About Journal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. A double-blind peer reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of publication. IJVS publishes original articles, review papers and case reports in the field of veterinary science. This...
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Physiological effects of lactic acid bacteria against melamine induced toxicity in female albino rats

Ali H. Jameel; Mohammed J. Mohammed; Manal S. Mahdi; Karkaz M. Thalj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126183.1259

The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of two type of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus against melamine toxicity by some physiological indicators in mature female rats after 21 days. In this study using 35 of female mature rats and divided randomly into seven groups each group contain five animals. The results showed that melamine caused a significant decrease in the organs weights liver and spleen and increase in kidney weight with increase of melamine concentration. Also showed to decrease in value of hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocyte and platelets, while the values of granules were increasing with increase of melamine concentration as compared with control group. Also found that the addition of melamine led to increase in cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and blood glucose, while the values of triglyceride and high density lipoproteins was decreased with increase of melamine concentration. The addition of two types of lactic acid bacteria L. casei and L. acidophilus led to decreasing the negative effect of melamine on the values of all the parameters determined.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the veterinary teaching hospital

Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Layth M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that the total number of the excised tumours was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. The tumours were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leucosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and transmissible venereal tumour 2.78%. We concluded from the current study occurrence a different type of tumours which was malignant or benign in different species of animals.

Using acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of laminitis in racing horses: a comparative study

Abdulmuniem Ibrahim Aljobory; Shaheen Jaafar; Aydin Siddiq Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 15-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126217.1263

This study was designed to compare the efficiency of using conventional acupuncture (CA) and electroacupuncture (EA) in the laminitis therapy in race horses, twenty adult race horses with laminitis were randomly selected. Clinical examination was carried out and acupuncture points were determined according to the results of diagnostic palpation of acupuncture. The horses were grouped into two equal groups; the 1st group was treated daily for 6 consecutive weeks, with CA and the 2nd group with EA. evaluation of lameness was depended on the visual and objective examination using the “American Association of Equine Practitioners” (AAEP) lameness scale and confidence stride lengths criterion for forelimbs which performed by the force plate indices. The lameness level was statistically analyzed applying t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis and p-value (P<0.05) was significant. Both visual and objective lameness examinations showed gradual statistical significant reduction (P<0.05) in the severity of lameness and improvement in the gait of the horses after CA and EA treatment. It is also showed that the lameness level was significantly (P<0.05) decreased after every weekly session of EA treatment in comparison with CA treatment. It is concluded that continued EA treatment by current study pattern showed a marked improvement in the movement of the laminitic horses when compared with CA treatment.

A retrospective study of fracture cases managed in the veterinary teaching hospital; 181 cases (2014-2018)

Sozan Ali Muhamad; Othman Jalal Ali; Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Hardi Fattah Marif; Rizgar Rahim Sleman; Brwa Mhamed Ali; Dekan Ali Raza; Harem Habeel Hama Ali; Gashaw Mustafa Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126228.1266

The aim of the study to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in age and sex of the different breeds that were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From cases, dogs represented 49.72% (90/181), whereas cats represent 18.23% (33/181) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology of the fractures multifactorial, but car accidents represented the main cause of fractures particularly in dogs. Femoral fractures were reported as the most prevalent types of fractures that represented 26.51% (48/181), followed by fractures in radius-ulna 19.33% (35/181), tibia-fibula 13.81% (25/181) and the pelvis 9.94% (18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of case history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered an excellent scope and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical internal fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found to be very convenient and without any difficulties, on the contrary to the cases with external cooptation were not. We recorded postoperative inflammation in 4 cases, as well as mal-union was recorded in 5 cases and incomplete alignment in 2 cases was found. We concluded that fractures in pet animals are common in Sulaimani province, which must be considered, and the best-employed methods of fracture repair were the internal fixation techniques, particularly intramedullary pinning.

The aim of the study to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in age and sex of the different breeds that were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From cases, dogs represented 49.72% (90/181), whereas cats represent 18.23% (33/181) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology of the fractures multifactorial, but car accidents represented the main cause of fractures particularly in dogs. Femoral fractures were reported as the most prevalent types of fractures that represented 26.51% (48/181), followed by fractures in radius-ulna 19.33% (35/181), tibia-fibula 13.81% (25/181) and the pelvis 9.94% (18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of case history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered an excellent scope and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical internal fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found to be very convenient and without any difficulties, on the contrary to the cases with external cooptation were not. We recorded postoperative inflammation in 4 cases, as well as mal-union was recorded in 5 cases and incomplete alignment in 2 cases was found. We concluded that fractures in pet animals are common in Sulaimani province, which must be considered, and the best-employed methods of fracture repair were the internal fixation techniques, particularly intramedullary pinning.


Antimicrobial activity of peptides extracted from camels' blood neutrophils against some pathogenic bacteria

M.A. Mahmood; M.A. Essa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126239.1270

The aim of the current research was to isolate and purify antimicrobial cationic peptides (Amps) taken from camel blood and to study its antibacterial activity against some multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis. The results showed the possibility of obtaining these peptides from camel's white blood cells, and was separated by using Reversed-Phased-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) technical equipment. The results showed the presence of 21 absorption peaks of the isolated peptide extract. The two-stage-radial diffusions method was used to study the activity of the crude peptide against the studied bacteria. The results showed that these peptides were effective without any resistance. The best effect was on the Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of 31 mm inhibition, while the less effect was on the Salmonella typhimurium with a diameter of 20 mm.

Incidence of internal parasites of the slaughtered local breeds of ducks and geese

Baydaa Younis Al-lahaibi; Manal Himmadi Hasan; Ahlam Fathi Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126242.1272

This study was carried out to determine the presence of gastrointestinal parasites of local ducks and geese in Nineveh province. Sixty-four ducks and seventy geese of different ages and sexes were purchased from local markets. Necropsy findings in ducks reviled a total infection rate of 68.8% was with protozoa, 50% was with nematodes, while 28.1% were with cestodes. On the other hand, in geese, the percentages with the mentioned parasites were 78.6% with protozoa, 54.2% with nematodes, 31.4% with cestodes. Four types of nematodes were identified in ducks; Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, and Subulura brompti, the same were also found in geese except Heterakis.isolonche. Cestodes identified in ducks and geese were Railletina tetragona, Railletina echinobothrda, Railletina cesticillus and Coantaenia infundibulum. The detected protozoa include Eimeria spp., Tyzeria spp., Wenyonella spp., Cryptosporidia spp., Giardia spp. Double infection with parasite was higher in ducks while the triple infection in geese was the higher.

Histopathological effects of experimental exposure to lead on nervous system in albino female rats

Asrar Al-khafaf; Hana Kh. Ismail; Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 45-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126248.1273

Lead toxicity is a common health issue. Lead (Pb) is harmful to vital organs of body particularly the nervous system. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on the cerebellum, cerebrum and spinal cord in rat model, focusing on histopathological changes. 24 female mature albino rats of 200-300g randomly divided into 2 groups, the first is the control, and the second group were treated with lead acetate at dose 30mg/kg B.W. for 30 days. Microscopic examination revealed degeneration and necrosis of Purkinje cells and molecular cells and decrease in the number of granular cells and molecular cells also observed. Some Purkinje cells lost axons and shrunken and some areas showed depletion of Purkinje cells. Congestion of blood vessels with perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory cells, hemorrhage, neurophagia, glial nodules were observed in the brain parenchyma. Demyelination reported in white matter, with microglial proliferation around vertebral canal of spinal cord. This study referred to the increased risk of central nervous system damage due to the exposure to lead.

Detection of multiple presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep at Duhok abattoir, Iraq

Shireen A. Yousif; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multi-presence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses at Duhok abattoir using ELISA technique. Eighty-eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty-two sheep carcasses. These samples included Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney. The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria galls on DMBA induced mouse skin tumorigenesis

Sherzad Ibrahim Mustafa; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 57-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126267.1281

Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis and a number of plants with anti-cancer properties are being researched, some of which have shown promising results. Quercus infectoria galls is a well-known medicinal plant which has been used in medicine as larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of the aqueous extract on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis, consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) three times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, and cumulative number of papilloma was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with 2 gm/kg of Quercus infectoria galls extract as compared to the positive control group treated with DMBA plus croton oil administered. Furthermore, Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced significantly before and after galls extract oral administration. The results thus concluded that Quercus infectoria galls extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity and may serve in future drug development programs for the cancer prevention of skin cancer.

Effects of COQ10 with vitamin E supplementation on semen quality and seminal plasma parameters of broiler breeder males

Samah M. Raouf; Ahmed T. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 65-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126287.1289

This study aimed at detecting the effects of COQ10 with and without vitamin E on some semen characteristics of the broiler breeder males. Twenty-five males at 43weeks of age divided into five categories of treatment with five replicates. The first treatment (control group) included drenching with corn oil capsules only. The second and fourth treatments were about drenching with capsules containing the COQ10 enzyme at a concentration of 5 mg / male / day with and without10 mg of vitamin E whereas the third and fifth treatments included drenching with capsules containing the Q10 enzyme at a concentration of 10 mg / male / day with and without 10 mg of vitamin E. This whole scheme of treatments was to study their effects on certain semen and seminal plasma properties. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the ejaculation volume, both individual and mass motility in addition to sperm concentration, all accrediting the fifth treatment. Furthermore, the results clear a significant decrease in the percentage of dead and abnormal sperms. The COQ10 with and without vitamin E led to improved semen quality marking a reduction in AST and ALT, glucose concentration and total protein with improved antioxidant status referring to a high level of GSH and low MDA. We conclude from this study that COQ10 with and without vitamin E has the ability to improve the semen characteristics of age-old broiler breeder males and can improve the status of antioxidants in semen.

Evaluation the safety and synergistic effect of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with antibiotic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Hala M. Majeed; Heba Younis Khalef; Halah Abdulkhaleq Awadh; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Nihad Abdul-Hussain jafar; Khaild Ahmad Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 71-77
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126298.1294

The antimicrobial resistance currently impedes and threatens the future of effective prevention and treatment of the continually expanding range of infections caused by bacteria. This study aimed to identify the bacterial causes the wound infection among animals and using the antibiotic/nanoparticles mixture as a new attempt for the treatment the wound infection induced in rats. For this purpose, 112 swabs wound infection cases in the different animal types (36 sheep, 21 goats, 12 cows, 4 horses, 8 dogs, 9 rabbits, 7 genies pigs and 15 rats) were studied in the for bacterial isolation. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was tested for its sensitivity to the antibiotics and the nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4) in vitro by using the MIC method. Also the wound infection was induced in the rats and the effect of nanoparticles/antibiotics mixture were tested in vivo. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was the predominant bacterial type that the caused wound infection. The minimum inhibitor concentration of NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were 32 µg /ml and 16 µg /ml respectively. A clear synergistic effect of antibiotic/ nanoparticles as antibacterial were noticed which appear as a decrease in MIC and increase of the inhibitory diameter zone. According to the result of Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA test, the nanoparticles effects on genetic material of P. aeruginosa observed as an appearance/disappearance of bands, increase in thickness and clarity of the bands.

Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum from sheep and goats in Duhok governorate, Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126330.1298

Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat, form Duhok Governorate including: Barwaria, Zakho, Sumeil, Mangeshik, Sersing, Shekhan and Akre, between May and June 2016, between April and June 2017. The result found during this study were six species under two genera of the hard ticks were identified by molecular study and sequencing including: three species were under the genus Hyalomma and three species were under the genus Rhipiciphalus that infect small ruminants in Duhok governorate from these species a new species under the Hylomma genra (Hyalomma asiatium asiaticum) with accession number (MN594484), was first time reported in Duhok governorate. Also phylogenetic tree was constructed depend on the 16S rRNA.

A histological study on the effect of imatinib on the rats' testis after early postnatal exposure

luma khalel; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 85-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126342.1303

The safety region of imatinib, and markedly its role in testicular toxicity has been studied in a controversial manner in current years. This study was designed to address the repercussion of administration of groups of pups with imatinib mesylate (at neonatal or infantile periods) using histological analysis of their testes in several end points and in adulthood. Intact pups (albino-male) exposed to 200 mg/kg of oral imatinib once daily at neonatal and early infantile period on PND 1 to PND10 (for ten days). All experiments performed with age and weight matched control which administered with Distilled water. Pups were into categorized into 4 subgroups, according to the ages of euthanasia: 15 days postpartum (PND); 40days postpartum; 70 days postpartum and 140 days postpartum. The histological analysis was conducted in blind fashion after staining with (Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Ten randomly selected testicular sections from each rat were analyzed qualitatively and quantitavely. In addition, Johnsen' scores were used to analyze the effect of drug on spermatogenesis. Data were recorded and value is considered as significant when it P

Effect of adding different levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) on growth and chemical composition criteria of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Mahmoud A. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126362.1308

This study was conducted to evaluate the addition of three levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp), 96 common carp Cyprinus carpio L. at a mean weight of 5±0.15 g/fish on four experimental diets with three replicates per treatment 0% with three experimental diets containing 0.75%, 1%, and 1.5% of the total diet 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the parameters of the total weight increase, daily growth rate, relative growth rate, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein productive value between the control diet and the fish feeding on the fourth diet, meanwhile there were no a significant difference in final weight, food intake, protein efficiency ratio criteria. Chemical body analysis revered there were no a significant difference for dry weight, crude protein and ash, while cinnamon powder added have a significantly differences in body fat deposited. Based on the above results, 1.5% cinnamon can be added can improve the growth performance and nutritional value of common carp fish.

Molecular fingerprinting of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human and poultry in Duhok, Iraq

Hishiyar A Hado; Mahde S Assafi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 99-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126375.1310

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recently identified in poultry and farm workers. The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiological relatedness of MRSA among chickens and farmworker. MRSA isolates (n=50) from human (n=14) and from chikens (n=36) were tested for molecular epidemiological relatedness between human and poultry. RAPD-PCR was carried out for fingerprinting of MRSA isolates genome. Seven genotypes group (A-G) have been identified. All human MRSA were belonging to genotype A. Whereas, chickens MRSA isolates was belonging to different genotype patterns groups (A-G). To conclude, human MRSA was belonging to one genotype pattern but the chickens MRSA strains were belonging to seven genotypes. The genotype pattern A was the most dominant among all MRSA isolates. It is possible that the chickens play an important role for the human exposure to MRSA by direct contact. Further studies are required to address the relatedness between human and chicken MRSA.

Molecular differentiation of Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species based on 18s rRNA gene in small ruminants

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Yahia Kh. Ismail; Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Israa N. Ibadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126407.1313

This study was conducted to investigate Anoplocephalidia Cestoda in sheep and goat and evaluate the 18s rRNA to genetically differentiate the genera of this family. Sixty sample tapeworms were collected from small intestines of 30 sheep and 30 goats from different slaughterhouses in Al-Najaf and Al-Qadisiyah provinces, during September, 2016 to February, 2017. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 18s rRNA gene partial sequencing (18sGPS) methods used, tapeworm infection of sheep and goat’s intestines was 32.9% and 31.4%, respectively. The partial gene sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene showed two closely related isolates of M. benedeni which are aligned distinctly to an NCBI isolate of the same species from China. For T. giardia, the outcomes of the phylogenetic analysis unveiled three distinct local isolates which were similar to an NCBI database isolate from China. The current data ensure the importance of the molecular techniques in differentiating between Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species that were identified for their presence in the small intestines of sheep and goats.

Effect of levofloxacin on some body tissues in mice

Rand A. Abdullah; Faten D. Taee; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126416.1316

Levofloxacin is a third generation of fluoroquinolones family. It is commonly used in the treatment of a several bacterial infections. However, misusing antibiotics impose damage to hepatocytes and myocytes. The present study was conducted to access the effect of levofloxacin on tissue histology in mice taking in consideration dose and duration of exposure. 24 matured male Albino mice were divided into 3 groups, Group G1: was considered as a control group. They received normal saline intraperitoneally / day. Group G2: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 10 days. Group G3: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. Microscopic examination of liver sections of group G2 revealed severe congestion of blood vessels in the portal area and central veins with inflammatory cells infiltration. While in group G3, Apoptosis, Degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with giant cell transformation were noticed. In addition to kupffer’s cell activation. Heart sections showed moderate congestion of blood vessels with edema in between the myocytes and inflammatory cells infiltration. Group G3 Necrosis with pyknosis of cardiac muscle nuclei was noticed. We concluded that levofloxacin induces toxic effects on liver and heart according to the dose of administration and duration of treatment.

Clinical and molecular identification of ruling Theileria annulata strains in cattle calves in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Asaad A. Jasim; Noor E. Jarad; Saba F. Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126429.1319

This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary status of T. annulata in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. In this study, the clinical examination of 50 infected animals was performed with blood sample collection (2.5ml per animal), and drug targets cytochrome b, a vital component of the electron transfer chain in the mitochondria of the protozoan, cytb gene was targeted using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure. Also, 18S rRNA gene as a molecular target for the PCR and a partial gene sequencing (PGS) were included. The PCR that involved using the 18S rRNA and cytb genes as genetic targets revealed amplification of the targeted pieces at 620bp and 1092bp, respectively, in all tested samples. The18S rRNA gene sequence of local T. annulata isolates were aligned with global reference strains for T. annulata recorded in the GenBank. The local strains were close, 100%, in their identity to isolates from Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan; however, they were 99% similar to a nucleotide sequences from India and Bangladesh. Diseased calves showed clinical signs such as high fever (40.3-41.5°C), decreased appetite or in appetence, asymmetrical enlargement of superficial lymph nodes particularly the pre-scapular ones, some cases with diarrhea, pale or icteric mucus membrane of eyes, bulging eyes, lacrimation, ecchymotic hemorrhages on the sclera, incoordination, nervous signs (Dullness, depression, lethargy), salivation, and bloated young calves. The data observed from the present inspecting work may reveal genetic evolution in the local strains with others recorded in the GeneBank. This means that our local strains might have close relationships with some global strains.

Toxic effects of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany; Entisar R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 121-128
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126435.1322

This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity in rats of heated and un heatedbutylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Sunflower oil dissolved BHT, heated at 98±2ºC by a water bath. The animals were divided into five groups. The control group dosage orally with sunflower oil, the first group treated with 250 mg/kg BHT, the second group treated with 250 mg/kg heated, BHT the third group treated with 500 mg/kg BHT and the fourth group treated with 500 mg/kg heated BHT. All groups received oral treatment. The results showed a substantial reduction in motor activity relative to other groups at a dose of 250 mg/kg heated BHT. There was a substantial distinction in the negative geotaxis test in groups of 500 mg/kg heated and un-heated BHT, while a cliff avoidance test in the heat treated dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg was observed in the cliff avoidance test compared to other groups. A significant reduction occurred in all groups in the pocketing and dorsal tonic immobility test. The pathological changes of heated BHT groups were more severe than those of un-heated BHT groups especially the dose of 500 mg/kg heated BHT. It represented by coagulative necrosis, muscle atrophy in heart, interstitial pneumonia, serofibrinous exudate, pulmonary emphysema in lung and neuronal degeneration, microgliosis, myelin vacuolation and satellitosis in the brain. The study concluded that heated BHT at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg had toxic effects to motor and neurobehavioral activity, and histopathological changes in the brain, heart, and lung.

Development of the wing bones in quail’s embryo; Coturnix japonica

Hadia K. Zorab; Kamal A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126438.1324

Quail is an essential model in avian research because of economic importance in poultry industries around the world. Furthermore, its use in the experimental embryology research field. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the onset of chondrification and ossification of the wing bones also to summarize the main histological sequences related to the formation of the humerus in Japanese quail. Six embryos were taken every 24 hrs from 3-16 days of incubation. Three embryos were prepared and stained with Alcian blue and Alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. The other three embryos have been processed for histological examination. The Macroscopical findings showed that the humerus, radius, ulna, coracoid, scapula, third, and fourth metacarpals were chondrified on 5th day. However, first signs of ossification were observed in the humerus, radius, and ulna on 8th day. While the minor digit remained none ossified at prehatching. The microscopical stages of developing humerus associated with the limb bud, apical ectodermal ridge formation, and chondrocyte differentiation on 3rd, 4th, and 5th day, respectively. The cartilage template of the humerus was established on 6th day. The diaphysis and epiphyses of the humerus were formed on 7th and 8th day, correspondingly. The periosteal-bone collar was formed on 8th day, and vascularization of chondroepiphysis has occurred on 9th day. There was a difference in the timing of chondrification and ossification in the forelimb skeleton and humerus developed by the endochondral mechanism. The obtained results should be considered in teratological and molecular studies in skeletogenesis.

Ultrasonography of left displaced abomasum in local cattle breed

Osama M. Aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 139-144
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126447.1328

The aims of the current study were a definitive diagnosis of left displaced abomasum by using ultrasonography furthermore determination of abomasal position and measurements. Study includes sixteen local cattle breed, six have anorexia, weakness and drop milk production, on clinical examination there was decrease rumen contractions 3.6 \ 5 minutes, furthermore a pinging sound heard on auscultation of left intercostal spaces there were diagnosed as left displaced abomasum, other ten clinically healthy cows considered as normal control group. Ultrasonographic imaging was performed for stand nonsedated cows by use 3.5-5 MHz transducer at the ventral midline and in the intercostal spaces 9, 10, 11, and 12 from the left side. Ultrasonography revealed a left side displaced abomasum to an area between the abdominal wall and the rumen, which appeared as hypoechoic fluid content ventrally and hyperechoic parallel echogenic lines of gas gap dorsally, abomasal folds appear as filiform echogenic lines. While in healthy cows an abomasum located in the ventral midline and directed mainly to the right side. In conclusion, ultrasonography as a non-invasive technique could be used as a confirmative diagnosis of left displaced abomasal and help for differential diagnosis of left abomasum displacement a well as can be useful for measurement of abomasum in healthy local breed cattle.

Bronchodilator activity of ethyl acetate extract of Nigella sativa

Ihsan Husain Mohammed Ali; Qasim Hasso Abdullah; Omer AL-Habib

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 145-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126455.1333

This study aims to investigate the mechanism(s) included in the bronchodilation effect exerted by Nigella sativa. Ethyl acetate extract (NS.EA) was prepared using a maceration method. Adult albino rats were recruited for thoracotomy and removal of the trachea. After cutting into pieces, the tissue was set in organ bath. The influence of cumulative concentrations of ethyl acetate extract was examined on contractile responses of isolated trachea to acetylcholine using different blockers such as Nifedipine (Ca2+channel blocker), Tetraethylammonium (Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker), Glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), BaCl2 (inward rectifier K+ channel blocker), methylene blue (soluble gaunylate cyclase inhibitor) and indomethacin (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Significant inhibition of bronchodilation was observed when tracheal rings were pretreated with indomethacin and BaCl2 with (P<0.001), and with methylene blue and nifedipine with (P<0.05). The IC50s were (5.635, 6.9, 7.86 and 4.987 mg/ml) respectively. Conversely, 4-AP, GLIB and TEA showed no significant changes in the bronchodilation induced by the extract. Therefore, The Emax value for indomethacin significantly reduced from 101.34 to 73.28%, BaCl2 from 53.62 to 30.31%, methylene blue from 55.78 to 38.94% and nifedipine from 101.34 to 80.88%. On the other hand, the Emax for 4-AP and GLIB were non-significantly reduced from 53.62 to 40.14 and 40.13% respectively; and TEA more or less unchanged to 54.34%. In general, ethyl acetate extract of N. sativa induces bronchodilation through four mechanisms (activation of Kir channel, non-selective cyclooxygenase and to lesser extent the soluble guanylate cyclase, and blockade of Ca2+ channel).

Effect of methotrexate and aspirin interaction and its relationship to oxidative stress in rats

yamama zuher Alabdaly; Mohammed Ghassan saeed; Hadeel mohammed Al-hashemi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 151-156
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126490.1335

This study aims to investigate the effect of aspirin in methotrexate toxicity (increase or decrease) relating to oxidative stress and histopathological changes of the liver and kidney in male rats. Twenty rats were divided into equal 4 groups, the first is considered control group, the second was treated with methotrexate in a dose of 10 mg/kg, the third was treated with methotrexate and aspirin in doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg respectively, the fourth was treated with aspirin alone with a dose of 30 mg/kg. All doses were given by daily oral dosage for 4 constitutive days. The result revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of both glutathione and albumin and a significant increase in the concentration of both malondialdehyde and ALT enzyme in the two groups treated with methotrexate alone or in combination with aspirin as compared to the control group. The histopathology revealed that the severity of lesions was in the group of methotrexate with aspirin, group of methotrexate only and a group of aspirin respectively, which are representing by coagulative necrosis and hypertrophy of hepatocytes in the liver while the lesions of kidney were atrophy of some glomeruli and renal cystic formation. The study concludes that aspirin increases the toxic effect of methotrexate at the level of oxidative stress concomitant with the occurrence of hepatic and renal toxicity.

Evaluation of the heavy metal content in the muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in groundwater in Basrah province, Iraq

Arafat Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126491.1336

The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Cd) in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in groundwater in Khor Al-Zubair, Basrah province (in the south of Iraq) were assessed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. XRF is a powerful technique for element analysis in different environmental samples with many advantages compared with conventional laboratory methods. The mean concentration of the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish (Cr= 11.42, Ni= 2.75, Hg=1.53, Pb= 1.93, and Cd=4.42 mg/ kg dry weight) exceeded the recommended maximum acceptable levels proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), The commission of the European Communities (EC), and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The results suggest that the tested fish muscle tissue was not safe for human consumption and that the groundwater in the Khor al-Zubair area is possibly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly owing to industrial activity.

Creatine kinase and C reactive protein as an indicator for tissue damage in the retained placenta in cows

Barra D. Al-Watar; Eman Lazim; Osama H. Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 163-167
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126496.1338

The current study aimed to investigate concentrations of Creatine Kinase (CK) and C Reactive Protein (CRP) in blood serum of cows with the retained placenta to compare with cows of normal parturition, also, to compare their concentrations in association with fetal sex, previous parturition and time to placenta expel. A total of sixty-three cows suffered from retained placenta with cows of normal parturition (n=10) were included in the current study during the period starting from December 2018 till September 2019. Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from the jugular vein to determine the concentration of CRP and CK in blood serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA). The result showed that the serum concentrations of CRP and CK in cows suffering from retained placenta was 28.03 μg/ml and 238.93 ng/ml significantly higher than in cows with normal parturition 22.80 µg/ml and 137.50 ng/ml. The result of ELIZA showed that the serum concentration of CRP and CK in cows did not significantly affect depending upon the sex of the fetus and previous parturition history. On other hands, the serum concentration of CRP and CK in cows significantly differed depending upon the time to expel the placenta. In conclusion, the serum concentration of CRP and CK in cows with retained placenta was markedly higher than recorded in cows with normal parturition, and this can be used to identify days past since cows with retained placenta and to give a prognosis for their health and reproductive status.

Biomarkering metabolic activities of the tapeworm Khawia armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915) in association to its fish host Barbus grypus (Hekle, 1843)

Bushra H. Al-Niaeemi; Maruah H. Dawood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126518.1339

The present work was aimed to study the relation between the tapeworm Khawia armeniaca infection and some metabolic extents in both the parasitic tapeworm and the parasitized fish Barbus grypus, using LDH and transaminase activities as a vital connotation. 57 adult Barbus grypus fish (Hekle fish) were hunted from Tigris river - Rashidiya area -North of Mosul - Iraq. The adult tapeworm K. armeniaca were collected from small intestine of the fish. Extract of Liver and intestinal tissues of the infected and uninfected fish in addition to tapeworm tissues were prepared. Some macromolecules concentrations and LD, AST and ALT activities were assayed using colorimetric methods.The results revealed that concentration of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids were lesser significantly at P≤0.05 in the intestinal tissues of infected fish 176.92µg/gm wet weight, 147.21µg/gm wet weight and 112.14 mg/dl respectively than that of uninfected fish 264.70µg/gm wet weight, 223.71µg/gm wet weight and 176.37 mg/dl respectively. Concentration of lipids in the tapeworm tissues was relatively high 130.67mg/dl. As for Liver LDH activity, it was significantly higher in the infected fish 279.90 IU/L than that of the uninfected fish 253.56 IU/L. whereas, liver ALT activity was diminished significantly at P≤0.05 in the liver of uninfected fish. On the other hands, there were no significant different in liver AST activity between the infected and the uninfected fish. There were significant differences at P≤0.05 between activities of the three enzymes in both infected and uninfected fish and tapeworm tissues. On the other hands, AST activity 35.46 IU/L was relatively higher than ALT activity 27.22 IU/L in tapeworm tissues. It is concluded that activitiesofliver LDH and ALT were significantly affected by intestinal tapeworm infection in Hekle fish and may considered as bioindicators for tapeworm infection in fish.

Effect of supplementation of rumen protected methionine and lysine on some physiological aspects of fattening calves

Hiyam N. Maty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 177-181
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126580.1344

This study was carried out during the period from February-April 2019 at a private breeding field. A total of 82 imported calves for fattening 9-12 month of age. These calves were divided randomly into 3 groups and treated for 90 days as follows: G1 (27 calves) supplied with basal diet only and considered as the control group, Calves of G2 (27 calves) of were supplied with basal diet complemented with RPM in complete feed using 15 g/animal/day, while G3 (28 calves) was supplied with basal diet complemented with RPL with 10g/animal/day. The results showed a significant increase in growth hormone value in the G2 in comparison with G1 and G3 at 90-day post-treatment. While the mean values of body weight were (310.8±12.97) and (334.3±15.41) in G2 at 60 and 90 days respectively with significance deference in compare with G1and G3 (p≤ 0.05). The significant increase in red blood cells count (RBCs) showed in G2, while the White Blood Cells (WBCs) increased in G1 when compare between groups. In addition, the results showed a significant increase (p< 0.05) in cholesterol and triglycerides values in G2 in compare with G1 and G3. While no significant changes in total protein values revealed between groups. The results of this study confirmed that supplementation of RPM has the potential to improve body weight in fattening calves with the enhancement of the immune status of animals and enhancement of oxygen flow to the tissues by increasing of RBCs counts especially with RPM, but lasser effects with RPL.

The impact of storage duration and conditions on the formation of biogenic amines and microbial content in poultry meat

Shamail Abdulaali Saewa; Zaid Khalaf Khidhir; mustafa hamza Al Bayati

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126584.1346

 This research was conducted to estimate the safety of breast and thigh meat (Ross 308) stored in refrigeration and freezing for different periods (0, 3 and 6) and (0, 15 and 30) days, respectively (total samples 12). High pH found in the 6th day of refrigeration storage for thigh meat; 6.414, while low recorded in the 6th day for breast meat; 5.757. High pH was found in the freezing storage period 0 day for chicken breast meat; 6.168, and low pH was found in breast meat in the 30th day of freezing storage; 5.826. The 6th day of refrigeration storage gave the highest TPC for thigh meat; 111.33×106 cfu/ gm. Also, the 15th day of freezing storage recorded significant increase in TPC for breast and thigh meat; 244×105 cfu/ gm and 274×105 cfu/ gm respectively. Significant differences were noted for histamine, cadaverine and spermidine during storage periods, high levels recorded in the 6th day of storage for breast meat; 0.395, 0.078 and 0.643 mg/ kg respectively. Significant differences were noted between the mean levels of biogenic amines for breast samples during all storage periods. High levels of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine and spermidine were recorded in the 15h day of storage; 2.654, 0.358, 1.589, 0.124 and 2.652 mg/ kg respectively. In thigh meat, significant differences were recorded for levels of biogenic amines during the freezing storage periods except putrescine. Histamine did not exceed the legal limit set by the US FDA; 50 mg/ kg in all samples.

The effect of CO-Q10 on the testicular histological changes in rats induced by imatinib

Luma K. Al-Allaf; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126587.1347

The safety zone of imatinib, and specifically its relevancy to organ toxicity, has been discussed dialectically in current years. Oxidative stress may be one of the causes of imatinib -mediated toxicity. This study aimed to examine the possible role of co-enzyme Q10 in ameliorating the adverse effect of imatinib on the testicular histology of male albino rats -if it is present. Twenty-eight male Albino rats were used randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: Group 1 includes 40-45 days aged rats (n=8) which were gavage a dose of 200 mg/kg/day/30 days of imatinib mesylate. Group 2 includes age matched control rats which were administered with distilled water(n=4). Group 3 includes eight rats were received Q10, 50mg/kg, alone, Q10-sorb capsule of 50 mg given with the same schedule. Group 4. Includes eight rats were co administrated orally with 50 mg/kg of Q10+200 mg/kg of imatinib (once/day/30days). Euthanizing of animals with ether 24 hours after the final dose was done. Testes of rats from each experimental group were obtained. The tissues processed and stained by routine histological method. Histological sections of testes's rats treated with 200mg/Kg of imatinib revealed different testicular lesions compared to those of control group (P<0.05). Six 6(75%) of these sections revealed degenerated tubules, detached Sertoli cells, and apoptosis. These histological sections also showed thick tunica albuginea, seminiferous tubules with thick basement membrane. sometimes only a few of Sertoli cells were appeared in histological sections of imatinib treated rats. Mean Johnsen’s scores in these sections was 5.1±0.1 (P˂0.001). Features of retained spermatid were also noticed in some sections. There was significant reduction in both seminiferous tubular diameter and the epithelial height of histological sections of group 2(P˂0.001) with mean of 140.2±3.2µm and 14.8±1.1 µm respectively. Moreover, the number of Sertoli cells/ seminiferous tubule were significantly increased (P˂0.001), with mean of 27.4±0.2 and Leydig cell number is also significantly raised with mean of 7.5±0.5. In conclusion, treatment of peripubertal rats with imatinib induced several testicular alterations (including Sertoli cells) in comparison to control rats indicated that this drug is a gonadotoxic agent as it affects the quality and quantity of spermatogenesis. An Ameliorating effect of co-enzyme Q10 co-administration on imatinib-induced testicular toxicity was concluded.

Semen collection in Rusa timorensis under general anaesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine: Clinical study

Wan-Nor Fitri; Wahid Haron; Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Siti Aimi Sarah; Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi; Muhammad Azrolharith; Zubaidah Kamarudin; Donny Yawah; Ahmad Zulhizri; Che-Amat Azlan; Yap Keng Chee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 197-205
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126614.1350

There is a scarcity of information for a reliable and safe protocol for semen collection in R. timorensis. The induction of general anesthesia by Ketamine-Xylazine in both intravenous and intramuscular routes provides valuable information for the practicality of the procedure. Five healthy and matured Rusa timorensisstags, aged more than 3 years, weighing an average of 68.5 ± 2.4 kg were selected for this experiment. General anaesthesia was conducted by using a combination of Ketamine and Xylazine at the dosage of 2mg/kg, and 1mg/kg respectively in both intramuscular and intravenous routes. The procedure was performed from April to November 2012 resulting in 30 collections. The physiological parameters included were respiratory rate, heart rate and temperature before, during and post-procedure. The onset, recovery and total time are significantly different between IV and IM route at 5.13 ± 0.88 min, 7.47 ± 1.61 min, 18.67 ± 1.47 min, and 11.67 ± 1.44 min, 11.73 ± 1.03 min and, 29.07 ± 4.01 min respectively. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in the duration time of anesthesia between IV and IM route at 15.27 ± 3.03 min and 17.40 ± 3.55 min respectively. Both routes provide the same success rate and yield the same semen quality, however, the intravenous route is desirable due to fast induction and recovery time. General anaesthesia is integral for the restraining of wild cervidae, intravenous route of drug administration should be considered for semen collection in Rusa deer.

Isolation and identification of Circovirus in pigeon

Safwan Yousif Al-Baroodi; Mozahim yasen Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 207-210
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126706.1364

The purpose of this study is first trial to detect of pigeon circovirus, so 1sr group include 100 cloacal swabs were collected 55 healthy and 45 ill pigeons, 36 yearlings and 64 adults, the 2nd group included organs was liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius from 41 young pigeons 10-30 days old and bursa of Fabricius, liver, spleen from 28 dead in shell pigeon embryo in the 3rd group. DNA extracted from this samples and detection of virus DNA was attempt using polymerase chain reaction, after DNA amplification, the final products of the amplicon with 331 bp was cleared by using electrophoresis using agarose gel at concentration 2%. Results of viral DNA amplification were positive, which revealed as band in 331 bp the results showed that ill yearling pigeons recording high infectivity rate 66.7% compare with healthy yearling pigeons and adult once, the bursa of Fabricius samples of dead yearling pigeons recorded high prevalence 36.58% when compare with liver and spleen samples, DNA of pigeon circovirus high detected 60.71% in bursa of Fabricius of dead in shell pigeon embryo.in conclusion pigeon circovirus affected the racing pigeon in Mosul, Iraq.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Molecular analysis of ompA gene Pasteurella multocida Indonesia local isolates

A. T. Soelih Estoepangestie; Arini Rahmi Dewi; Suwarno Suwarno; Didik Handijatno; Rahaju Ernawati; Wiwiek Tyasningsih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125934.1191

The aim of this research was to analyze ompA molecular gene of Pasteurella multocida buffalo isolate and bovine isolate from Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Katha strain isolate from hemorrhagic septicemia vaccine. Determinant of P. multocida local isolates ompA gene amplification sequencing PCR then conducted to see the sequence of nucleotide sequences of ompA gene. The results of PCR amplification showed an amplicon of 559 bp of all isolates. The homology analysis result of the isolates ranged from 93 - 100% with 13 P. multocida isolates from GenBank, and phylogenetic tree analysis shows that buffalo isolate was closely related to Katha strain, Iran, India and China isolate. Whereas bovine isolate far enough with buffalo and Katha strain isolate. Nucleotide sequences were compared to amino acids then by the method of Kolaskar and Tongaonkar antigenicity predicted antigens in P. multocida. B cell epitope predictions from local isolates and Katha strain were found in five peptides QVSPVFAG, IPELALRVEYQ, GQSVYVPEVVSKT, LKSASVAVAG, and ANYLVAKG.

The effect of stocking density and the application of Nitrobacter as ammonia decomposer in aquaponics system of Clarias gariepinus with water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica)

Adinda Septyasari Taragusti; Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The P0 and P1 contain of 30 fish in each aquarium; 35 fish in P2; 40 fish in P3; and 45 fish in P4. The control group (P0) were treated without Nitrobacter administration and the other 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters studied were SGR, SR and FCR of African catfish in different aquarium with different stocking densities. This research also studied the growth of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) also water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Histopathological alterations of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the histological effects experimentally induced by injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg B.w. on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration in testis include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells and paucity of sperms in the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. The histological alteration of female reproductive organs includes disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals: An interplay between seasonal predisposition and dietary imbalance

Khan Sharun; K. M. Manjusha; Rohit Kumar; A. M. Pawde; Yash Pal Malik; Prakash Kinjavdekar; S. K. Maiti; - Amarpal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126662.1358

The present study was aimed to record and analyze the prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals like cattle, buffalo, horse, goat, sheep, dog and cat presented at RVP-TVCC, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. A total of 777 cases were reported during the academic session starting from April 2018 to March 2019 from Bareilly and its surrounding regions. Incidence were highest among ruminants 92.92% comparing to other domestic animals 7.08%. Among the different animal species, caprine were found to be the most affected, followed by buffalo and canine. A positive correlation was noted between the occurrence of obstructive urolithiasis and the season with maximum number of cases being reported during the winter season December - February. The female to male ratios in urolithiasis affected animals were 1:81, 1:75 and 1:22 for buffalo, goat, and dog, respectively indicating higher occurrence in male animals. Majority of the goat 67.89% and buffalo 84.80% presented with obstructive urolithiasis were also found to be fed exclusively with a grain rich diet that are excess in phosphorous thereby contributing to urolith formation. The role played by behavioral changes associated with different seasons and the dietary status of the animal plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. Such an interplay between the season and the dietary imbalance will lead to higher incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals.

Study the effect of cloned pET-32a(+) plasmid by Lysostaphin gene against Staphylococcus aureus

Jalal Yseen Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126698.1362

Lysostaphin is a protein zinc metalloproteinase, extracted from Staphylococcus simulans, which disrupting peptide layer of S. aureus. In this study, Lysostaphin gene was detected in the S. simulans isolates. The molecular weight of the Lysostaphin gene is 750 bp. We were used the pET-32a(+) plasmid to cloning lysostaphin gene which transformed to competent rubidium chloride E. coli DH5α for producing the lysostaphin protein. The lysostaphin protein from this gene which isolated from S. simulans, then used the expression of used to killed S. aureus, which has the thick layer of wall that is the very difficult bacteria response to treatment. The result was reported succeeded pET-32a (+) plasmid to expressed lysostaphin gene and gave lysostaphin protein with high quality and quantity. As well as the result was appeared the high accuracy of his tag method in protein extraction and purification, and the quality and quantity more than other studies.

A survey of chewing lice of some raptors in southern Iraq, with remarks on prevalence and occurrence

Alaa Hatem; Mufid Abou Turab; H.K. Abdul-Zahra; Muhammad Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126717.1365

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the chewing lice from some raptors in Basrah, Thi-Qar, and Missan provinces located in south of Iraq. Samples of birds were collected from January to December 2018. The survey was accomplished with a total of 87 raptors belonging to five species, sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, lesser kestrel Falco naumani, kestrel Falco tinnuculus, and black kite Milvus migrans. Totally 58 of 87 birds were infested with chewing lice, the overall prevalence was 66.67%. Five chewing lice species were identified: Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Degeeriella fusca, Degeeriella rufa, and Laemobothrion maximum. All these specieswere identified in Iraq for the first time. D. rufa was recorded the highest prevalence in all raptors with 28.74%, whereas C. platystomus was the lowest 10.34%. As for the prevalence of bird’s species, the highest percentage was recorded in kestrels and black kite with 71.43%, while sparrow hawk was the lowest 53.85%. Some notes about ecology and occurrence of the chewing lice were reported.

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and histopathological changes in muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the Iraqi rivers

Basim Al-Mayahi; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa; Shahbaa AL-Taee; H.H. Nahi; Mohammed Adnan; M.A. Al-Salh Al-Salh; B. Al-Mayahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126748.1368

The aim of this study is to evaluate the contamination status of Iraqi rivers in the north of the Tigris river (Tikrit city) and the middle region of Euphrates (Babylon Governorate). In this study As, Zn, Fe, Pb, and Cu in the muscle tissue of carp fish were measured. The results show that the concentration of arsenic in the fish muscles in the middle region was 425.05 ppm higher than its concentration of about 192.25 ppm in fish muscle in the Tigris river with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Which it causes histopathological changes characterized by Zenker necrosis in skeletal muscle and infiltration of inflammatory cells with edema additional to edematous dermatitis. Other heavy metals in fish muscle were less than in fish muscles which agreement with the international legislation limits. Also, there were positive correlation ships between Zn and Pb and between Cu and Zn. While negative correlation has been detected between arsenic and both (Pb) and(Zn). This study is concluded that the accumulation of heavy metals causes histological changes in fish muscle provides an opportunity to assess fish health as well as information on possible health hazards coming from their environment.

Using Schiff base method for protecting amino acids and modified in vitro method for measuring rumen protected amino acids

MITRA mazinani; Abbas A. ِNaserian; Brian Rude; Abdoulmansur Tahmasbi; Reza Valizadeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126756.1371

The goal of this study was to modify three steps method for measuring protection rate of amino acids which has smaller size than nylon bag pores. To prepare the protected amino acids by the Schiff base method, each of the essential amino acids (methionine and lysine) in the aqueous solvent were brought to isoelectric pH and then reacted with the same molar ratio of aldehydes the reaction was refluxed for 30 minutes to 6 days (depending on the type of aldehyde used). The three-step in vitro method was used to estimate rumen insoluble protein in the rumen. In the manufacture of protected amino acid ligands, compounds with methionine amino acid had higher efficiency than lysine compounds and also glutaraldehyde ligands showed higher production efficiency compared to benzaldehydes. The glutaraldehyde lysine ligand showed the lowest release after 2 h of incubation in the rumen medium. At time 4 the methionine benzaldehyde ligand had the lowest release. Benzaldehyde had the lowest release at time 6 and 8. According to the results of this table, Lysine benzaldehyde had better resistance to different phases and methionine benzaldehyde had the lowest release rate compared to the other ligands. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the use of chemical methods to protect amino acids can be applied.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Prevalence and molecular investigation of caseous lymphadenitis among the slaughtered sheep at Duhok Abattoirs; experimental infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in rabbits

Nawzat Issa; Rezheen Fatah; Zanan Taha; Muhammad Hussen; Kareem Kareem; Handren Hamadamin; Zirak Najeeb; Bahroz Ahmed; Hivi Hameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126772.1377

Caseous lymphadenitis is a chronic infection caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis that affects the lymphatic system, resulting in abscesses in the lymph nodes and internal organs. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis among slaughtered sheep in Duhok abattoirs, Duhok, Iraq and to investigate to what extend rabbits can develop caseous lymphadenitis just like that in sheep. A total of 1052 carcasses of sheep were randomly selected (939 males and 113 females) and carefully inspected for detection any suspected caseous lymph adenitis. The isolated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from lymph nodes of sheep carcasses were identified by PCR before used in in vivo infection in rabbits. Data revealed that the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis was at 1.9% among the slaughtered sheep and the prevalence rates were higher in females and older ages than that of males and younger ages, respectively. Experimentally infected rabbits developed various clinical signs were ranging from in inappetence to sudden death, mainly during first week of infection. Histopathologically, the infected rabbits developed caseous lymphadenitis and pyogranuloma after a time point of 10 days post-infection. Liver, spleen and lymph nodes of infected rabbits showed caseo-necrotic foci with multiple micro-granulomas with presence of thick pyogenic membrane infiltrated with leukocytic cells; these findings are strictly resemblance to that reported in sheep. The obtained preliminary data of using rabbits as an animal model is promising which will enhance a better understanding the pathogenesis of caseous lymphadenitis in animals.

Evaluation of blood, biochemical and biological effects of microalgae Chlorella and germinated barley powder as a source of prebiotic on common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Havan Sleman; Nasreen M. Abdulrahman; Nazenine Hassan; Hevar HamaSalih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126788.1378

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chlorella and germinated barley powder on the hematological and biochemical parameters of (Cyprinus carpio L.). An experiment was designed with five treatments; Groups included T1: Diet without any supplement (Control), T2: adding 5 % Chlorella/ kg diet, T3: adding 10 % Chlorella / kg diet, T4: adding 10 % germinated barely / kg diet, T5: adding 20 % germinated barely/ kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the hematological and Immunological parameters were measured. The results revealed that supplementation of Chlorella and germinated barley in diets in which T4 were higher significantly in each of hemoglobin and red blood corpuscles. T1 was significantly higher in the control. A different significance observed in each of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH). Significant variants observed in differential WBC count in T2 and T4 and Monocytes %, a significant difference seen among the treatments in each of Lymphocytes % and Granulocytes %. Significant differences occurred by adding the Chlorella and germinated barely in each Total protein, Alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), Albumin and Globulin among treatments. A significant difference observed in the Hepatosomatic index and Gillsomatic index, T5 with 20 % germinated barely was differ significantly in each of Spleensomatic and Kidneysomatic Index. Based on the results, supplementation of Chlorella and germinated barley in diet can play a role in effecting on some blood and biochemical parameters.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chlorella and germinated barley powder on the hematological and biochemical parameters of (Cyprinus carpio L.). An experiment was designed with five treatments; Groups included T1: Diet without any supplement (Control), T2: adding 5 % Chlorella/ kg diet, T3: adding 10 % Chlorella / kg diet, T4: adding 10 % germinated barely / kg diet, T5: adding 20 % germinatedbarely/ kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the hematological and Immunological parameters were measured. The results revealed that supplementation of Chlorellaand germinated barley in diets in which T4 were higher significantly in each of hemoglobin and red blood corpuscles. T1 was significantly higher in the control. A different significance observed in each of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH). Significant variants observed in differential WBC count in T2 and T4 and Monocytes %, a significant difference seen among the treatments in each of Lymphocytes % and Granulocytes %. Significant differences occurred by adding the Chlorella and germinated barely in each Total protein, Alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), Albumin and Globulin among treatments. A significant difference observed in the Hepatosomatic index and Gillsomatic index, T5 with 20 % germinatedbarely was differ significantly in each of Spleensomatic and Kidneysomatic Index. Based on the results, supplementation of Chlorellaand germinated barley in diet can play a role in effecting on some blood and biochemical parameters.


Evaluation of the thermal effect of LTE 2600 MHz (4G) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure: Thermographic study on rats

Ali S. Al-Chalabi; Rana Asim; Hasliza Rahim; Mohamed F. Abdul Malek

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126787.1379

Exposure to LTE 2600 MHz microwaves is increasing very fast as new technologies and become accessible worldwide, and the smartphones being the main source of these waves. The aim of this study is to assess the thermal effect of 4G signals on rats. Forty adult Albino rats were used throughout the study, assigned as control and exposed groups, equally. Rats were kept in Plexiglas cages with intermittent exposure to LTE mobile-phone like signals at an average of 2h/day for up to 30 continuous days with SAR value of 0.982 W/kg. Infrared images were snapped immediately after the end of the exposure time, then one hour, two hours, and four hours later at a rate one collection/week during the study. IR images were analyzed by FLIR Tools software. The results exhibited variation in reflected skin temperatures in the exposed group compared to control images. Furthermore, the analysis of collected data revealed significant variations over the course of the study compared to the first week. The rise in skin temperature observed in response to exposure in the first week, which decreased gradually increased exposure and this drop in reflected skin temperature was significantly related to amount of exposure. The study concludes that the LTE 2600 MHz exposure under controlled laboratory conditions has a thermal effect on the rats.

Detection of Trichomoniasis in cattle in Nineveh province

Wasan A. Alobaidii; Qaes T. Alobaidii; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126790.1380

The current study was conducted on the detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in vaginal mucus of infected cows using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique (cPCR) in Nineveh province, Iraq. A total of 87 vaginal mucus samples were collected randomly from the vagina of Heifer cows of different ages (2-4, >4-6, >6 years old) and stages of pregnancy with different clinical status (early embryonic death, pyometra, abortion and healthy animals once) by washing cow’s vagina using artificial insemination pipette, DNA extraction of T. foetus was done from vaginal mucus samples, cPCR was attempt using TFR3 and TFR4 primers, Results indicated that 11 cows (12.6 %) were positive for T. foetus. The clinical status of cows demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.05) a higher percentage of Early Embryonic Death at (6.9%) compared to pyometra, abortion, and healthy cows. Furthermore, the percentage of T. foetusinfection was significantly (P<0.05) elevated among cows (>2-4 years old) at (8%) compared to (>4-6 years old) and (>6 years old) cows. This study concluded that T. foetusinfection was an elevated percentage of infection in cows with early embryonic death and in cows (>2-4) years old. This study is the first detected T. foetus in cattle in Nineveh province.

Histopathological and some biochemical effects of platinum drug on the liver and kidney of pregnant mice Mus musculus and their embryos

Baidaa A. barwarei; Hanan S. Sadoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126793.1382

The current study was done to investigate the effects of two doses 3and 6 mg/kg B.w. of the Platinum drug on the structure of the liver and kidney of pregnant mice, and embryos in addition to the weight of the mothers', embryos ,'maternal liver and kidneys, as well as some biochemical parameters, were established. For this study, thirty pregnant mice were used, divided into three groups (10 mice/group) as follows; group I (control group); animals were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with distilled water on the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation. The other both groups II, and III were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with the selected doses above of the Platinum at the days 7th, 12th, and 17th of gestation, respectively. Microscopically, maternal and fetal' liver sections of group II revealed vacuolation, swelling, apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion, degeneration, and presence of the extramedullary hematopoietic cells, respectively. Previous lesions were increased in group III. Maternal and, fetal kidney sections of group II revealed degeneration, expansion of Bowman's space, inflammatory cells infiltration into interstitial tissue, and blood capillaries congestion. However, the previous lesions showed more severity in group III. The drug caused a reduction in the body weight of the mothers, selected organs, and embryos. Biochemical assessment of the maternal serum AST, ALT, and ALP levels showed an increase in both experimental groups II and III, but to varying degrees. Moreover, both groups II and III showed an increase in the levels of the maternal BUN and, urea. Whist, group III showed a significant increase of the creatinine compared to the control group. In conclusion, using anticancer drugs during pregnancy will harm both mothers and fetal organs. The risk of these medications represents their ability to cross the placenta and enters the fetal body. Therefore, the drug may affect the formation of the fetal organs. The drug also alters the regulatory antioxidant mechanism in the maternal body during the treatment duration. The drug should be used under medical follow up.

Change in acetylcholine activity and some blood parameters in adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin

Aydin S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126813.1385

The aim of this was to elucidate the effects of deltamethrin dipping on acetylcholine activity in serum and some blood parameters of sheep. The study was conducted on forty adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin in concentration of 1:1000L of water. Venous blood samples were collected from each animal before and after dipped. There was significant inhibition in the acetylcholine esterase in all subjected animals after dipping. Mean values of hematological investigations showed a significant rise in the number of total leucocytes (leukocytosis) with significant decline in hemoglobin concentration and Red cell indices in all dipped animals after dipping in deltamethrin when compared with mean values obtained from the same animals before dipping. Conclusion of our results revealed that poisoning with deltamethrin affects blood parameters through the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase.

Role of alpha lipoic acid in protecting testes of adult rats from lead toxicity

Bara N. Al-Okaily; Haidar F. Murad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126814.1386

The current study was conducted to investigate the role of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) against testicular toxicity- induced by lead acetate (PbAc) in rats. Four groups of adult Wistar albino rats (8 for each) were intubated daily for 56 days as follows; control (C)received dislled water; lead acetate at dose of 5mg/kg b.w (T1); ALA at dose of 60mg/kg b.w (T2) and and group T3 received both of PbAc + ALA at the same doses of above. Blood samples were collected at 0, 28 and 56 day of the experiment, then the sera were collected for determination of testosterone(T) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). At the end of the experiment, body weight, testes weight and epididymal sperm parameters was studied. Furthermore, histo-morphometric and histopathological study changes were examined. The results revealed a significant decrease in testes weight to body weight ratio, serum testosterone, sperm concentration and motility, diameters of seminiferous tubules, height of seminiferous epithelia and number of Leydig cells, moreover the results showed a significant increase in serum FSH, dead sperm and abnormal sperm morphology in group T1 when compared with the other groups. Comparing to lead acetate treated rats, group T3 showed an improvement at the level of the studied parameters, accompanied with mild congestion in the interstitial tissue with a marked developing proliferation of spermatogenic cells, as well as presence of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to lead acetate showed an amelioration of all reproductive parameters near to normal values due to the antioxidant effects of ALA and the histological changes of the testes confirmed such change in serum parameters and the beneficial role of ALA.

Study on the post-partum disorders and their relationship with the reproductive performance in Iraqi cow-buffaloes

Mohammed Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126771.1387

This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of various postpartum disorders on subsequent reproductive performance in Iraqi cow buffaloes. The data were collected from 172 buffaloes within private dairy buffaloes herd. In this study, the diagnosis and treatment of the affected cases with postpartum disorders (Retained placenta, puerperal metritis, uterine prolapse and vaginal prolapse) contributed in the data collection based on the parity, calving time and reproductive parameters (days to first estrus, open days, service per conception, intervals between estrus and calving interval). Cow buffaloes were divided according to their postpartum disorders into 5 groups: first group (healthy), second group (retained placenta), third group (puerperal metritis), forth group (uterine prolapse) and fifth (vaginal prolapse). The results of this study showed that a total of 74.42% of the cow buffaloes had normal post-partum and open days 121.9 days with resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 77.41 days, increased incidence of G2, G3, G4 and G5 were 9.88, 6.97, 6.97, 5.23 and 3.48%, respectively. Open days were significantly longer in buffaloes in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 compared to healthy group. In conclusions, early postpartum disorders manifested by increased days to first estrus, calving interval, days open and service per conception were longer than healthy cases in the Iraqi cow- buffaloes.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies in meat juice of beef

Raafat Shaapan; Nagwa I. Toaleb; Eman H. Abdel-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126829.1390

Toxoplasmosis is an important worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. Infected cattle meats is considered a serous cause of human toxoplasmosis. Here, this study assesses the infection with Toxoplasma gonddi (T. gondii) in cattle using meat juice samples from diaphragmatic muscles collected at the slaughter. An in house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) followed by immunoblotting were developed on the meat juice (fluids) using tachyzoites of locally isolated T. gondii strain. The comparative analysis of the results of the tested juice samples showed an excellent agreement between the in-house indirect ELISA and LAT test in the positive and negative of meat juice. Relative sensitivity was higher for ELISA on diaphragms fluids random samples 80.39%, for the LAT test was 68.6%. Immune-reactive bands of T. gondii local strain Ag with naturally infected meat juice were 116, 83, 65, 30 and 23 KDa. The obtained results concluded that the development of an effective ELISA test to be used in for detection of toxoplasmosis infection of slaughtered cattle in large-scale would be exactly valuable, since the important role that beef plays in epidemiology of T. gondii, in particular the hazard of transmission to human and food safety.

Molecular detection of rfbO157, shiga toxins and hemolysin genes for Escherichia coli O157: H7 from canine feces in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq

Karam M. Abdulrazzaq; Maher S. Oain; Hala M. Majeed; Osama H. Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126831.1392

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is considered as an important pathogen of diarrhea in adult dogs and puppies because it contains virulence genes. The study objective was to the molecular detection of the rfbO157 encoding the O-antigen specific for E. coli O157: H7,shiga toxins and hemolysin genes of E.coli O157:H7 in feces of dogs that collected from different regions in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq. One hundred fecal swabs were collected from pet and K9 dogs including (72 dogs with diarrhea, and 28 without diarrhea). All the Collected swabs were cultured in the nutrient and MacConkey agars, Then the suspected colonies were cultured in the EMB agar. Metallic sheen colonies were cultured by using the chrome agar. All bacteriological identified isolates were enrolled by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results of this study showed that 7(9.7%) of 72 dogs suffered from diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 6), carry stx1 gene (n= 3), carry stx2 gene (n= 3), and hlyA gene (n= 1). On the other hand, 2 (7.1%) of 28 dogs without diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 1), stx2 gene (n= 1), and hlyA gene (n= 1). In conclusion, dogs can be a significant reservoir for pathogenic E. coli O157:H7, particularly dogs with diarrhea.

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in Kirkuk province

Mohammed Y. Nooraldin; Shaheen A. Jaafar; Abdulmuniem I. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126832.1394

Neospora caninum was identified as a coccidian parasite as in 1988, before that date it was misclassified as Toxoplasma gondii based on structural similarities. The aim of this study was to determine theseroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle in Kirkuk Province. A total of 185 cattle serum samples were collected randomly. Data about ages, gender and abortion history of females were recorded. Serum samples were examined by using ELISA as a screening test for the detection of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies of past infection. Results showed that 53 (28.6%) cattle were seropositive infected, with significantly higher seropositive infection of age group >2 years in comparison to other age groups 94.3%. The distribution of N. caninum of total infected cattle showed that the seropositive infection in females were 47(88.7%), which was more than males 6 (11.3%) with a highly significant difference. There were 22(48.8%) aborted cattle out of 47 infected cattle with N. caninum with no significant difference in comparison with the healthy group.

The role of clove (Sygnium aromaticum) oil as anaesthetics compound for abalone (Haliotis squamata)

Norma Fanni; Fuquh Shaleh; Muhammad Santanumurti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126824.1396

Abalone is one of aquaculture commodity that has a high value including in Indonesia due to its price, taste and nutrition content. Unfortunately there is problem in abalone’s transportation process which caused stress and even death. Clove oil can be used as anesthetic agent for abalone to obtain a high survival rate because of its eugenol content. This research tried to evaluate the the effect of clove oil as anesthesia agent to determined induction time, survival rate and oxygen cosumption in H squamata. This study used an experimental method and used a completely randomized design with treatment concentration of clove oil solution were 0.5 ml/L (A), 0.7 ml/L (B), 0.9 ml/L (C), and 1.1 ml/L (D) which each treatment was repeated three times, and calculated the value of the abalone (H. Squamata) survival rate after maintenance for 14 days. The results of the study showed that the survival rate of abalone seeds obtained in the treatment with the concentration of 1.1 ml/L (D). In the treatment also showed the fastest induction time with 96.67 seconds. The lowest oxygen comsumption rate in this study was treatment D with concentration of 1,1 ml/L. It could be concluded that using clove oil with concentration of 1.1 ml/L as anasthesic compound for abalone showed effectiveness in induction time, survival rate, and oxygen consumption rate.

Association between clinical and subclinical mastitis and reproductive performance of cows at Nottingham dairy centre

Zeravan A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126843.1398

Clinical and subclinical mastitis regarded as important diseases causes a reduction in reproductive performance in dairy cows in the UK during the last decade. This study was aimed to assess the association between clinical mastitis, subclinical mastitis and the reproductive performance of cows. Data from 184 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were collected. Binomial logistic regression used to determine the incidence rate of clinical mastitis and subclinical mastitis between parity, calving year and seasons of the year. Linear mixed model used to determine the effect of clinical and subclinical mastitis on reproductive performance. The association between clinical or subclinical mastitis and the probability of a cow to get pregnant at 1st, 2nd or 3rd service was evaluated using binomial logistic regression. The same model used to illustrate the probability of a cow getting pregnant from 30-60 days postpartum or 61-90 days postpartum. The incidence of clinical mastitis was different between calving years (P<0.01). Cow with clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis had longer calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval (P<0.05). Cows clinical mastitis had a lower rate to get pregnant within 20-30 days postpartum compared to healthy cows (P<0.05). Cows with higher somatic cells count, (especially cows with greater than 399,000 cells/mL of milk), had a higher number of services compared to cows with a lower number of individual cow somatic cell counts. The study concluded that both clinical and subclinical mastitis have a relationship with a reduction in reproductive performance in high yielding dairy cows.

Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle farms in Egypt

Yassin K. Hamed; Essam Nasr; Mohamed Fahmy Azooz; Hassan Mohamed Youssef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126850.1399

A cross-sectional study was carried out from November, 2015 to April, 2018 to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test on 5327 dairy cattle in 16 dairy herds in mid-delta, Alexandria Road and Upper Egypt districts. Questionnaires used to collect data on herd size and management. The herd and individual animal prevalence at cut-off ≥4mm were 68.75% (95%, CI: 46 to 91.4) and1.67% (95%, CI: 1.3to 2.1) respectively. The individual prevalence was significantly associated with age, breed and different location of farms and density of cattle in yard. On herd level, history of BTB in the farm, management practices, raising of different species in the same facility and newly purchased cattle are important risk factors for BTB. The postmortem examination of positive reactors revealed 66 (85.71%) out of 77slaughtered cattle with visible lesions and 11(14.29%) with non-visible lesions. Bacteriological examination revealed 74.24% (49/66) from visible lesions and 9.09% (1/11) from non-visible lesions were Mycobacterium bovis. The indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA) results revealed 31(40.26%) showed positive result including 29 (93.6%) visible lesions and 2(6.4%) nonvisible lesions. In conclusion, the prevalence high in herds with poor management condition, raised different species in the same facility, had previous history of BTB infection and purchased new animals. At animal level Holstein breed, 3-6 years age, kept in high density and located in mid- delta district were at higher risk to be reactor to comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test.

Determination of the lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of lead chloride and its accumulation in different organs of Gambusia affinis fish

Amal A. Al-Kshab; Omamah Q. Yehya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126853.1401

In the present research, mosquito fish Gambusia affinis have been exposed to lead chloride during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in order to evaluate the lead chloride lethal 50 (LC50) concentration and the Its residue in certain organs of fish. Usage of the EPA computer software based on Finney Probit Analysis method has been statistically tested for the data collected LC50 values of G. affinis if 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were found to be 59.4, 55.9, 51.1 and 49. 0 mg/L, respectively. LC50 decreased as mean exposure times. 20 fish were placed in each concentration of four sublethal concentrations 20 and 25 mg/L for two acute periods 24 and 96 hours as well as 10 and 5 mg/l for chronic periods 15 and 30 hours. The testes were carried out as three replications, the accumulation of lead in various fish organs was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The finding revealed that the accumulation of PbCl2 on different organs of G. affinis be time dependent fashion and Pb-content in organs increased significantly time dependent at chronic exposure as compared as acute- exposure.

Effect of aqueous rosemary extract on some sexual hormones in male rats with high thyroxine level

Fouad Z. Hamza; Nabeel M. Al-Sharafi; Sumayah F. Kasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126872.1404

The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the high level of thyroxine affects on each of the luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) of rats and to estimate the potential effect of the administration of aqueous rosemary extract and propylthiouracil against testicular toxicity induced by levothyroxine in male rats. Negative control group rats were treated with distilled water. Three groups of male rats were treated subcutaneously with 0.5 mg/kg levothyroxine for 12 days: Since day 13th to the 24th day of the experiment first group was regarded as a positive control group that received distilled water, the second group was given propylthiouracil at a dose level of 10 mg/kg b.wt, and the third was given aqueous extracts of rosemary 10 mg/kg b.wt. The results revealed that treatment with aqueous extract of rosemary lead to a significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone while a highly significant decrease in testosterone, FSH, and LH levels in serum revealed after treatment with propylthiouracil. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of propylthiouracil and rosemary aqueous extract resulted in dialectical hormonal results in which the favor was to propylthiouracil.

Investigation of gcat gene and antibiotic resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from hemorrhagic septicemia’s cases in fish farms

Zanan M Taha; Shaaban Tayar Sadiq; Warheen Aziz Khalil; Kaheen Yusif Muhammad-Ali; Hayam Salih Yosif; Hozan Nizar Shamil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126876.1405

The significance of Aeromonas hydrophila concerning hemorrhagic septicemia in aquaculture farms production in Duhok province, Iraq was investigated. Antibiotic-resistant profiles of isolates were also investigated with 8 antibiotics. Bacterial isolates were identified by using morphological and biochemical tests and confirmed molecularly by amplification of gcat gene. Out of 25 examined fish, only 19 fish were harbored A. hydrophila. Twenty-four A. hydrophila strains were isolates from 100 organ samples. Ninety-six percentages of the isolates were resistant to each of the imipenem and gentamicin, followed by doxycycline 92%, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 88%, norfloxacin 58% and ceftriaxone 33%. None were resistant to levofloxacin. Eighty-eight percentages were multiple antibiotics resistant. The high isolation rate of A. hydrophila in our study indicates that this species was the major cause of the outbreak in hemorrhagic septicemia’s cases in our area affecting carp farms and the high rate of resistance should be considered as these isolates can serve as a resistance source for human being during food series and make a great challenge for their therapeutic opportunity.

GnRHR gene polymorphism and its correlation with semen quality in Buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis)

Karima Gh. Mahmoud; Abdelaziz M. Sakr; Sally R. Ibrahim; Ahmed S. Sosa; Mahmoud H. Hasanain; Mahmoud F. Nawito

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126886.1407

Fresh semen from fifty bulls was evaluated for ejaculate volume, individual motility, concentration, lives sperm and abnormalities as well as acrosome integrity. Bulls were classified according to semen motility into two groups; good and poor. DNA was extracted from semen of both groups, then the PCR followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques were performed for mutation detection in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene through multiple sequence alignment. The results showed that the percentages of sperm motility, sperm concentration and live sperm, were significantly higher in good than poor semen quality bulls. However, semen volume, percentage of acrosome integrity and abnormalities did not differ between good and poor. The PCR amplification of 240-bp fragment and the results of SSCP appeared a genetic polymorphism with two patterns. Pattern I was seen in all good bulls, with incidence of 100%. Pattern II appeared only in poor semen quality bulls with a frequency of 31.25%. The sequence analysis of the PCR product for the two patterns showed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a transversion base substitution mutation at positions 20 (T/A) and 193 (A/T). The GnRHR gene could be used as a genetic marker related to semen quality in buffalo due to the good semen bulls had a unique pattern.

Does Baclofen induce changes in testicular histology and seminal fluid analysis in rat?

Luma I. Al-Allaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126894.1411

Baclofen has a central acting effect, so clinicians have been utilized it chiefly for treating the spasticity of spinal origin. Nowadays, off-labeling use of baclofen with high doses is frequently increased. Despite of the extensive research studies on the effectiveness of baclofen, the reports on its histological effects on testes and on sperm parameters we insufficient. This work aims to assess the histological influences of baclofen on rats' testes and on several sperm characteristics after administration for 8 weeks. Twenty-two male rats at age of peripuberty (8weks) that were categorized into two groups. Group I (control group) includes 10 rats which were gavaged with 1 ml/day of distilled water daily. Group II (baclofen's group) includes 12 rats which were received baclofen 14.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks via gavage. At the end of the designed work, euthenization was done and the testes were excised from each rat, the epididymis samples were obtained and prepared for examination under light microscope. This study revealed that rats that were administered with 14.5mg/kg/day of baclofen for 8 weeks showed changes in the sperms parameters with several testicular histological alterations in their sections in comparison with those of controls. The percentage of the live sperms of rats (baclofen's group was lower than that of control group). Features of sloughing inside seminiferous tubules' lumen are frequently seen among these sections with mild decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules. Evidence of decreased Johnsen's scores (spermatogenic index -SI) was noticed in some sections, and decreasing of the frequency of seminiferous tubules that possess spermatozoa was obviously noticed. Moreover, disorganization of seminiferous tubules is shown in these sections. In addition, sections of rats of baclofen group revealed features of necrosis of seminiferous tubules, presence of degenerated spermatogenic layer, features of apoptosis, and presence of gaps in the seminiferous epithelium of degenerated tubules. Different alterations of sertoli cells as vacuolation, and detachment sertoli cells are noticed in sections of rats that were administered with baclofen. The chronic administration of rats with 14.5 mg/kg with baclofen induced effects on sperm parameters and testicular histology. however, the testicular histological alterations were more obvious. Further works are needed to clarify mechanism that stands behind these effects.

Detection of CTX-M gene in extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bovine milk

Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126909.1412

Extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) have emerged recently as the main cause that facilitates the spreading of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Due to its composition and nutritive values, raw cow milk is vulnerable to bacterial contamination from different sources, especially ESBL-E. Accordingly, present study aimed to detect the ESBL-E in the raw milk of healthy cows. 80 raw cow milk samples were collected from unorganized farms and cows belong to individual owners and investigated for the presence of ESBL-E with the main focusing on CTX-M type. The bacterial isolation was performed using selective MacConkey agar plus cefotaxime (MC+), while PCR was used to confirm the species of the isolated bacteria and presence of CTX-M gene. The results showed that 28.75%(23/80) samples were ESBL-E positive and distributed as following, 82.61%(19/23) were pure E. coli isolates, 4.35%(1/23) was pure K. pneumoniae isolate and finally, 13.04%(3/23) were mixed of both E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Moreover, the total number of positive ESBL-E was 26 isolates with the majority of them were belong to E. coli and recorded 84.61%(22/26), while K. pneumoniae was recorded less 15.39%(4/26). Additionally, the CTX-M gene was successfully identified in all ESBL-E positive isolates by using PCR, including E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. The results of this study assert the importance of raw cow milk as a potential source of ESBL-E that might be transmitted to humans.

Levels of disaccharidases in the brush border membrane of equine small intestine

Miran A. Al-Rammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 197-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125778.1152

The disaccharides, consisting of sucrose, lactose and maltose, are hydrolysed into monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose) by intestinal brush border enzymes: sucrase, lactase and maltase. The aim of this study to investigate changes in the brush-border membrane carbohydrate digestive enzymes. From intestinal mucosal scrapings of equine, brush border membrane vesicles were isolated. The results showed that sucrase, maltase and lactase are present in the equine small intestine. The activity of all three enzymes is highest proximally (in the duodenum and jejunum) and lower in the ileum. There was considerable variation between individual horses, however the majority showed highest disaccharidase activity in the jejunum, with some showing highest activity in the duodenum. Sucrase activity is highest in the jejunum and duodenum and lower in the ileum. Maltase activity is similar in all three regions, but slightly higher in the jejunum. Lactase activity is low in all three regions of the small intestine, slightly higher in the equine jejunum and duodenum than ileum. From this study, we can conclude that the equine small intestine digests disaccharides by the brush-border associated disaccharidases sucrase, maltase and lactase. Levels of sucrase and lactase are comparable to other species, but maltase is much higher.

Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report

U. T. Naoman; B. D. Al-Watar; E. H. Lazim; E. K. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 195-197
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153849

This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of bright turbid fluid (Hyper-genic), with no signs of heart beat and small abnormal ribs. Vaginal examination indicated that complete closure cervix with pale mucous membrane.

Effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) barks of root and stem (alcoholic extract) on the viability and fatty acids content of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro study

R. S. Al-Juwary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153848

The present study was aimed to determine the scolicidal effect of stem and root alcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) on the viability and fatty acids content of Ecinococcus granulosus protoscolices. The study elucidate the scolocidal effect of both stem and root extracts. Its seemed that the scolocidal effect of root extract was higher than that of stem extract ie. LC50 and LC90 of stem extract were 5 and 9 mg/ml respectively while LC50 and LC90 of root extract were 3 and 8 mg/ml respectively. GLC analysis of E. granulosus protoscolices was stated presence of nine fatty acids esters, which were Lauric (C12:0); Myrisitic (C14:0); Palmatic (C16:0); Stearic (C18:0); Archidic (C20:0); Behenic (C22:0), which were saturated fatty acids, and Oleic (C18:1); Linoleic (C18:2); Linolenic (C18:3) which were unsaturated fatty acids. Treating E.granulosus protoscolices with LC50 of pomegranate stem bark was showing slight and swing effect on fatty acid content, while treated the protoscolices with LC50 of root bark were resulted in obvious increase in short length fatty acids like Lauric, Myrisitic and Palmatic in compare with control group. In contrast the long chain fatty acids concentration like Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic were decrease.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153847

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153846

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; C. Aissaoui; A. Hicher; S. Abdelmajid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 267-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153863

The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle (C) and southern zone (D). During two years 2015-2016, birth numbers (BN) and mortality rates (MR) of 355 sheep flocks were recorded using a questionnaire. Concerning BN the total number was 21244 lambs representing a mean 59±31 per flock. No significant differences between the birth means of C and D (75±28 vs 83±30) were registered. Birth mean was significantly higher (P<0,05) in B (40±17) than A (29±10), when comparison with C and D, the births of A and B were highly significantly (P<0,001). According to (BN) the studied region were classified into 3 zone groups: (a) with high lambing rate (C, D); (b) with medium lambing rate (B); (c) with low lambing (A). In regard to mortality rates, the total rate was 24±6%. The (MR) in A (27±5%) was significantly higher (P<0,05) as compared to other zones (B) 24±4%, (C) 23±7% and (D) 22±4%. However, no significant differences between B, C and D were revealed. According to the results of (MR) the studied region was classified into two groups: (a) with low MR (C, D), (b) with high MR (A, B). Our result showed that zones influence the (BN) and (MR) in Tébessa region, and southern zones especially D seems the appropriate to practice breeding of Ouled Djellal breed.

Commercial oil of Nigella sativa as growth promoter in lambs rations

S. El-Naggar; J. A. Abou-Ward; A. Y. El-Badawi; A. M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153850

This study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementing different levels of Nigella sativa oil in rations of growing lambs. In a feeding experiment lasted 90 days, 18 growing Ossimi lambs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided by weight into three equal groups (6 animals each). Individual animals in all groups were fed a uniform total mixed ration, offered at 3% of body weight, where the first group was without supplement (R1), while Nigella sativa oil was supplemented at 0.1 (R2) and 0.2% (R3) of dietary DM. Results indicated that additions of N. sativa oil didn’t influenced feed intake, but it increased average body weight gain and feed efficiency. Nutrients digestibility values and dietary nitrogen utilization were higher with N. sativaoil rations than control. Ruminal fermentation parameters showed comparable pH values among groups at 0, 3 and 6 hrs. of feeding. Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower and TVFA concentration was higher for animal fed R2 and R3 rations than control. It’s concluded that N. sativa oil could be added at 0.2 % of the daily feed as a natural growth enhancer of lambs.

Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 287-293
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126898.1408

COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that this novehtm hgn l strain may be developed from the animal. origin by recombination between a bat SARS-like CoV and a coronavirus of unknown origin. The ability of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus from person to other is similar or even more than to other human viruses like influenza or plague leadding to be announced as a pandemic by WHO in 2020. The mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 increased day by day and this led the scientists to search ways to control the virus. Most of the deaths in aged patients may be due to immune response complications where 70% of patients showed lymphopenia. This review, provided some details about structure, pathogenicity and immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The facts in this review lead to suggest that in most cases the death in SARS-CoV-2 may occur via loss of systemic inflammatory response control which leading to lung injury followed by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, hence the death especially in old patients. In concluding the early effective control of both innate and adaptive immunity may be the critical. key factor in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

The effect of autotransplantation of bone marrow with laser irradiation on the healing of non-union fractures in the femoral bone of dogs

O H Al-Hayani; B T Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46747

In this study, the effect of autotransplantation and laser irradiation on the healing of experimental induced non-union fractures in the femoral bone were investigated clinically and radiographically in 12 dogs. The fractures were left without fixation for 40 days and over, and following the occurrence of non-union state the fractures were treated at 3 different schedules in the experimental animals, which were divided into three groups, each containing 4 dogs:
Group 1 (control): the non-union fractured femoral bones were treated by the routine surgical procedures using intramedullary fication achieved with Steinmann intramedullary pins.
Group 2 (intramedullary fixation with autotransplantation of bone marrow): following the surgical treatment of non-union fractured femoral bone and their fixation by the Steinmann intramedullary pins (by the same procedure applied in group 1), 4-6 ml of fresh bone marrow was implanted at the fracture site. The bone marrow was aspirated freshly and aseptically from marrow cavity of the opposite femur from the same dog.
Group 3 (autotransplantation of bone marrow with He:Ne I.R. laser irradiation): in addition to the procedures applied in group 2, the surgical site was exposed to laser irradiation type He:Ne I.R. with a total dose of 2.7 J/cm2 for 12 irradiation sessions. Each daily irradiation session was for a period of 5 min for 3 successive days, followed by one-day rest.
The concluded results were:
1-autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow at the site of the treated non-union fractures has a role in accelerating or improving the healing process, by promoting excessive callus formation, whereby the fracture line disappeared at the end of the 4th post-treatment week.
2-the use of laser irradiation with autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow, greatly improved the healing process by increasing the periosteal reaction and callus formation, and lead to disappearance of the fracture line at the end of the 3th post-treatment week. Furthermore, this technique improved the functional use of the affected limb in comparison with groups 1 and 2.
3- the laser irradiation made the remodeling stage shorter (finished within about 3 months) in comparison with group 1 and 2, in which it continued for more than 3 months.

Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

M. B. Taha; E. B. Basheer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5721

The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g) and tylosin (2 g), second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml) 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %). Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %). Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome) 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin) 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution) 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological and histopathological examination and revealed the importance of the early treatment of endometritis especially using of cephquenome sulfate.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Diagnosis of causes of suppurative arthritis in sheep in Mosul, Iraq

Q. J. Khaleel; M. M. H. Al-Jammly; S. H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2009, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2009.5730

The prevalence of suppurative arthritis in one hundred sheep from both sexes and different ages were studied. Aspiration of synovial fluid from knee joint of animals showed signs of lameness with reluctant to move in addition to decrease in the body weight and loss of appetite. Physical and bacterial examination of the synovial fluid was revealed green color, turbid and containing pus. Mucin clot showed difference in degree of clotting, and increased number in leukocyte, neutrophile but decreased in lymophocytes and monocyte. The result showed that Streptococcus dysagalactiae was predominate 61.1% while Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the less 5.5%, also the result showed that all the strains were more sensitive to the Ciprofloxacin. This study is considered to be the first attempt to isolate bacteria from Sheep joints in Mosul-Iraq.

A statistical study to evaluate the initial weight for fattening in local calves

N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 69-73
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5664

Data of twenty one local breed bull calves (Sharabi and Janoubi) were collected from previous work for this study, their ages ranged from 8-18 month with initial live body weight of 125-300 kg. They were fed for 100 days period a standard ration which consisted of 60:40% concentrate to roughages ratio and contained 12.4% crude protein, 19.9% crude fiber and 2.2 Mcal/kg ME. Feed was offered at 3% of live body weight. Calves weights were sorted out into three groups, according to their means of body weight and were 140, 210 and 280 kg. The first group of calves had a significant increase daily gain more than the other two groups and were 1200, 850 and 830 g, respectively. Also, feed conversion rate of the first group was better than the other two groups, and were 6.2, 8.9 and 9.9 kg. ration/1 kg weight gain, respectively. Cost of feeding to produce one kg of weight gain in the first group was more efficient than the other two groups, and were 1860, 2670 and 2970 I.D., respectively. No differences were found in carcass traits among the three groups of calves. The results of this study suggest that it is better to choose local bull calves at live weight less than 200 kg for fattening purpose, to obtain more economical benefit.

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

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