Articles in Press


Research Paper

Physiological effects of lactic acid bacteria against melamine induced toxicity in female albino rats

Ali H. Jameel; Mohammed J. Mohammed; Manal S. Mahdi; Karkaz M. Thalj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126183.1259

The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of two type of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus against melamine toxicity by some physiological indicators in mature female rats after 21 days. In this study using 35 of female mature rats and divided randomly into seven groups each group contain five animals. The results showed that melamine caused a significant decrease in the organs weights liver and spleen and increase in kidney weight with increase of melamine concentration. Also showed to decrease in value of hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocyte and platelets, while the values of granules were increasing with increase of melamine concentration as compared with control group. Also found that the addition of melamine led to increase in cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and blood glucose, while the values of triglyceride and high density lipoproteins was decreased with increase of melamine concentration. The addition of two types of lactic acid bacteria L. casei and L. acidophilus led to decreasing the negative effect of melamine on the values of all the parameters determined.

Effect of Coenzyme Q10 alone and with vitamin E on some semen characteristics of broiler breeder males

Ahmed tayes Taha; Samah Measer Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126287.1289

This study aimed at detecting the effects Coenzyme Q10 alone and with vitamin E supplementation on some semen quality and seminal plasma parameters of broiler breeder males Ross 308. Twenty-five males 43weeks aged were divided into five groups (5 rooster/ group) with five replicates (1 rooster / replicate), the first control group included drenching with corn oil capsules only. The second and fourth groups were about drenching with capsules containing Coenzyme Q10 at a concentration of (5 mg / bird) alone and with 10 mg of vitamin E daily intake. Whereas the third and fifth treatments included drenching with capsules containing the Coenzyme Q10 at a concentration of (10 mg / bird / day) alone and with 10 mg of vitamin E respectively. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the ejaculation volume, both individual and mass motility in addition to sperm concentration, particularly the fifth treatment. Furthermore, the results clear a significant decrease in the percentage of dead and abnormal sperms. The Coenzyme Q10 alone and with vitamin E led to improved semen quality marking a reduction in AST and ALT, glucose concentration and total protein with improved antioxidant status referring to a high level of glutathione (GSH) and low malondialdehyde (MDA). We conclude from this study that Coenzyme Q10 with and without vitamin E has the ability to improve the semen characteristics of age-old broiler breeder males and can improve the status of antioxidants in semen.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the veterinary teaching hospital

Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Layth M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that the total number of the excised tumours was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. The tumours were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leucosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and transmissible venereal tumour 2.78%. We concluded from the current study occurrence a different type of tumours which was malignant or benign in different species of animals.

Effect of adding different levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) on growth and chemical composition criteria of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Mahmoud Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126362.1308

This study was conducted to evaluate the addition of three levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp), 96 common carp Cyprinus carpio L. at a mean weight of 5±0.15 g/fish on four experimental diets with three replicates per treatment 0% with three experimental diets containing 0.75%, 1%, and 1.5% of the total diet (2, 3 and 4) respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the parameters of the total weight increase, daily growth rate, relative growth rate, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein productive value between the control diet and the fish feeding on the fourth diet, meanwhile there were no a significant differences in final weight, food intake, protein efficiency ratio criteria. Chemical body analysis revered there were no a significant difference for dry weight, crude protein and ash, while cinnamon powder added have a significantly differences in body fat deposited. Based on the above results, 1.5% cinnamon can be added can improve the growth performance and nutritional value of common carp fish.

Molecular Analysis of ompA Gene Pasteurella multocida Indonesia Local Isolates

A. T. Soelih Estoepangestie; Arini Rahmi Dewi; Suwarno Suwarno; Didik Handijatno; Rahaju Ernawati; Wiwiek Tyasningsih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125934.1191

The aim of this research was to analyze ompA molecular gene of Pasteurella multocida buffalo isolate and bovine isolate from Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Katha strain isolate from Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccine. Determinant of P.multocida local isolates ompA gene amplification sequencing PCR then conducted to see the sequence of nucleotide sequences of ompA gene. The results of PCR amplification showed an amplicon of 559 bp of all isolates. The homology analysis result of the isolates ranged from 93 – 100% with 13 P.multocida isolates from GeneBank, and phylogenetic tree analysis shows that buffalo isolate were closely related to Katha strains, Iran, India and China isolate. Whereas bovine isolate far enough with buffalo and Katha strain isolate. Nucleotide sequences were compared to amino acids then by the method of Kolaskar and Tongaonkar antigencity predicted antigens in P.multocida. Epitope predictions from local isolates and Katha strain were found in five peptides: QVSPVFAG, IPELALRVEYQ, GQSVYVPEVVSKT, LKSASVAVAG, and ANYLVAKG .

Molecular Fingerprinting of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Human and Poultry in Duhok, Iraq

Hishiyar A Hado; Mahde S Assafi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126375.1310

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recently identified in poultry and farm workers. The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiological relatedness of MRSA among chickens and farmworker. MRSA isolates (n=50) from human (n=14) and from chikens (n=36) were tested for molecular epidemiological relatedness between human and poultry. RAPD-PCR was carried out for fingerprinting of MRSA isolates genome. Seven genotypes group (A-G) have been identified. All human MRSA were belonging to genotype A. Whereas, chickens MRSA isolates was belonging to different genotype patterns groups (A-G). To conclude, human MRSA was belonging to one genotype pattern but the chickens MRSA strains were belonging to seven genotypes. The genotype pattern A was the most dominant among all MRSA isolates. It is possible that the chickens play an important role for the human exposure to MRSA by direct contact. Further studies are required to address the relatedness between human and chicken MRSA.

Histological alteration of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the effect of oxidative stress experimentally induced by alloxan 100 mg/kg bw on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration on tests include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells with paucity of sperms into the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. As for the histological alteration of female reproductive organs include disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Molecular differentiation of Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species based on 18s rRNA gene in small ruminants

Monyer Aز Alfatlawi; Yahia Kh. Ismail; Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Israa N. Ibadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126407.1313

This study was conducted to investigate Anoplocephalidia Cestoda in sheep and goat and evaluate the 18s rRNA to genetically differentiate the genera of this family. Sixty sample tapeworms were collected from small intestines of 30 sheep and 30 goats from different slaughterhouses in Al-Najaf and Al-Qadisiyah provinces, during September, 2016 to February, 2017. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 18s rRNA gene partial sequencing (18sGPS) methods used, tapeworm infection of sheep and goat’s intestines was 32.9% and 31.4%, respectively. The partial gene sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene showed two closely related isolates of M. benedeni which are aligned distinctly to an NCBI isolate of the same species from China. For T. giardia, the outcomes of the phylogenetic analysis unveiled three distinct local isolates which were similar to an NCBI database isolate from China. The current data ensure the importance of the molecular techniques in differentiating between Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species that were identified for their presence in the small intestines of sheep and goats.

Administration of Nitrobacter as Ammonia Decomposer in Maintenance Media of Clarias gariepinus with Aquaponics

Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja; Adinda Septyasari Taragusti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

Abstract. Many Indonesian catfish farmers apply the aquaponics system to overcome the problem of limited cultivation land. However, the use of high-stock solid method on aquaponics system causes a decrease in water quality due to the accumulation of fish feces and food scraps that are not consumed by fish and are left to pile up and turn into ammonia. Ammonia in water is toxic and dangerous for fish health. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias sp.) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The control group were treated without Nitrobacter administration and 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters observed were SGR, SR and FCR. Whereas, the supporting parameters were water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) plant growth and water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Clinical and molecular identification of ruling Theileria annulata strains in cattle calves in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Asaad A. Jasim; Noor E. Jarad; Saba [ز Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126429.1319

This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary status of T. annulata in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. In this study, the clinical examination of 50 infected animals was performed with blood sample collection (2.5ml per animal), and drug targets cytochrome b, a vital component of the electron transfer chain in the mitochondria of the protozoan, cytb gene was targeted using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure. Also, 18S rRNA gene as a molecular target for the PCR and a partial gene sequencing (PGS) were included. The PCR that involved using the 18S rRNA and cytb genes as genetic targets revealed amplification of the targeted pieces at 620bp and 1092bp, respectively, in all tested samples. The18S rRNA gene sequence of local T. annulata isolates were aligned with global reference strains for T. annulata recorded in the GenBank. The local strains were close, 100%, in their identity to isolates from Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan; however, they were 99% similar to a nucleotide sequences from India and Bangladesh. Diseased calves showed clinical signs such as high fever (40.3-41.5°C), decreased appetite or in appetence, asymmetrical enlargement of superficial lymph nodes particularly the pre-scapular ones, some cases with diarrhea, pale or icteric mucus membrane of eyes, bulging eyes, lacrimation, ecchymotic hemorrhages on the sclera, incoordination, nervous signs (Dullness, depression, lethargy), salivation, and bloated young calves. The data observed from the present inspecting work may reveal genetic evolution in the local strains with others recorded in the GeneBank. This means that our local strains might have close relationships with some global strains.

Using acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of laminitis in racing horses: a comparative study

Abdulmuniem Ibrahim Aljobory

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126217.1263

Objective: To compare the efficiency of using conventional acupuncture CA and electroacupuncture EA in the laminitis therapy in race horses.
Methods: Twenty adult race horses with laminitis were randomly selected. Clinical examination was carried out and acupuncture points were determined according to the results of diagnostic palpation of acupuncture. The horses were grouped into two equal groups; the 1st group was treated daily for 6 consecutive weeks, with CA and the 2nd group with EA. evaluation of lameness was depended on the visual and objective examination using the “American Association of Equine Practitioners” (AAEP) lameness scale and confidence stride lengths criterion for forelimbs which performed by the force plate indices. The lameness level was statistically analyzed applying t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis and p-value (P<0.05) was significant.
Results: Both visual and objective lameness examinations showed gradual statistical significant reduction (P<0.05) in the severity of lameness and improvement in the gait of the horses after CA and EA treatment. It is also showed that the lameness level was significantly (p<0.05) decreased after every weekly session of EA treatment in comparison with CA treatment.
Conclusion: It is concluded that continued electroacupuncture EA treatment by current study pattern showed a marked improvement in the movement of the laminitic horses when compared with conventional acupressure CA treatment.

Toxic effects of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany; Entisar R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126435.1322

This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity in rats of heated and un heatedbutylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Sunflower oil dissolved BHT, heated at 98±2ºC by a water bath. The animals were divided into five groups. The control group dosage orally with sunflower oil, the first group treated with 250 mg/kg BHT, the second group treated with 250 mg/kg heated, BHT the third group treated with 500 mg/kg BHT and the fourth group treated with 500 mg/kg heated BHT. All groups received oral treatment. The results showed a substantial reduction in motor activity relative to other groups at a dose of 250 mg/kg heated BHT. There was a substantial distinction in the negative geotaxis test in groups of 500 mg/kg heated and un-heated BHT, while a cliff avoidance test in the heat treated dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg was observed in the cliff avoidance test compared to other groups. A significant reduction occurred in all groups in the pocketing and dorsal tonic immobility test. The pathological changes of heated BHT groups were more severe than those of un-heated BHT groups especially the dose of 500 mg/kg heated BHT. It represented by coagulative necrosis, muscle atrophy in heart, interstitial pneumonia, serofibrinous exudate, pulmonary emphysema in lung and neuronal degeneration, microgliosis, myelin vacuolation and satellitosis in the brain. The study concluded that heated BHT at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg had toxic effects to motor and neurobehavioral activity, and histopathological changes in the brain, heart, and lung.

A Retrospective study of fracture Cases Managed in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital; 181 Cases (2014-2018)

Sozan Ali Muhamad; Othman Jalal Ali; Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Hardi Fattah Marif; Rizgar Rahim Sleman; Brwa Mhamed Ali; Dekan Ali Raza; Harem Habeel Hama Ali; Gashaw Mustafa Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126228.1266

The aim was to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in different breed, age and sex admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine-University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From those, dogs represented 49.72% (90/ 181 cases), whereas cat represents 18.23% (33/181 cases) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology was multi factorial, but the roadside accident was the main cause of fractures particularly in the dogs. Femoral fractures were the most common type of fractures that represented 26.51% (48 /181), whereas the other most common types of fractures were radius-ulna (19.33%, 35/ 181), tibia-fibula (13.81%, 25/181) and the pelvis (9.94%, 18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered better latitude and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of the 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found very convenient and without much difficulties, while cases with external coaptation were not. Satisfactory postoperative results were obtained from most, but in few cases, postoperative inflammation (4 cases), mal-union (5 cases) and incomplete alignment (2 cases) were found. It was concluded that fractures in animals should be considered in Sulaimani province and fracture repair was highly successful and the best-employed internal fixation techniques were intramedullary pins.

Effect of levofloxacin on some body tissues in mice

Rand A. Abdullah; Faten D. Taee; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126416.1316

Levofloxacin is a third generation of fluoroquinolones family. It is commonly used in the treatment of a several bacterial infections. However, misusing antibiotics impose damage to hepatocytes and myocytes. The present study was conducted to access the effect of levofloxacin on tissue histology in mice taking in consideration dose and duration of exposure. 24 matured male Albino mice were divided into 3 groups, Group G1: was considered as a control group. They received normal saline intraperitoneally / day. Group G2: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 10 days. Group G3: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. Microscopic examination of liver sections of group G2 revealed severe congestion of blood vessels in the portal area and central veins with inflammatory cells infiltration. While in group G3, Apoptosis, Degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with giant cell transformation were noticed. In addition to kupffer’s cell activation. Heart sections showed moderate congestion of blood vessels with edema in between the myocytes and inflammatory cells infiltration. Group G3 Necrosis with pyknosis of cardiac muscle nuclei was noticed. We concluded that levofloxacin induces toxic effects on liver and heart according to the dose of administration and duration of treatment.

Antimicrobial activity of peptides extracted from camels' blood neutrophils against some pathogenic bacteria

mohammed abdulaah mola

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126239.1270

Absract :
The aim of this search was to isolate and purify Antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs) taken from camel blood , and to study its antibacterial activity against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium , Bacillus subtilis) .
The results showed the possibility of obtaining these peptides from camel's white blood cells , and was separated by using Reversed-Phased High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) technical equipment. The results showed the presence of (21) absorption peaks of the isolated peptide extract .
The two-stage radial diffusions method was used to study the activity of the crude peptide against the studied bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium , Bacillus subtilis) . The results showed that this peptides was effective without any resistance. the best effect was on the gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) with a diameter of (31mm) inhibition, while the less effect was on the negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) with a diameter of (20mm) .

Development of the wing bones in quail’s embryo; Coturnix japonica

Hadia K. Zorab; Kamal A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126438.1324

Quail is an essential model in avian research because of economic importance in poultry industries around the world. Furthermore, its use in the experimental embryology research field. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the onset of chondrification and ossification of the wing bones also to summarize the main histological sequences related to the formation of the humerus in Japanese quail. Six embryos were taken every 24 hrs from 3-16 days of incubation. Three embryos were prepared and stained with Alcian blue and Alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. The other three embryos have been processed for histological examination. The Macroscopical findings showed that the humerus, radius, ulna, coracoid, scapula, third, and fourth metacarpals were chondrified on 5th day. However, first signs of ossification were observed in the humerus, radius, and ulna on 8th day. While the minor digit remained none ossified at prehatching. The microscopical stages of developing humerus associated with the limb bud, apical ectodermal ridge formation, and chondrocyte differentiation on 3rd, 4th, and 5th day, respectively. The cartilage template of the humerus was established on 6th day. The diaphysis and epiphyses of the humerus were formed on 7th and 8th day, correspondingly. The periosteal-bone collar was formed on 8th day, and vascularization of chondroepiphysis has occurred on 9th day. There was a difference in the timing of chondrification and ossification in the forelimb skeleton and humerus developed by the endochondral mechanism. The obtained results should be considered in teratological and molecular studies in skeletogenesis.

Incidence of internal parasites of the slaughtered local breeds of ducks and geese

Manal Himmadi Hasan; Baydaa Younis Mahmood; Ahlam Fathi Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126242.1272

This study was carried out to determine the presence of gastrointestinal parasites of local ducks and geese in Nineveh province. Sixty-four ducks and seventy geese of different ages and sexes were purchased from local markets. Necropsy findings in ducks reviled a total infection rate of 68.8% was with protozoa,50% was with nematodes, while 28.1% were with cestodes. On the other hand in geese, the percentages with the mentioned parasites were 78.6% with protozoa,54.2% with nematodes, 31.4% with nematodes and respectively. Four types of nematodes were identified in ducks; Ascaridia galli , Heterakis gallinarum , Heterakis isolonche , and Subulura brompti, the same were also found in geese except Heterakis.isolonche. Cestodes identified in ducks and geese were Railletina tetragona , Railletina echinobothrda, Railletina cesticillus and Coantaenia infundibulum. The detected protozoa include Eimeria spp., Tyzeria spp., Wenyonella spp., Cryptosporidia spp., Giardia spp. Double infection with parasite was higher in ducks while the triple infection in geese was the higher.
Key words: Internal parasites, ducks, geese.

Ultrasonography of left displaced abomasum in local cattle breed

Osama M. Aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126447.1328

The aims of the current study were a definitive diagnosis of left displaced abomasum by using ultrasonography furthermore determination of abomasal position and measurements. Study includes sixteen local cattle breed, six have anorexia, weakness and drop milk production, on clinical examination there was decrease rumen contractions 3.6 \ 5 minutes, furthermore a pinging sound heard on auscultation of left intercostal spaces there were diagnosed as left displaced abomasum, other ten clinically healthy cows considered as normal control group. Ultrasonographic imaging was performed for stand nonsedated cows by use 3.5-5 MHz transducer at the ventral midline and in the intercostal spaces 9, 10, 11, and 12 from the left side. Ultrasonography revealed a left side displaced abomasum to an area between the abdominal wall and the rumen, which appeared as hypoechoic fluid content ventrally and hyperechoic parallel echogenic lines of gas gap dorsally, abomasal folds appear as filiform echogenic lines. While in healthy cows an abomasum located in the ventral midline and directed mainly to the right side. In conclusion, ultrasonography as a non-invasive technique could be used as a confirmative diagnosis of left displaced abomasal and help for differential diagnosis of left abomasum displacement a well as can be useful for measurement of abomasum in healthy local breed cattle.

Histopathological Effects Of Experimental Exposure To Lead On Nervous System In Albino Female Rats

Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya; Hana Kh. Ismail; Asrar Al-khafaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126248.1273

Background: Lead toxicity is a common health issue, Lead (pb) is harmful to vital organs of body particularly the nervous system. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on the cerebellum , cerebrum and spinal cord in rat model, focusing on histopathological changes. Material &methods: 24 female mature albino rats of 200-300g randomly divided into 2 groups, the first is the control , and the second group were treated with lead acetate at dose 40mg/kg B.W. for 30 days. The results: Microscopic examination revealed degeneration and necrosis of purkinje cells and molecular cells , Decrease in the number of granular cells and molecular cells also observed . Some purkinje cells lose axons and shrinked and some areas showed depletion from purkinje cells, Congestion of blood vessels with perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory, hemorrhage , neurophagia , glial nodules were observed in the brain paranchyma. Demyelination reported in white matter , with microglial infiltration around vertebral canal of spinal cord. This study referred to the increased risk of central nervous system damage due to the exposure to lead.

Multi-presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Duhok abattoir/ Kurdistan region, Iraq

Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multipresence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered apparently healthy sheep of Duhok city using ELISA technique. Eighty eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty two sheep carcasses. These samples included (Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney). The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results also revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

Keywords: Antibiotic residues, ELISA, sheep carcasses, Duhok abattoir

Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria galls on DMBA induced Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis

Sherzad Ibrahim Mustafa; bushra mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126267.1281

Abstract
Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis and a number of plants with anti-cancer properties are being researched, some of which have shown promising results. Quercus infectoria galls is a well-known medicinal plant which has been used in medicine as larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of the aqueous extract on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis, consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) three times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, and cumulative number of papilloma was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with 2gm/kg of Quercus infectoria galls extract as compared to the positive control group treated with DMBA plus croton oil administered. Furthermore, Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced significantly before and after galls extract oral administration. The results thus concluded that Quercus infectoria galls extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity and may serve in future drug development programs for the cancer prevention of skin cancer.

Evaluation the safety and synergistic effect of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles with antibiotic against pseudomonas aeruginosa

hala ail majeed; Heba Younis Khalef; Halah Abdulkhaleq Awadh; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Nihad Abdul-Hussain jafar; Khaild Ahmad Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126298.1294

Antimicrobial resistance currently impedes and threatens effective prevention and treatment of the continually expanding range of infections caused by bacteria. This study aimed to identify the bacterial causes of wound infection among animals and using of antibiotic/nanoparticles mixture as a new attempt for the treatment of wound infection induced in rats. For this purpose, 112 wound infection cases in different animal types (36 sheep, 21 goats, 12 cows, 4 horses, 8 dogs, 9 rabbits, 7 genies pigs, 15 rats) were studied for bacterial isolation. The predominant bacterial isolate (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested for its sensitivity to antibiotics and nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4) in vitro using MIC method. Also wound infection induced in rats and the effect of nanoparticles/antibiotics mixture were tested in vivo.
The results showed that pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant bacterial type that caused wound infection. The MIC of NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were 32 µg /ml and 16 µg /ml respectively. A clear synergistic effect of antibiotic/ nanoparticles as antibacterial were noticed which appear as decrease in MIC and increase of inhibitory diameter zone. According to result of RAPD test, nanoparticles effect on genetic material of P. aeruginosa observed as appearance/disappearance of bands, increase in thickness and clarity of bands.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum in the Sheep and goats in Duhok Province-Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126330.1298

Abstract
Ticks are obligate ectoparsite that infest both animal and human and causing many diseases, due to they act as a vector of some pathogens including: protozoa, bacteria and virus. There are about 877-878 tick species; most of these are under the two famous families including: Ixodidae and Argasidae. Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in Kurdistan and particularly in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat respectively (500 and 500), form Duhok Governorate including: Barwaria, Zakho, Sumeil, Mangeshik, Sersin, Shekhan and Akre, Iraqi Kurdistan, between May and June 2016, between April and June 2017. The result found during this study were six species under two genera of the hard ticks were identified by molecular study and sequencing including: three species were under the genus Hyalomma and three species were under the genus Rhipiciphalus that infect small ruminants in Duhok Governorate from these species a new species under the Hylomma genra (Hyalomma asiatium asiaticum) with accession number (MN594484), was first time reported in Duhok Governorat, Iraqi and in Kurdistan. Also phylogenetic tree was constructed depend on the 16S rRNA. More advanced molecular study are need such as the PCR – RFLP method will be more accurate molecular tool for ticks differentiating of Duhok and will be helpful in epidemiological and geographical distribution .