Diagnosis and histopathological study of avian influenza virus-H5 (AIV-H5) in broiler farms
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 101-107
AbstractThis study was conducted for diagnosis and description of the pathological changes of AIV-H5 as the causative pathogen in Iraqi broiler farms. The current study was carried out on 84 broiler farms. Infected birds were tested for detection of the AIV infection from the tracheal swabs by rapid chromatographic AIV type A and H5 test kits. In RRT-PCR 8 samples (8 farms) of Trachea were selected to be tested by this assay. Samples of trachea, lung, and spleen from the dead birds with natural AIV-H5 infection were submitted for histopathological examination. seventy-two out of 84 farms tested for AIV-Type A gave positive results, and 58 out of 72 positives for type A-AIV gave a positive result for H5 antigen in a rapid chromatographic strip. The main gross lesions in the trachea of infected birds were severe congestion and hemorrhage. In the RRT-PCR assay, 8 out of 8 samples gave a distinct positive result for this test. The microscopic histopathological examination of infected tracheas showed obvious desquamation of lining epithelium with complete loss of cilia associated with congestion of blood vessels in lamina properia. Infected lungs revealed diffuse alveolar damage and severe multifocal vascular congestion. There was deposition of fibrinous material in the splenic tissue associated with the disappearance of the germinal centers. Thus, we concluded that AIV-H5 infection causes severe pathological and histopathological changes as a result of systemic infection. The RRT-PCR assay was highly sensitive and specific for the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes.
- Chen H, Smith GJ, Zhang SY, Qin K, Wang J, Li KS, Webster RG, Peiris JS, Guan Y. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature. 2005;436:191-192. doi:10.1038/nature03974
- Group WOFHNEW. Toward a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):e1. doi: 10.3201/eid1407.071681.
- Cagle C, Wasilenko J, Adams SC, Cardona CJ, To TL, Nguyen T, Spackman E, Suarez DL, Smith D, Shepherd E, Roth J, Pantin MJ. Differences in pathogenicity, response to vaccination, and innate immune responses in different types of ducks infected with a virulent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Vietnam. Avian Dis. 2012;56(3):479-87. doi: 10.1637/10030-120511
- Alexander DJ. A review of avian influenza in different bird species. Vet Microbiol. 2000;74(1):3-13. Doi: 10.1016/s0378-1135(00)00160-7.
- WHO. Recommended laboratory tests to identify avian influenza A virus in specimens from humans. Geneva .June. 2005; http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/guidelines/avian_labtests2.
- Chen W, Xu Z, Mu J, He B, Yang L, Lin L, Meng S, Mu F, Gan H. Real-time quantitative fluorescent reverse transcriptase-PCR for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus RNA. Mol Diagn. 2004;8:231-235. doi: : 10.1007/bf03260067
- Rabee R.H.S. and Jaber I.M. The interference of Newcastle, avian influenza and infectious bursal disease vaccines with the efficiency of IB vaccine in broiler chicks by using quantitative RT-PCR test. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences.2019.33(1):105-109.
- Rashid S, Naeem K, Ahmed Z, Saddique N, Abbas MA, Malik SA. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection and differentiation of avian influenza viruses and other poultry respiratory pathogens. Poult Sci. 2009;88:2526-2531. doi: 10.3382/ps.2009-00262
- Luna LG. Manual of histologic staining methods of the armed forces institute of pathology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1968.38-76.
- Al-Bajari1 SH A, Al- Akash1 M A, Ismail H KH. Experimental detection of antioxidant and atherogenic effects of grapes seeds extracts in rabbits. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences.2019.33(2):243-249.
- Kapczynski DR, Pantin M, Guzman SG, Ricardez Y, Spackman E, Bertran K. Characterization of the 2012 highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 virus isolated from poultry in an outbreak in Mexico: pathobiology and vaccine protection. J Virol. 2013;87(16):9086-96. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00666-13
- Brown CC, Olander HJ, Senne DA. A pathogenesis study of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 in chickens, using immunohistochemistry. J Comp Pathol. 1992;107:341-348. doi.org/10.1354/vp.44-5-635
- Silvano FD, Yoshikawa M, Shimada A, Otsuki K, Umemura T. Enhanced neuro- pathogenicity of avian influenza A virus by passages through air sac and brain of chicks. J Vet Med Sci. 1997;59:143-148. doi.org/10.1292/jvms.59.143
- Chua TH, Ellis TM, Wong CW, Guan Y, Ge, SX, Peng G, Lamichane C, Maliadis C, Tan SW, Selleck P, Parkinson J. Performance evaluation of five detection test for avian influenza antigen with various avian sample. Avian Dis. 2007;56: 96105. doi:10.1637/0005-2086(2007)051[0096:PEOFDT]2.0.CO;2
- Nguyen LT, Nakaishi K, Motojima K, Ohkawara A, Minato F, Maruyama J, Hiono T, Matsuno K, Okamatsu M, Kimura T, Takada A, Kida H, Sakoda Y. Rapid and broad detection of H5 hemagglutinin by an immune chromatographic kit using novel monoclonal antibody against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the genetic clade. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0182228. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182228
- Kim HR, Kwon YK, Jang I, Lee YJ, Kang HM, Lee EK. Pathologic changes in wild birds infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N8) Viruses, South Korea, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):775-80. doi: 10.3201/eid2105.141967
- Ali A, Elmowalid G, Abdel-Glil1M, Sharafeldin A, Abdallah F, Mansour S, Nagy A, Ahmed B, Abdelmoneim M. Etiology and pathology of epidemic outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 infection in Egyptian chicken farms. Polish J Vet Sci. 2015;18(4):779-786. doi: 10.1515/pjvs-2015-0101
- Spackman EDA, Senne TJ, Myers LL, Bulaga LP, Garber ML, Perdue K, Lohman LT, Daum DL. Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3256-3260. doi: 10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.1079
- Isabella M, Silvia O, Annalisa S, Cristian DB, Francesca B, Angela S, Alessandra D, Bianca Z, Ilaria C, Giovanni C. Development and validation of a one-step Real-Time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of subtype H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses. J Clin Micro. 2008;1769-177. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02204-07
- Tan ML, Niu Y, Shui W, Lin J, Li M Zhang C. The establishment of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. J Immunol Tech Infect Dis. 2017;6(1):1. doi: 10.4172/2329-9541.1000154
- Swayne DE. Understanding the complex pathobiology of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in birds. Avi Dis. 2007;51(1 Suppl):242-9. doi: 10.1637/7763-110706-REGR.1
- Pantin MJ, Swayne DE. Pathobiology of asian highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ducks. Avi Dis. 2007;51(1 Suppl):250-9. doi: 10.1637/7710-090606R.1
- Kuiken T, van den Brand J, van Riel D, Pantin M, Swayne DE. Comparative pathology of select agent influenza a virus infection. Vet Pathol. 2010;47(5):893-914. doi: 10.1177/0300985810378651.
- Article View: 258
- PDF Download: 281