyt/bird orally; Levamisole was used as an immunomodulator with 15mg/kg- body weight gains during 4 days after vaccination. Broilers were divided to 8 groups challenging was performed in 22 days of the immunized groups and 7thgroup by sporulated oocyst 6×104oocyst/bird. After challenge recording the quantity of the consumed feed, weight gains, and some immune examinations were also applied like: Phagocytes, delayed hypersensitivity test and organ index.

Natural infection of Cysticercus pisiformis in domestic rabbits and a study of experimental infection in the final host (Dogs)

E G Sulaiman; M Sh Rhymah; M S Daoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 169-174

The results reveal that the natural infection of domestic rabbits with Cysticercus pisiformis was 68.18% from 22 rabbits. The postmortem changes revealed prescience of peticial hemorrhage beneath capsule and parenchyma of the liver with large number of larval cysts attached at the liver, peritoneum and diaphragm and others found within the peritoneal cavity. Histopatholgical changes of the liver tissue were showed necrosis of hepatic cells with highly infiltration of inflammatory cells especially lymphocytes around the portal area in addition to deposit of haemosidrin pigment. Larval stage reached to adult stage after 45 days in the final host (dogs) and the morph metric study was indicated that the species of the parasite is Taenia pisiformis.

Comparative efficacy of Moxidectin and Ivermectin in cattle naturally infected with old world screw worm larvae

E A Hassan; A Y Al-Karogholli; A S Hassan; M O Al-Ani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 175-177

Moxidectin is a second generation semi-synthetic Macrocyclic Lactone of the Milbemycins family, which have a broad spectrum of activity against external and internal parasite including Oestrus ovis and hypodermatosis. A trial was conducted to identify the efficacy of moxidectin against the natural infection of cattle with larvae of screw worm fly Chrysomya bezziana. A dose of 0.2 mg/ kg b.wt. (1 ml /50kg b. wt.) S.C . which was found to be very effective for more than 40 days? The trial shows the effect of Moxidectin is over that of Ivermectin in re-infection of the animal. No side effects & no abnormal behaviors, was noticed on the animals treated with Moxidectin during the trial.

Effect of garlic oil as antiatherogenic on intiation and development of atherosclerosis induced experimentally by oxidative stress in rabbit

E Sh Al-Allaf; E R Al-Kenany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 179-192

This study searched the microscopical effects of garlic oil at a dose of 50 mg daily for 60 days on tissues of heart , liver, and kidney in female rabbits. The results revealed hyperatrophy in cardiac myocyte, acute cell swelling in hepatocyte and epithelial cells that lined renal tubules. Complete lipid profile was also described.
The study also proved that garlic oil had a good antioxidant effects toward the meliorating progression of atherumatous lesion. Antioxidative effects also explained by significant reduction in lipid profile parameters (except an elevation in HDL-C), as well as elevation in tissue GSH and reduction of tissue MDA, as compared with control group. One more result , this study was suggest on the therapeutic efficiency of garlic oil and vitamin E for 15 days after exposure to hydrogen peroxide for 60 days. The therapeutic effects interpret within the significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, atherogenic index and significant increase in the level of HDL-C. In addition to significant increase in the level of GSH and significant decrease in the level of MDA. The histopatholgical changes, reveled less reduction in atherosclerotic lesions. This study concluded that garlic oil have a capability to decrease the level of lipid profile as antiatherogenic. In addition, the ability to decrease the level of lipid peroxidation MDA, and to increase the level of GSH as antioxidant.

Mortality and birth weight in Friesian, Sharabi and Crossbred calves

S A M Dabdoub

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 91-98

Birth weight of 149 Friesian, 270 Sharabi and 121 crossbred calf's males and females were utilized. The mortality rates have been obtained from birth until weaning for each breed in males and females. Average birth weight in male's survival group for sharabi, Friesian and crossbred were 20.94, 30.82 and 30.19 kg respectively, and in females were 18.42, 29.11 and 28.10 kg, respectively. Birth weight in Sharabi was significantly different (P<0.01) from Friesian and crossbred in both males and females. In mortal group the birth weight was significantly (P<0.01) less than survival group in both sexes and for each breed.
Mortality rate in males and females were (14.1%, 16.7%) in Frieasian, (21.2%, 23.6%) in Sharabi and (8.8%, 7.5%) in crossbred respectively, which differ significantly (P<0.01) among breeds. But, no significant difference between males and females was detected.
The Point-Biserial correlations between mortality anb birth weight were negative and highly significant for the three breeds in males and females. The threshold point of birth weight values which gave the best efficiency, the efficiency were for Friesian (89%, 85%), Sharabi (86%, 80%) and crossbred (93%, 94%) for males and females calves respectively, Fm and Fc, as well as efficiency were determined. Advantageous results were in least specificity Fm and Fc, and in high efficiency and sensitivity.
The threshold values of birth weight for classifying mortal and survival groups were (25.6, 26.6 kg) in Friesian, (16.6, 16.1 kg) in Sharabi, and (24.6, 22.6 kg) in crossbred in male and female, respectively.

Some immunosuppressive effect of T-2 toxin in broiler

A M Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 99-108

Male broiler 1-day-old chicks were fed T-2 toxin at a rate of 8 mg/kg for 3 weeks, to determine its effect on total leukocyte count; differential and absolute leukocyte count; stress ratio (Heterophils/ Lymphocytes), (H/L); serum albumin and globulin's (α, β, δ) levels; bursal weight index (BWI); bursal diameter index (BDI); Thymus length index (TDI); histological changes in both bursa of Fabricious and thymus. The results show that T-2 toxin had a significant negative effect on all of the above mentioned parameters, with cortical thinning effect on both bursa of Fabricious and thymus.

The effect of autotransplantation of bone marrow with laser irradiation on the healing of non-union fractures in the femoral bone of dogs

O H Al-Hayani; B T Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121

In this study, the effect of autotransplantation and laser irradiation on the healing of experimental induced non-union fractures in the femoral bone were investigated clinically and radiographically in 12 dogs. The fractures were left without fixation for 40 days and over, and following the occurrence of non-union state the fractures were treated at 3 different schedules in the experimental animals, which were divided into three groups, each containing 4 dogs:
Group 1 (control): the non-union fractured femoral bones were treated by the routine surgical procedures using intramedullary fication achieved with Steinmann intramedullary pins.
Group 2 (intramedullary fixation with autotransplantation of bone marrow): following the surgical treatment of non-union fractured femoral bone and their fixation by the Steinmann intramedullary pins (by the same procedure applied in group 1), 4-6 ml of fresh bone marrow was implanted at the fracture site. The bone marrow was aspirated freshly and aseptically from marrow cavity of the opposite femur from the same dog.
Group 3 (autotransplantation of bone marrow with He:Ne I.R. laser irradiation): in addition to the procedures applied in group 2, the surgical site was exposed to laser irradiation type He:Ne I.R. with a total dose of 2.7 J/cm2 for 12 irradiation sessions. Each daily irradiation session was for a period of 5 min for 3 successive days, followed by one-day rest.
The concluded results were:
1-autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow at the site of the treated non-union fractures has a role in accelerating or improving the healing process, by promoting excessive callus formation, whereby the fracture line disappeared at the end of the 4th post-treatment week.
2-the use of laser irradiation with autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow, greatly improved the healing process by increasing the periosteal reaction and callus formation, and lead to disappearance of the fracture line at the end of the 3th post-treatment week. Furthermore, this technique improved the functional use of the affected limb in comparison with groups 1 and 2.
3- the laser irradiation made the remodeling stage shorter (finished within about 3 months) in comparison with group 1 and 2, in which it continued for more than 3 months.

Modified suture technique for end-to-end intestinal anastomosis in dog

A H Allawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 123-133

The present experiment was conducted to study the possibility for using single layer of modified suture technique and to compare it with interrupted horizontal mattress suture technique. Clinical, radiographical and histopathological studies of anastomotic site have been made, 15 and 30 postoperative days in two groups. Results showed that the intestinal anastomosis with modified technique was associated with minimum adhesion, less degree of stenosis, healing by formation of granulation tissue and complete formation of villi at 30 days. While, intestinal anastomosis with interrupted horizontal mattress suture was associated with sever adhesion, major luminal stenosis, healing by increase formation of fibrous tissue, thinning of epithelium layer and the mucosa was not complete at 30 days.

Detection of staphylococcus aureus capsules producer isolated from bovine & buffaloe mastitis

G N Shamoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 193-201

This study was done for the detection of capsulated Staphylococcus aureus strains which isolated from bovine & buffaloes Mastitis . 23 ( 57.5 %) & 8 ( 53 %) strains of these bacteria were isolated , 6 (26 %) & 2 (13.3 %) were capsule producing strains, and that 9 ( 39.1 %) & 4 (26.6 %) were slime producing strains, as well as an increase in number of capsules and slim producing strains were observed following growing of these bacteria in culture media containing glucose, milk. The experimentally histo- pathological study revealed presence of capsules in lung sections stained with Hematoxylin – Eosin as a halo area which appears around the bacterial cells . In edittion to a strong positive reaction with periodic acid shiffs.