Detection of Shigella in raw bovine milk by polymerase chain reaction
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
AbstractShigella is an intracellular bacterium can infect both human and animal. Its species especially Shigella dysenteriae cause shigellosis worldwide, with 165 million cases of severe bloody diarrhea and mucoid feces. The aim of this study was to find a rapid, sensitive and specific method for screening Shigella in raw bovine contaminated milk. For this goal, 70 samples of milk collected in sterile containers for isolating of Shigella and culturing it on selective media to identify and characterize its morphology, biochemical and molecular characteristics. This study was compared between three different DNA extraction techniques for polymerase chain reaction (direct DNA extraction using a kit, alkaline DNA extraction, and filtrated milk). Our results showed that PCR was able to detect Shigella in 15 out of 15 cases after the milk samples filtered. In other words, the filter technique can be used to detect Shigella in contaminated milk.
- Bobe G, Lindberg GL, Freeman AE, and Beitz DC. Short communication: composition of milk protein and milk fatty acids is stable for cows differing in genetic merit for milk production. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:3955-3960. DOI :10.3168/jds.2007-0099
- Glantz M, Mansson HL, Stalhammar H, Barstrom LO, Frojelin M, and Knutsson A. Effects of animal selection on milk composition and processability. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:4589-4603. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2008-1506
- Murphy SC, Martin NH, Barbano DM, Wiedmann M. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: how do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:10128-10149. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2016-11172
- Alrabadi NI. The effect of freezing on different bacterial counts in raw milk. Inter J Biol. 2015;7:9-12. DOI: 10.5539/ijb.v7n4p9
- Doyle MM, Garcia S, Bahati E, Karamuzi D, Cullor JS, Nandi S. Microbiological analysis of raw milk in Rwanda. Afr J Food Sci Technol. 2015;6:141-143. DOI: 10.14303/ajfst.2015.053
- Kouame, SM, Makita K, Costard S, Grace D, Dadie A, Dje M, Bonfoh B. Hazard identification and exposure assessment for bacterial risk assessment of informally marketed milk in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. Food Nutr Bull. 2012;33:223-234. DOI: 10.1177/156482651203300402
- Foods linked to foodborne illness [Internet]: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 2018. [cited 2018 April 19]. Available from: http://cdc.gov/foodsafety/foods-linked-illness.html/
- Zaika LL, Phillips JG. Model for the combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on survival of Shigella flexneri strain 5348 under aerobic conditions. Inter J Food Microbiol. 2005;101:179-187. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.11.004
- Jesudason MV. Shigella isolation in Vellore, South India (1997-2001). Indian J Med Res. 2002;115:11-13. PMID: 12424931
- Traa C, Munos, M, Black R. Antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children. Inter Epidemiol. 2010;39:70-74. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq024
- Williams PH, Berkley J. Dysentry (Shigellosis): Current WHO guidelines and the WHO essential medicine list for children. November 2016. Available from: ttps:// www .who. int/ selection _ medicines/committees/expert/21/applications/s6paed_antibiotics_appendix5_dysentery.pdf( .
- Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services. Shigellosis. 2017. available from: https:// health. mo.gov /living /healthcondiseases/communicable/communicabledisease/cdmanual/pdf/Shigella.pdf
- Von Seidlein L, Kim DR, Ali M, Hyejon Lee H, Wang M, Thiem VD, Canh DG, Chaicumpa W, Agtini MD, Hossain A, Bhutta ZA, Mason C, Sethabutr O, Talukder K, Nair GB, Deen JL, Kotloff K, Clemens J. A multicenter study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology. PLoS Med. 2006;3(e353):1556-1569. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030353
- Li YL, Tewari D, Yealy CC, Fardig D, M'ikanatha NM. Surveillance for travel and domestically acquired multidrug-resistant human Shigella infections-Pennsylvania, 2006-2014. Health Secur. 2006;14:143-51. DOI: 10.1089/hs.2016.0026
- Taneja N, Khurana S, Verma AD, Sharma M. Changing trends in Shigellosis at a tertiary care center. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2003;46:280-281. DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.187104
- Taneja N, Lyngdoh VW, Sharma M. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome due to ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. J Med Microbiol. 2005;54:997-998. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.45993-0
- Lampel KA, Sandlin R.Shigella. Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition. 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier Press; 2003. 5261-5268 p.
- Shields P, Cathcart L. Motility test medium protocol. Am Soc Microbiol. 2016;1(1):1-10.
- Souleman N, Al-Mariri A, Hamad. Isolation of Klebsiella spp. from bovine raw and identification using polymerase chain reaction. J Biotechnol Res.2013;13:112-122.
- Peterkin P, Sharpe A. membrane filtration of dairy products for microbiological analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1980;39:1138-1143.
- Al-Mariri A, Haj-Mahmoud N. Detection of Brucella abortus in bovine milk by polymerase chain reaction. Acta Vet. 2010;79:277-280. DOI: 10.2754/avb201079020277
- Daly P, Collier T, Doyls S. PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk. Lett Appl Microb. 2002;34:222-226. DOI: 10.1046/j.1472-765x.2002.01074.x
- Binet R, Deer DM, Uhlfelder SJ. Rapid detection of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in produce enrichments by a conventional multiplex PCR assay. Food Microbiol. 2014;40:48-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2013.12.001
- Ojha SC, Yean Yean C, Ismail A, Singh KK. A pentaplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of Shigella species. Biomed Res Int. 2013;20(13):70-79. DOI: 10.1155/2013/412370
- Lee PY, Costumbrado J, Hsu CY, Kim YH. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis for the Separation of DNA Fragments. J Vis Exp. 2013;62:3791-3923. DOI: 10.3791/3923
- Cantas L, Suer K. The important bacterial zoonoses in “one health” concept. Front Public Health. 2014;2:144. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00144
- World Health Organization. WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases. In Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group 2007-2015.Available form: https://www.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2015/2015-cha-who-estimates global-foodborne-diseases.pdf.
- Phalipon A, Sansonetti PJ. Shigella ’s ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system: a tool box for survival. Immunol and Cell Biology. 2007;85:119-129. DOI:10.1038/sj.icb7100025
- Zeng D, Chen Z, Jiang Y, Xue F, Li B. Advances and challenges in viability detection of foodborne pathogens. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1833. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01833
- Thong KL, Hoe SL, Puthucheary SD, Yasin R. Detection of virulence genes in Malaysian Shigella species by multiplex PCR assay. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;14:5-8. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-5-8
- Gao X, Zou T, Mu Z, Qin B, Yang J, Waltersperger S, Wang M, Cui S, Jin Q. Structural insights into VirB-DNA complexes reveal mechanism of transcriptional activation of virulence genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41(22):29-41. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt748
- Campbell FX, Sachse M, Sansonetti PJ, Parsot C. Escape of actively secreting Shigella flexneri from ATG8/LC3-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread is facilitated by IcsB and VirA. Mol Biol. 2015;6(3):7-14. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.02567-14
- Priyomka B, Patil R, Dwarakanath S. A review on detection methods used for foodborne pathogens. Indian J Med Res. 2016;144:327-338. DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.198677
- Dutta S, Chatterjee A, Dutta P, Rajendran K, Roy S, Pramanik KC, Bhattacharya SK. Sensitivity and performance characteristics of a direct PCR with stool samples in comparison to conventional techniques for diagnosis of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli infection in children with acute diarrhea in Calcutta, India. J Med Microbiol. 2001;50:667-674. DOI:10.1099/0022-1317-50-8-667
- Lindqvist R. Detection of Shigella spp. in food with a nested PCR method sensitivity and performance compared with a conventional culture method. J Appl Microbiol.1999;86:971-978. DOI:10.1046/j.13652672.1999.00777.x
- Lin W, Cheng C, Van KH. Quantitative PCR assay for rapid detection of shigella species in fresh produce. J Food Prot. 2010;73(2):221-233. DOI:10.4315/0362-028x-73.2.221
- Article View: 416
- PDF Download: 1,042