Evaluation of cardiac enzymes and acute phase response as biomarkers for rapid diagnosis of myocarditis in calves with FMD
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
AbstractTroponin-I, homocysteine, Creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase and acute phase response had been evaluated in calves with myocarditis due to FMD. The study was conducted on 52 local breed calves 1-6 months old and from both sexes, their dams have no history for vaccination against FMD and show classical foot and mouth disease signs. Ten clinically healthy calves of the same ages were considered as controls. Suspected calves neither show oral blisters, rope salivation, nor foot lesions. Diseased calves showed signs of dullness, in activity, panting with mouth breathing, unable to suck, recumbency, However, five of diseased calves were died within 24-72 hours and on macroscopic examinations of autopsied animals, necrotic myocarditis with pale foci with a zone of hyperemia which were present on the papillary and ventricular cardiac muscles, moreover, on histopathological examinations there were severe inflammatory cells infiltration in the interstitial of myocardial fibers with obvious area of coagulation of myocardial fibers and marked area of hyalinization, furthermore, severe mononuclear cells infiltration, mainly lymphocytes, with few neutrophils closed to necrotic myocardial fibers were also detected. Diagnosis of FMD virus was confirmed by using commercially NSP ELISA kits for foot and mouth. A significant increase (p>0.05)was encounteredin body temperature, respiratory and heart rates in diseased animals than in controls, Furthermore, abnormal cardiac sounds (organic murmurs) were indicated on auscultation of the heart. Results of hematological parameters shown a significant increase indicated in ESR values of diseased calves than in controls, moreover, total leukocyte count was increased significantly with significant lymphocytosis. Furthermore, the results were also showed significant increase in values of serum cardiac troponin, homocysteine, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and fibrinogen in seropositive calves for FMD compared with controls. It can be concluded that determination of cardiac biomarkers and acute phase response concentration in calves with myocarditis can considered as a guide to quantify early heart damage.
- Buchanan J. The history of veterinary cardiology. Vet Cardiol. 2013;15(1):65-68· DOI: 10.1016/j.jvc.2012.12.002.
- Mayeux R. Biomarkers: Potential uses and limitations. Neuro Rx. 2004;1(2):182-188. DOI: 10.1602/neurorx.1.2.182.
- Constable PD, Hinchcliffe KW, Done SH, Grunberg W. Veterinary medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, goats and horses. 11th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 2017. 2058-2067 p.
- Aktas MS, Ozkanlar Y, Oruc E, Sozdutmaz I, Kirbas A. Myocarditis associated with foot-and-mouth disease in suckling calves. Vet Arh. 2015;85(3):273-282.DOI: 10.1354/vp.44-5-589 .
- Alexandersen S, Zhang Z, Donaldson AI, Garland AM. Pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. J Comp Pathol. 2003;129:1-36.DOI.org/10.1016/S0021-9975(03)00041-0
- Aslani MR, Mohri M, Movassaghi AR. Serum troponin I as an indicator of myocarditis in lambs affected with foot and mouth disease. Vet Res Forum. 2013;4:59-62. DOI. 10.9790-1107010110.
- Gulbahar MY, Dawis WC, Guvenc T, Yarim M, Parlak U, Kabak YB. Myocarditis associated with foot-and-mouth disease virus type O in lambs. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:589-599. DOI: 10.1354/vp.44-5-589
- Mahdi AJ. Foot and Mouth Disease in Iraq: Strategy and control [MSc thesis]. Kansas: College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University; 2010. 1-82 p.
- El Idrissi A. Overview of the foot-and-mouth (FMD) disease control program in Iraq with particular reference to the Northern Governorates. FAO. 2003;7:88-95.DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.706-712.
- Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ. Schalm's Veterinary hematology, 6th ed. Ames: Wiley Blackwell; 2010. 27-136 p.
- Reagan WJ, Armando R, Rovira I. Veterinary hematology: Atlas of common domestic and non-domestic species. Washington: Wiley-Black Well; 2008. 1-15 p.
- Maxie MG. Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer's pathology of domestic animals. 6th ed. Canada: Elsevier; 2015. 335-348 p.
- Leech NL, Barrett KC, Morgan GA. SPSS for intermediate statistics: use and interpretation.1st ed. USA: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2007. 20-51 p.
- Kitching RP. Clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: Cattle. Rev Sci Tech. 2002;21(3):499-504.
- Sabar AA, Al-Banna AS, Abdul MS, Abood BK. Diagnostic study of FMD virus in different Areas in Iraq. Proceeding of the 11th Veterinary Scientific Conference, 49-55, Iraq, Baghdad. Iraqi J Vet Med.2010;1:1-10. doi:10.23975/2019.1
- IAEA. The use of non-structural proteins of foot and mouth disease virus to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. IAEA. 2007; 1(5):4-6. DOI.org/10.1111/tbed.12166
- Kumar R, Hosamani M, Sreenivasa A, Kotyal A, Venkataramanan R. Expression of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus nonstructural protein, 3D in insect cells and its application in detection of Anti-FMDV antibodies. Indian J Virol. 2012;23(3):326-332.DOI: 10.1007/s13337-012-0098-8.
- Grubman MJ, Baxt B. Foot and mouth disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:465-493.
- Katrukha IA. Human cardiac troponin complex: Structure and functions. Biochem. 2013;78(13):1447-1465.DOI: 10.1096/fj.13-232363.
- Reef VB, McGuirk SM. Diseases of the cardiovascular system. In: Smith BP, editor. Large animal internal medicine. 3rd ed. Missouri: Mosby; 2002. 443-478 p.
- Vishal VU, Dhaval TF, Jivani BM, Hemant G, Dineshbhai JG, Bholanath PJ, Kantibhai SP. Cardiac troponin: an emerging cardiac biomarker in animal health. Vet World. 2012;5(8):508-511.DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2012.508-511
- Gunes V, Erdogan HM, Citil M, Ozcan K. Assay of cardiac troponins in the diagnosis of myocardial degeneration due to foot-and-mouth disease in a calf. Vet Rec. 2005;156(22):714-5.DOI: 10.1136/vr.156.22.714
- Gokc E. Determination of cardiac troponin I in the blood and heart of calves with foot-and-mouth disease. Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:598-605.DOI: 10.1177/104063870802000510 ·
- Tunca R, Sozmen M, Erdogan H, Citil M, Uzlu E, Ozen H, Gokçe E. Determination of cardiac troponin I in the blood and heart of calves with foot-and-mouth disease. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:598-605.DOI: 10.1177/104063870802000510
- Gunes V, Atalan G, Citil M, Erdogan HM. Use of cardiac troponin kits for the qualitative determination of myocardial cell damage due to traumatic reticuloperitonitis in cattle. Vet Rec. 2008;162(16):514-7.DOI: 10.1136/vr.162.16.514 ·
- Peek SF, Apple FS, Murakami MA, Crump PM, Semrad SD. Cardiac isoenzymes in healthy Holstein calves and calves with experimentally induced endotoxemia. Can J Vet Res. 2008;72:356-361.DOI: 10.1515/acve-2015-0038.
- Leonardi F, Passeri B, Fusari A, De Razza P, Beghi C, Lorusso R, Corradi A, Botti P. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration in an ovine model of myocardial ischemia. Res Vet Sci. 2008;85:141-144.DOI:.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.09.010
- Suzuki K, Uchida E, Schober KE, Niehaus A, Rings MD, Lakritz J. Cardiac troponin I in calves with congenital heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2012;26(4):1056-60. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00953
- Korff S, Katus HA, Giannitsis E. Differential diagnosis of elevated troponins. Heart. 2006;92:987-993.DOI.org/10.1136/hrt.2005.071282
- Brattstrom L, Wilcken DE. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. cause or effect. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:315-323. DOI: org/10.1093/ajcn/72.2.315.
- Ganguly P, Alam SF. Role of homocysteine in the development of cardiovascular disease. Nutr J. 2015;14:6.DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-14-6.
- Kaya A, Kozat S, Ozkan C, Yildrim S, Akgul Y, Akgul O. Serum homocysteine levels in calves with Foot and Mouth disease. JAVMA. 2013;12(16):1357-1361.DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2013.1357.1361.
- Razaei SA, Dalir B. Association of plasma and heart homocysteine and blood malondialdehyde with cardiovascular diseases induced by acute selenium deficiency in lambs. Small Rumin Res. 2009;83:22-28. DOI:.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.02.006
- Karapinar T, Dabak DO, Kuloglu T, Bulut H. High cardiac troponin I plasma concentration in a calf with myocarditis. Can Vet J. 2010;51(4):397-9.DOI: 10.1177/104063870802000510
- Wood RD. Pathogenesis of leukopenia in calves experimentally infected with non-cytopathic type ii bovine viral diarrhea virus [PhD dissertation]. Guelph: University of Guelph. Canada; 2000. 1-98 p.
- Thrall MA , Weiser G, Allison R, Campbell T. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Wiley-Blackwell.2012. 61-140 p
- Jain S, Gautam V, Naseem S. Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool. J Pharm Biol Sci. 2011;3(1):118-27.DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.76489
- Cary C, Zaias J, Altman NH. Acute Phase Response in Animals: A Review. Cattle Vet Rec. 2009;162:514-517.DOI: 10.1631/jzus.2005.B1045
- Article View: 379
- PDF Download: 580