Articles in Press


Research Paper

Molecular Analysis of ompA Gene Pasteurella multocida Indonesia Local Isolates

A. T. Soelih Estoepangestie; Arini Rahmi Dewi; Suwarno Suwarno; Didik Handijatno; Rahaju Ernawati; Wiwiek Tyasningsih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125934.1191

The aim of this research was to analyze ompA molecular gene of Pasteurella multocida buffalo isolate and bovine isolate from Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Katha strain isolate from Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccine. Determinant of P.multocida local isolates ompA gene amplification sequencing PCR then conducted to see the sequence of nucleotide sequences of ompA gene. The results of PCR amplification showed an amplicon of 559 bp of all isolates. The homology analysis result of the isolates ranged from 93 – 100% with 13 P.multocida isolates from GeneBank, and phylogenetic tree analysis shows that buffalo isolate were closely related to Katha strains, Iran, India and China isolate. Whereas bovine isolate far enough with buffalo and Katha strain isolate. Nucleotide sequences were compared to amino acids then by the method of Kolaskar and Tongaonkar antigencity predicted antigens in P.multocida. Epitope predictions from local isolates and Katha strain were found in five peptides: QVSPVFAG, IPELALRVEYQ, GQSVYVPEVVSKT, LKSASVAVAG, and ANYLVAKG .

Using T cell Lymphokines to enhance the immune response against Newcastle disease in vaccinated broiler chickens under the effect of Mycotoxin

Basher Saud; mushtaq AL-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125977.1204

The current study aimed to reduce the toxic effect of Mycotoxins and enhance the immunity against Newcastle disease in broiler chickens by using lymphokines from hyperimmunized birds with salmonella typhymurium. The study included three stages, the first phase included isolating salmonella typhymurium from the infected birds and then determined the infected dose by injecting five groups of broiler chicks, each group included 5 chicks, the dose was 108, the second phase included after isolating the bacteria and determine the infected dose, was taken two groups of broiler chicks, each group included 20 chicks at one day, the first group was drinking orally three doses (7, 14 and 21) days. The second group not taken anything as considered a control group. At 35 days of age, T cell cells were collected from spleen of the infected bird, after it was destroyed and filtered (1500) rpm with centrifuge, and then grow T cell on RBM media and added Co-A to stimulate T cell to secretion the Lymphokines. Third and final phase of the study involved 250 broiler chicks at one day, divided into five groups each group 50 chicks, treated as follow: the first group was injected 0.5 ml intraperitoneal with Lymphokines at one day, after 30 minutes vaccinated with Newcastle (ND) vaccine (La Sota strain) through drinking water, the injection and the vaccine was repeated at 10 days.

Clinical , Serological and Antigenic study of Feline panleukopenia virus in cats in Baghdad / Iraq .

Amanee Mohammad Radhy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125960.1201

(FPL) is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates . This study was performed in the Baghdad capital city of Iraq from January 2018 -to- February 2019.
Fecal and blood samples were collected from both diarrheic and non diarrheic 180 cats , of both sexes . Hundred pet and eighty stray cats was divided into 2 groups according to their ages : > 1-year and < 1-year . Fecal sample were checked for presence of FPL virus antigens by rapid antigen test kit ( immuno chromato graphy assay) and blood samples were tested for presence of FPL virus specific antibodies by ( ELISA ) test as well as the study of blood parameters of cats.
Forty cats ( 22.2 % ) were infected with FPL virus by ICG assay , while a high percentage of total seropostive rate 65 ( 36.1% ) was founded by ELISA test . Significant (P ≤ 0.05) higher infection ( 27.5 % ) and seropostive ( 36.7% ) rates were observed in cats less than one year age . Clinically the infected cats showed multi-systemic signs and the vomiting was the more frequent sign ( 87.5 % ), hematological changes showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in heamogram values and prolonged clotting time , the total leukocytic count was lowered in infected cats and this owing to significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in absolute numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils .

Case Report

natural heavy infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp in sheep in mosul city

Nadia Sultan alhayali; manalhimmadi himmadi hasan; karam yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125994.1210

Abstract
This study included recording the natural heavy infection with immature macrocysts (Sarcocysts) of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep .In animal with one year of age which is slaughtered at butcher shop in Mosul city in May 2018. This is the first case recorded of natural infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. In Mosul City . Multiple small nodules were observed during slaughter ,they were along the esophageal muscles with different sizes and shapes , they were distributed randomly throughout esophageal muscles. Most of the sarcocysts were small in size with mean size 20- 28×28-42 µm and histological examination showed that contained only metrocytes.This confrmed the diagnosis that the sarcocysts were immature macrocysts (sarcocysts) for the Sarcosystis spp. In our study, heavy infected case with Sarcocystis reveals the fact that large numbers of cats(final hosts) in contact with sheep in pastures is considered the main risk factor for infection and supply of raw meat from infected sheep, which is very important for carcass condemnation when the meat inspection if specific abnormalities are found which indicate that the part of carcass , is unfit for human consumption it is condemned, which means the economic loss for livestock.

Research Paper

Functional morphology of the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel (Epixerus ebii)

CHIKERA IBE; Adanna Elezue; Ekele Ikpegbu; Uchenna Callistus Nlebedum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126047.1216

The study was initiated to contribute to the meager knowledge of the anatomy of the African palm squirrel. Skin of the trunk and paw pads was the subject of interest. Basic gross and histological techniques were employed. The dorsal fur was grey with golden brown free endings, while the ventral fur was greyish white. The fur covered the entire trunk, extended through the dorsal surface of the distal carpal joint to the dorsal surface of the digits. Five digital pads, three inter-digital pads and two metacarpal pads were observed on the forefoot. There was no observable digital pad on the hindfoot; four inter-digital and two metacarpal pads were observed.
Surface groves were evident in the cornified layer of the trunk skin, but not in the paw pad skin.
The mean thickness of the cornified layer of the epidermis of the palmar pad was 75.54 (± 3.45) μm, while the entire epidermis was 102.32 (± 4.23) μm thick. The non-cornified layer of the trunk skin was made of only three distinct layers, as the stratum lucidum was not evident. Conversely, the stratum lucidum was evident in the paw pad skin. Dermal papillae observed in the paw pad skin were more numerous and progressed deeper into the non-cornified epidermis than those observed in the trunk skin. There were more melanocytes in the dorsal than in the ventral trunk skin. The study concluded that the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel enable its adaptation to arboreal habitat.

Detection of lead, chromium and cobalt in meats of cattle and buffalo from retails of Mosul City

Hiba Salahaldeen Al-Naemi; Raad Abdulghani Al-Sanjary; Rana Aoni Faraj; Ahmed sadii sadii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126069.1224

Lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) were investigated in 160 local and imported meat samples of cattle and buffalo collected from markets of Mosul city by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results reported mean concentrations of Pb and Cr in local cattle meat (0.136) and (0.0651) mg/kg, respectively significantly higher (p<0.05) than that reported for Co (0.008 mg/kg). In imported cattle meat, results revealed that Pb presented a mean concentration (0.182 mg/kg) significantly higher (p<0.05) than that presented by Cr and Co (0.0486 and 0.00971 mg/kg, respectively). No significant differences (p<0.05) in the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr and Co in local buffalo meat (0.119, 0.0896 and 0.017 mg/kg, respectively) and imported buffalo meat (0.106, 0.102 and 0.041 mg/kg, respectively) were reported. The results revealed that 20% from each local cattle and buffalo meat samples, 12.5% from imported cattle meat and 22.5% from imported buffalo meat were exceeded the maximum permissible limit for lead in meat. Concerning Cr, 2.5% from imported cattle meat and 5% from each of local and imported buffalo meat surpassed the maximum acceptable limit. Ultimately, results showed that all samples of local and imported cattle and buffalo meat were within the maximum allowable limits for Co. The hazards of metals on public health was discussed.

Molecular study to detect the Eimeria Species in Sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province / Iraq

Noaman Naji A&amp;#039;aiz; Noora Majeed; Ahmed Neama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126064.1225

Sheep eimriosis is one of the most important and common disease which infects sheep in all ages but it is more effective in lambs. The diarrhea with or without blood is the main signs of infection. Eimeria protozoan required single host to complete its life cycle which pass in different stages including schizogony, gametogony and sporogony. The study was designed for detection of sheep Eimeria species through the molecular method.
This study was conducted in Al-Diwanyah province during the winter months of 2019. In which 200 sheep fecal samples were collected and examined traditionally to investigate the Eimeria oocytsts. Ninety seven samples of highly intensity infection with Eimeria oocysts were selected to subject for DNA extraction process. The extracted DNAs were tested through amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene by conventional PCR, and then phylogenetic analysis was made to diagnose the sheep Eimeria species.
All samples that examined microscopically were showed positive results of infections with Eimeria protozoan. Out of 97 molecularly examined samples, forty five (46.39%) were given positive result in conventional PCR technique, where Eimeria spp. detected through succeeded amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene. Then phylogenetic analysis referred to that there are five species of Eimeria confirmed in sheep in Al-Diwanyah province including 6 (33.33%) samples diagnosed as E. ahsata , 4 (22.22%) samples E. weybridgensis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. ovinoidalis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. bovis and 2 (11.11%) samples E. auburnensis.

Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of xylazine and its interaction with metoclopramide in acute pain model in mice

Khalid ahmed Shaban; Muna Alzubaidy; Gada abdul-munem faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126070.1226

The study was designed to qualitative and quantitative evaluation of antinociceptive effect of metoclopramide and xylazine each alone or as a concomitant administration in mice. Adult albino Swiss mice weighing (20-30)mg used in all experiments. By using hot plate test ,the individual analgesic dose (ED50) of metoclopramide and xylazine detected depending on up and down method . Isobolographic analysis used to evaluate the type of interaction between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 of individual ED50 for each drug at level of antinociception effect. Simultaneously administration of double dose of individual ED50 and low doses (sedative, non-analgesic doses ) of both drugs, also evaluated at level of central and visceral analgesia using hot plate and writhing response test respectively. The individual ED50 of xylazine and metoclopramide was 10.8 and 25.6mg/kg,i.p. respectively . Asynergistic interaction at level of analgesia explored between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 which represented as decreased in ED50 of metoclopramide and xylazine by 58.75 and 58.15% respectively . The animal suffered from only slight sedation and docile. Simultaneously i.p. administration of xylazine and metoclopramide at double dose of ED50 for each drug induced significant increase in latency time of thermal response , As well as significant decrease in writhes number, which induced by acetic acid in comparism with control groups. The percentage of analgesia at subanalgesic doses of aconcomitant administration of both drugs was 100% in comparism with each drug alone. This results suggested safe and good use of both drugs in veterinary medicine

Development of In-house Taqman qPCR assay to detect Equine herpesvirus-2 in Al-Qadisiyah city

Mohammed Al-Saadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126076.1229

EHV-2 is distributed in horses globally. It is clustered within gamma-herpesvirus subfamily and percavirus genus. EHV-2 infection has two phases: latent and lytic. In the later, EHV-2 mainly associated with respiratory and genital symptoms. However, in the quiescent phase of infection, EHV-2 stay dormant in the host till viral reactivation. Our previous study has showed that EHV-2 can be harboured by equine tendons, suggesting that leukocytes possibly carrying EHV-2 for the systemic dissemination. So far, numerous PCR protocols have been performed targeting the gB gene. However, this gene is heterogenic. Therefore, there is a need to develop a quantitative diagnostic approach to detect the quiescent EHV-2 strains. To do this, Taqman qPCR assay was developed to quantify the virus. This was performed by targeting a highly conserved gene known as DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene using constructed plasmid as a standard curve calibrator. The obtained results showed an infection frequency of 33% in which the EHV-2 load reached 6647 copies/100 ng DNA whereas the minimum load revealed as 2 copies/100 ng DNA. The median quantification was found as 141 copies/ 100 ng DNA. Establishment of a credited qPCR assay to quantify EHV-2 could be helpful in the control of the disease.

Histological alteration of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the effect of oxidative stress experimentally induced by alloxan 100 mg/kg bw on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration on tests include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells with paucity of sperms into the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. As for the histological alteration of female reproductive organs include disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Assessment of the withdrawal period for ractopamine hydrochloride in the goat and sheep

Mochamad Lauardi; Bambang Hermanto; Tjuk Imam Restiadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126114.1237

Ractopamine hydrochloride often used as a bronchodilator, but its β-adrenergic agonist effects on un-striated muscle and its withdrawal time have not been assessed for Etawah goats and sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the safe time to slaughter goats and sheep post-treatment with ractopamine. Five clinically healthy adult goats and sheep (20 kg body weight) were treated with a single dose of ractopamine (1 mg, intravenously). Whole blood was sampled from the jugular vein at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min post-treatment. Ractopamine as a veterinary drug was analysed using HPLC at wavelength 225 nm. The concentrations at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min were 817.156 ± 13.460 µg.mL-1, 554.468 ± 50.157 µg.mL-1, and 294.588 ± 52.845 µg.mL-1 in goats and 706.266 ± 89.856 µg.mL-1, 579.194 ± 45.664 µg.mL-1, and 209.36 ± 54.797 µg.mL-1 in sheep, respectively. The withdrawal times in goats and sheep were 1141.710 ± 255.85 h and 989.741 ± 167.633 h, respectively, no drug residues detected. The safe time to slaughter goats after administration of 1 mg of ractopamine was approximately 3 months and 5 days post-treatment at a safety factor of 2, which was later than the sheep at 2 months and 22 days by a safety factor of two (p> 0.05).

Detection of hbl complex genes in Bacillus cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran

Saman Mahdavi; Reza Alipour Banaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126120.1238

Bacillus cereus is a gram positive and spore-forming bacterium which is widely distributed in nature. It also has been known as a major food borne pathogen that often plays a role in the contamination of ready-to-eat and dairy products. It causes two different types of food poisoning in human: the diarrheal type and the emetic type. The aim of this study was detection of hbl complex genes in B. cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran. 120 B. cereus strains isolated from cow raw milk that already had been identified phenotypically, were assessed for molecular confirmation by PCR method. Then, they were evaluated for determination of presence of hbl genes complex by specific primers. Of 120 B. cereus strains, 117 strains were confirmed molecularly. The frequency of hblA, hblC and hblD genes were reported 105(89.7%), 102(87.1%) and 102(87.1%), respectively. 99 strains (84.6%) harboured 3 tested genes simultaneously. 12 B. cereus strains (10.25%) lacked these genes. The results of current study showed that B. cereus strains isolated from raw milk have high potential in causing diarrhea poisoning and therefore the use of procedures to reduce the bacterial contamination during the processing of dairy product is required.

Effect of Saponins Extract of Glycyrrihiza Glabra in Activities of Hepatic Enzymes and Some Biochemical Parameters in Serum of Adults Ovariectomized Female Rats

Hadeel mohammed Al-hashemi; Ameera Hamdoon; Elham M. Al-Khashab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126127.1239

This research was planned to verify the infuence of saponins, that extracted from Glycyrrihiza Glabra in activities of hepatic enzymes and some biochemical parameters of serum ovariectomized adult female rats. Adult female rats (15) were randomly divided into three groups. which included sham–operated (sham), ovariectomized (ovx),and ovariectomized rats treated orally with (250 mg/kg/day) of saponins extract for (25) days .The results revealed ,that ovx rats showed a significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Calcium level , a significant reduction in activities of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate amino transferase (AST), ᵞ-Glutamyl transferase(GGT), and level of albumin, creatinine without any significant change in alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity and magnesium level comparison with sham –operated rats.Treatment ovx rats with 250 mg/kg of saponins caused a significant reduction in ALT and CK activities, and elevation in albumin and creatinine levels , and AST,GGT activities. In conclusion, the present results revealed that, saponins extracted of Glycyrrihiza Glabra have an effect in hepatic enzyme activities and some biochemical parameters in ovariectomized female rats with osteoporosis results from reduction in estrogen level.

Application of ultrasound contra infection with secondary hydatidosis in mice

براء باسل; Asmaa Abdul Aziz Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126132.1240

The present research explained the impact of ultrasound on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro by the waves application of fixed frequency (20000 pulse/sec ) (18w/cm2) for all treatments , with different exposing periods, thirty, twenty ,fifteen , twelve ,ten and five seconds respectively , subsequently prevention of mice against interjected with minor hydatid cysts, in comparison with the control animals (infested with protoscoleces without exposure to ultrasound waves), depending on many criteria including , numbers , weights and diameters of developed metacestodes , in addition to the percentage reduction, The results displayed an obvious increase of ultrasound waves impact on of their numbers Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces viability by increase of period in vitro , the results also manifested %100 decrease of metacestodes numbers in the dealt ones (with%17 fertility exposed for 20 seconds), whereas showed %99.23 decrease with group of fertility %34 (exposed for 15 seconds) four and five months post infection .

Molecular detection of pathogenic Entamoeba spp. and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica in Hemorrhagic diarrhea samples of humans, cows and sheep.

hassan hachim hachim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126135.1242

Abstract :
The present study was carried out to detect the genotype of Entamoeba histolytica that found in human fecal specimens and animals feces with Haemorrgic diarrhea by amplifying the SREHP gene, using Real Time PCR technique, Cyber green dye and by fusion curve analysis. The study also included molecular detection of amoebic parasite species using PCR technology, this technique based on 18S rRNA genes responsible for the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica; Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba bovis. The study recorded presence of parasites (Entamoeba histolytica; Entamoeba dispar; Entamoeba bovis) with total infection rates (82.9% ; 26.8 % ;4.9 % ), respectively. The study revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica parasite in five different genotypes (I, II, III, IV, V) with rate presence (9.75% ; 53.65 % ; 19.5% ; 9.75% ; 7.3%), respectively. In conclusion, There are five genotype of Entamoeba histolytica , in human and animals , most of these genotype may be infect any host , Entamoeba bovis was record in sheep and cows .

Administration of Nitrobacter as Ammonia Decomposer in Maintenance Media of Clarias gariepinus with Aquaponics

Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja; Adinda Septyasari Taragusti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

Abstract. Many Indonesian catfish farmers apply the aquaponics system to overcome the problem of limited cultivation land. However, the use of high-stock solid method on aquaponics system causes a decrease in water quality due to the accumulation of fish feces and food scraps that are not consumed by fish and are left to pile up and turn into ammonia. Ammonia in water is toxic and dangerous for fish health. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias sp.) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The control group were treated without Nitrobacter administration and 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters observed were SGR, SR and FCR. Whereas, the supporting parameters were water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) plant growth and water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in chicken in Al-Diwaniya province

Noor Jarad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126159.1249

This study were conducted in Al-Diwaniya province, in south Iraq during the period from February to July (2019) to determine the rate of infection of Cryptosporidium parvum in domestic chicken, study the effect of some epidemiological factors such as sex and months on the rate of infection, addition to the molecular Identification of Cryptococcus parvum by amplification HSP70 gene by conventional PCR for first time in Iraq. Number of collected fecal sample was (210) from domestic chicken and processed by Ziehl-Neelsen method. The results of the microscopic examination showed that 108 (51.4 %) out of 210 fecal samples were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. The statistical analysis founded no marked difference in prevalence of infection between sexes. Significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded between infection rate during the months of the study and higher prevalence of infection rate was observed in March (11.9%), while lowest infection rate was observed in July (5.23%). and June (5.23%). Genomic DNA was Genomic DNA was extracted from 108 fecal samples and HSP70 gene for C. parvum was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR technique is showed that out of 108 fecal samples (21.3%) were positive for C.parvum.

The Effect of Cinnarizine on Histological Outcome, Oxidative Stress Markers and Adhesion Molecules in Experimental Colitis in Rats

Rana Atarbashe; Ahmed Abu-Raghif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126170.1254

Ulcerative colitis is chronic, intermittent illness. The current treatment failed to cure the disease which made a need to investigate other drug with minimal side effects. The goal of the research is to assess the histological outcome, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnarizine in comparison with that of sulfasalazine in experimental colitis in rats. Acetic acid 4% (vol/vol) was used rectally to induce experimental colitis in rats. After induction, rats were administered either sulfasalazine 100mg/kg or cinnarizine 20mg/kg orally for one week. There was estimation of histopathological and macroscopical parameters also the expression of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-4), oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1and E-Selectin) in the colonic tissue. Results showed that both cinnarizine and sulfasalazine significantly reduced the macroscopical and histological injury in colon that induced by acetic acid. Inaddition to the downregulation of the increased colonic proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO parameters and adhesive molecules.These results concluded that cinnarizinehad effective role in experimental colitis in rats through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions with downregulation the colonic adhesive molecule.

Improving Light Microscopic Detection of Collagen by Trichrome Stain Modification

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126176.1256

In present study we aimed to introduce modifications in classical protocol applied to stain collagen fibers by Masson's trichrome stain, in order to decrease time and concentration of different steps and chemical in this traditional protocol. The experiment design contains a series of successive amendment steps based on previously successful steps, in which every step where be modified to get the best result, then the next step of staining protocol will be modified in the classical Masson's trichrome staining protocol in a samples of tissue from liver, heart and intestines of sheep diagnosed with chronic fasciolosis. The result showed that the new modified protocol gives the same staining efficiency to collagen fiber when we used Harris hematoxylin as a nuclear strainer or even excluded this stain from staining protocol. In conclusion this new modified staining protocol give a perfect staining reaction to collagen fibers in pathological samples which is similar to that obtained by Masson's trichrome stain, also this new modified procedure is less time consuming and less toxic effect on human and environment than other trichrome stains, and can be easily conducted either by the technician or the pathologists.

physiological effects of Lactic acid bacteria on Melamine induced toxicity in female albino rats

Mohammed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126183.1259

physiological effects of Lactic acid bacteria on Melamine induced toxicity in female albino rats
A. H. Jameel M. J. Mohammed M. S. Mahdi K. M. Thalj
Food science department, college of agriculture, Tikrit university, Tikrit, Iraq.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus against melamine toxicity by some physiological indicators in laboratory female rats after 21 days. These results showed caused in significant decrease (P<0.05) in the organs weights liver and spleen and increase in kidney weight. Also showed to decrease in value of hemoglobin, RBC, WBC, Lymphocyte and Platelets, While the values of GRN was increasing as compared with control group. Also found that the addition of Melamine led to increase in cholesterol, LDL and blood glucose, while the values of triglyceride and HDL was decreased. The addition of two types of lactic acid bacteria L. casei and L. acidophilus led to decreasing the negative effect of Melamine on the values of all the parameters determined.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the Veterinary Teaching Hospital

Radhwan Al-Ajeli; Ahmed Al-Qadhi; Saevan Al-Mahmood; layth mahmoud Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital/ College of Veterinary Medicine/ University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that total number of the excised tumors was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. In addition, the excised tumors were identified as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leukosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and venereal transmissible tumor 2.78%. We concluded from current study occurrence a different type of tumors which was malignant or benign in their nature in different species of animals. hymoma, and venereal transmissible tumor 2.78%. We concluded from current study occurrence a different type of tumors which was malignant or benign in their nature in different species of animals.

Using acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of laminitis in racing horses: a comparative study

Abdulmuniem Ibrahim Aljobory

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126217.1263

Objective: To compare the efficiency of using conventional acupuncture CA and electroacupuncture EA in the laminitis therapy in race horses.
Methods: Twenty adult race horses with laminitis were randomly selected. Clinical examination was carried out and acupuncture points were determined according to the results of diagnostic palpation of acupuncture. The horses were grouped into two equal groups; the 1st group was treated daily for 6 consecutive weeks, with CA and the 2nd group with EA. evaluation of lameness was depended on the visual and objective examination using the “American Association of Equine Practitioners” (AAEP) lameness scale and confidence stride lengths criterion for forelimbs which performed by the force plate indices. The lameness level was statistically analyzed applying t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis and p-value (P<0.05) was significant.
Results: Both visual and objective lameness examinations showed gradual statistical significant reduction (P<0.05) in the severity of lameness and improvement in the gait of the horses after CA and EA treatment. It is also showed that the lameness level was significantly (p<0.05) decreased after every weekly session of EA treatment in comparison with CA treatment.
Conclusion: It is concluded that continued electroacupuncture EA treatment by current study pattern showed a marked improvement in the movement of the laminitic horses when compared with conventional acupressure CA treatment.

A Retrospective study of fracture Cases Managed in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital; 181 Cases (2014-2018)

Sozan Ali Muhamad; Othman Jalal Ali; Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Hardi Fattah Marif; Rizgar Rahim Sleman; Brwa Mhamed Ali; Dekan Ali Raza; Harem Habeel Hama Ali; Gashaw Mustafa Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126228.1266

The aim was to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in different breed, age and sex admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine-University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From those, dogs represented 49.72% (90/ 181 cases), whereas cat represents 18.23% (33/181 cases) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology was multi factorial, but the roadside accident was the main cause of fractures particularly in the dogs. Femoral fractures were the most common type of fractures that represented 26.51% (48 /181), whereas the other most common types of fractures were radius-ulna (19.33%, 35/ 181), tibia-fibula (13.81%, 25/181) and the pelvis (9.94%, 18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered better latitude and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of the 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found very convenient and without much difficulties, while cases with external coaptation were not. Satisfactory postoperative results were obtained from most, but in few cases, postoperative inflammation (4 cases), mal-union (5 cases) and incomplete alignment (2 cases) were found. It was concluded that fractures in animals should be considered in Sulaimani province and fracture repair was highly successful and the best-employed internal fixation techniques were intramedullary pins.

Antimicrobial activity of peptides extracted from camels' blood neutrophils against some pathogenic bacteria

mohammed abdulaah mola

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126239.1270

Absract :
The aim of this search was to isolate and purify Antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs) taken from camel blood , and to study its antibacterial activity against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium , Bacillus subtilis) .
The results showed the possibility of obtaining these peptides from camel's white blood cells , and was separated by using Reversed-Phased High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) technical equipment. The results showed the presence of (21) absorption peaks of the isolated peptide extract .
The two-stage radial diffusions method was used to study the activity of the crude peptide against the studied bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium , Bacillus subtilis) . The results showed that this peptides was effective without any resistance. the best effect was on the gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) with a diameter of (31mm) inhibition, while the less effect was on the negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) with a diameter of (20mm) .

Incidence of internal parasites of the slaughtered local breeds of ducks and geese

Manal Himmadi Hasan; Baydaa Younis Mahmood; Ahlam Fathi Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126242.1272

This study was carried out to determine the presence of gastrointestinal parasites of local ducks and geese in Nineveh province. Sixty-four ducks and seventy geese of different ages and sexes were purchased from local markets. Necropsy findings in ducks reviled a total infection rate of 68.8% was with protozoa,50% was with nematodes, while 28.1% were with cestodes. On the other hand in geese, the percentages with the mentioned parasites were 78.6% with protozoa,54.2% with nematodes, 31.4% with nematodes and respectively. Four types of nematodes were identified in ducks; Ascaridia galli , Heterakis gallinarum , Heterakis isolonche , and Subulura brompti, the same were also found in geese except Heterakis.isolonche. Cestodes identified in ducks and geese were Railletina tetragona , Railletina echinobothrda, Railletina cesticillus and Coantaenia infundibulum. The detected protozoa include Eimeria spp., Tyzeria spp., Wenyonella spp., Cryptosporidia spp., Giardia spp. Double infection with parasite was higher in ducks while the triple infection in geese was the higher.
Key words: Internal parasites, ducks, geese.

Histopathological Effects Of Experimental Exposure To Lead On Nervous System In Albino Female Rats

Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya; Hana Kh. Ismail; Asrar Al-khafaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126248.1273

Background: Lead toxicity is a common health issue, Lead (pb) is harmful to vital organs of body particularly the nervous system. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on the cerebellum , cerebrum and spinal cord in rat model, focusing on histopathological changes. Material &methods: 24 female mature albino rats of 200-300g randomly divided into 2 groups, the first is the control , and the second group were treated with lead acetate at dose 40mg/kg B.W. for 30 days. The results: Microscopic examination revealed degeneration and necrosis of purkinje cells and molecular cells , Decrease in the number of granular cells and molecular cells also observed . Some purkinje cells lose axons and shrinked and some areas showed depletion from purkinje cells, Congestion of blood vessels with perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory, hemorrhage , neurophagia , glial nodules were observed in the brain paranchyma. Demyelination reported in white matter , with microglial infiltration around vertebral canal of spinal cord. This study referred to the increased risk of central nervous system damage due to the exposure to lead.

Multi-presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Duhok abattoir/ Kurdistan region, Iraq

Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multipresence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered apparently healthy sheep of Duhok city using ELISA technique. Eighty eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty two sheep carcasses. These samples included (Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney). The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results also revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

Keywords: Antibiotic residues, ELISA, sheep carcasses, Duhok abattoir

Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria galls on DMBA induced Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis

Sherzad Ibrahim Mustafa; bushra mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126267.1281

Abstract
Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis and a number of plants with anti-cancer properties are being researched, some of which have shown promising results. Quercus infectoria galls is a well-known medicinal plant which has been used in medicine as larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of the aqueous extract on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis, consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) three times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, and cumulative number of papilloma was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with 2gm/kg of Quercus infectoria galls extract as compared to the positive control group treated with DMBA plus croton oil administered. Furthermore, Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced significantly before and after galls extract oral administration. The results thus concluded that Quercus infectoria galls extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity and may serve in future drug development programs for the cancer prevention of skin cancer.

Evaluation the safety and synergistic effect of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles with antibiotic against pseudomonas aeruginosa

hala ail majeed; Heba Younis Khalef; Halah Abdulkhaleq Awadh; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Nihad Abdul-Hussain jafar; Khaild Ahmad Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126298.1294

Antimicrobial resistance currently impedes and threatens effective prevention and treatment of the continually expanding range of infections caused by bacteria. This study aimed to identify the bacterial causes of wound infection among animals and using of antibiotic/nanoparticles mixture as a new attempt for the treatment of wound infection induced in rats. For this purpose, 112 wound infection cases in different animal types (36 sheep, 21 goats, 12 cows, 4 horses, 8 dogs, 9 rabbits, 7 genies pigs, 15 rats) were studied for bacterial isolation. The predominant bacterial isolate (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were tested for its sensitivity to antibiotics and nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4) in vitro using MIC method. Also wound infection induced in rats and the effect of nanoparticles/antibiotics mixture were tested in vivo.
The results showed that pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant bacterial type that caused wound infection. The MIC of NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were 32 µg /ml and 16 µg /ml respectively. A clear synergistic effect of antibiotic/ nanoparticles as antibacterial were noticed which appear as decrease in MIC and increase of inhibitory diameter zone. According to result of RAPD test, nanoparticles effect on genetic material of P. aeruginosa observed as appearance/disappearance of bands, increase in thickness and clarity of bands.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.