A study on epidemiology of hard tick (Ixodidae) in sheep in Sulaimani governorate - Iraq
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 95-103
AbstractThis study was carried out for the period from the beginning March 2009 till end of February 2010 in three zones I, II, and III (Mountainous, Semi-mountainous and foothills and plane) regions, respectively in Sulaimani governorate for distribution of ticks (Ixodidae) that infested sheep. The prevalence rate of infested sheep in all zones was 298 (11.8%) in Sulaimani governorate, and the prevalence rate of infestation in zone-I was 85 (10.1%), in zone-II 94 (11.1%), and in zone-III 119 (14.3%). The rate of infestation was high in March, April, May and July in all zones; no infestation was observed in zone-I and zone-II in November to February, but was observed in zone-III. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, H. marginatum, Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were found and identified, two species were more predominant among sheep H. a. anatolicum in zone-III (Garmian region) 353 (70.0%) and R. turanicus in zone-I (Pishder region) 177 (59.4%), and H. a. anatolicum was found through March 61 (75.3%), April 89 (69%), May 92 (68.7%), and June 50 (74.6%) in zone-III. Hyalomma a. anatolicum and R. turanicus were found through March 22 (53.6%), 12 (29.3%): April 36 (41.4%), 38 (43.7%): May 46 (46.9%), 33 (33.7%), and June 41 (53.2%), 25 (32.5%) in zone-II respectively. H. marginatum and R. sanguineus were found in April 18 (14%), 11 (8.5%), and May 16 (11.9%), 13 (9.7%) in zone-III respectively, while R. turanicus was highly distributed in April 48 (71.6%) and May 57 (65.5%) in zone-I. According to linear model of the percentage of infested sheep in any zone by number of ticks was recognized and it was high in zone-III [3.1 + 0.23 Number of ticks (X)]. The ratio of male to female tick infested sheep was 1: 2 during the study. The site of attachment of ticks was observed; the highest number was noticed on the ears 492 (42.0%) and under tail 208 (17.7%).
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