Articles in Press


Study the analgesic effect of diclofenac and silymarin coadministration in chicks

Yasser M. Albadrany; Ahmed S. Naser; Mohammad M. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127065.1453

The study aimed to investigate the analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac and silymarin in chicks. The up and down procedure was used to assess the effective median analgesic dosages (ED50s) of diclofenac and silymarin administered intraperitoneally either alone or at the same time in chicks. Also, Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were measured by using the formalin test. Isobolographically, ED50s of drugs were assessed for the manner of interaction between both. Formalin testing also supervised analgesic and anti-inflammatory coadministration impact of diclofenac and silymarin at doses 5 and 40 mg/kg and 2.5 and 20 mg/kg respectively. Analgesic ED50s for diclofenac and silymarin in chicks were 9.3 and 76.6 mg/kg separately. Concomitant administration of drugs at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 and 0.25:0.25 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 2.3:18.6 mg/kg and 2.2:16.5 mg/kg separately. ED50s isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs. Additionally, coadministration of both drugs had effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, as seen by formalin test, led to a significant rise in latency to lift right foot beside a significant decline in foot lifting frequency when compared with control value, the anti-inflammatory reaction was demonstrated by a significant decrease in foot thickness compared to control value. In conclusion, the data indicate that diclofenac and silymarin coadministration controls acute pain synergistically, and suppress inflammatory reaction.

Research Paper

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Effect of ultrasound on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro and in vivo

Asmaa A. Ali; Baraa B. Ramadhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.126906.1410

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ultrasound on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus by enforcing steady numeral of frequencies during a certain interval (20000 pulse/s) (1.8 w/cm2), using exposure time 30,20,15,12,10 and 5s, individually and respectively. Consequently, six albino mice groups were immunized against cystic echinococcosis, which injected with exposed protoscoleces, to acquire specific cell-mediated immunity, called delayed type-hypersensitivity (DTH) which assessment by measurement the foot pad density. The results displayed significant excess (P≤ 0.001) of DTH by increase of foot pad thickness in injected groups. The results showed maximum thickness of 1.54 mm, 1.4mm, 0.9 mm. after 3h, 24h, and 48h post - injection, respectively, that compared with the thickness of control group 1.072, 0.638, 0.328 mm, respectively, during five months of experiment. The present research exhibited the action of ultrasonication technique on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro. Conclusion, Ultrasound frequencies used in the present study could be have consequential impact on the cellular immunity in albino mice.

Effect of nefopam in normal chickens and its relationship to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127013.1433

The objective designated to discover the analgesic effect of nefopam in the normal (non-stressed) chickens and its possible alteration due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress (OS) in 7-14 day old chickens. The analgesia of nefopam has been increased by 47% in the stressed chickens by measuring the analgesic Median Effective Dose (ED50) value. This value was 9.10 mg/kg, IM in the normal chickens where it became 4.80 mg/kg, IM in stressed chickens. There is a significant rise in the antinociceptive action of nefopam 18 mg/kg, IM by 88% in the stressed group of chickens in comparison with the normal one elicited by an electro-stimulation and formaldehyde 0.05 ml of 0.1% tests for induction of nociception. The observations showed several significant stimulatory modifications in the neurobehaviour when nefopam treated with a subtle dosage 1 mg/kg, IM in the stressed chickens concerning the latency to move, squares crossed and time of the tonic immobility response test. Significant damage was detected in the liver function when nefopam injected at 18 mg/kg, IM in stress chickens in comparison to normal one by 28, 33 and 65% as estimated through Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate trans-aminase (AST) and Alanine trans-aminase (ALT) concentrations in the serum, respectively. The sum of data findings indicated that H2O2-inducedOS increased the analgesic activity of nefopam in the chickens; despite the changes occur on the neurobehaviour and liver function. The dose of nefopam should be reduced when preparing the therapeutic regimen in the stressed animals.

Acute toxicity of metronidazole and its interaction with chlorpyrifos in chicks

Douaa H. Alsanjary; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127035.1442

Metronidazole is antimicrobial drug for human and animal use, The more characteristic side effect associated with use high dose of metronidazole is neurotoxic signs, some of these signs that recorded in animal represented by ataxia and tremor, there is limited information is available on the pharmacological profile of metronidazole in birds The aim of our study explain some of its neurological effect in chicks by its interaction with one of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos that have well-known excitatory effect on nervous system. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos were determined depending on up and down method. The intraperitoneal and oral LD50 of metronidazole were 516.9 mg/kg, 3061.8 mg/kg respectively. The oral LD50of chlorpyrifos was 13.705 mg/kg, intraperitoneal treatment of metronidazole with Oral treatment of chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:1, 1: 0.5, and 0.5:1, respectively of LD50at the same time increased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the isobolographic analysis showed that the points of interaction occurred above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each; while oral treatment of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:0.5 LD50at the same time decreased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the point of interaction was above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each in conclusion we found that isobolografhic analysis for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in different percentages and routs of treatment reveal to antagonist effect despite the similarity in the toxic signs.

Comparison the efficiency of different techniques for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ewes

Sura S. Aghwan; Haitham S. Al-Bakri; Sadam M. Albaqqal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127058.1452

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of human and other warm-blooded animals causes toxoplasmosis. In the present study a total of 50 uterus samples collected from slaughtered ewes were investigated for detection of T. gondii. Several techniques have been used to diagnose the infection with this parasite. Firstly, the impression smears staining methods used for the all samples using giemsa stain. Secondly, uses of direct fluorescence technique by acridine orange method for staining the impression smears of the uteri. As well as the histological section technique was used to determine the developmental growth stages of the parasite of all uterus samples and finally the serological method by latex agglutination test was used for the detection of antibodies of parasite. The results showed that detection of T. gondii using these four methods was 100, 80, 80 and 50%, respectively. It was concluded that the impression smears of the uterus staining with Giemsa stain was more readily, effectively and efficiently, followed by the direct immunofluorescence technique and histological section stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain technique, and finally the serological method.

Research Paper

Extraction and purification of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (local Isolate) and study its pyrogenic activity

Ammar M. Al-AAlim; Ali A. Al-Iedani; Mohammad A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128963.1614

In this study, we tried to extract and purify the LPS from E. coli local isolate and determine the molecular weight, purity, and pyrogenic effect of the product and compare it with standard E. coli O55:B5 LPS, the E. coli LPS was extracted by using hot phenol method then SDS- PAGE was used with both Coomassie blue and silver nitrate stain to determine its molecular weight and protein contamination also we used HPLC to the estimation of E. coli LPS purity and finally the pyrogenicity of extracted E. coli LPS was tested by using rabbit pyrogen test. The result showed that the hot phenol method with enzymatic treatment gave highly pure LPS with a high yield reach up to 242.4 mg, staining the SDS page gel with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate uncover the high purification of the extracted LPS (ELPS) with no protein contamination, with a molecular weight range between 15-23 kDa, HPLC test reveals that purity of ELPS was 100 % compared with standard LPS. The rabbits' pyrogen test confirmed that the biological activity of ELPS. In conclusion, the LPS was extracted with high purity compare with standard LPS and without any protein or DNA contamination by using the hot phenol method also the extracted rough LPS was slightly lighter than the standard LPS used but this did not affect its biological activity which remained intact 

Histopathological Changes on the Pregnant Rat's Lung Induced by Sodium Nitrite and Monosodium Glutamate

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130464.1824

Food additives and preservatives are widely used globally, which, despite their many benefits, have great harm if they are used without health restrictions or control, as they cause many health problems and tissue lesions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the histopathological effects on the lung of pregnant rats of two types of these substances: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Twenty-four pregnant rats used for this study, and they were divided into four groups equally. The control group was dosed with distilled water from the sixth day to the fifteenth day of pregnancy. The second was dosed with MSG at a 12g /kg concentration for the same period in the first group. The third injected with a concentration of 120 mg/kg of NaNO2 for the same period. The fourth was dosed with MSG and NaNO2 together, with the same concentrations and the above period. The results showed that the second group's lungs showed many histopathological changes, including strong infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of bronchioles and alveolar septa, and emphysema of some alveoli. In the third group, changes included hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, hemorrhage in the alveoli, desquamation and necrosis in bronchioles, peri-bronchial fibrosis, blood vessel congestion. The fourth group showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis in multiple lung areas, emphysema, fibrosis in some alveoli, and hypoplasia of the muscle fibers around the blood vessels. The study concluded that MSG and NaNO2 caused much tissue damage in the lungs of pregnant rats

Control of stray dog population by single intratesticular injection of tannic acid

Ibraheem A. Zedan; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130454.1826

The present study was aimed to perform the alternative technique of chemical castration for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. Eight adult male dogs were used in the current study. The dogs were Experimentally divided randomly into two groups. The first group included four dogs that were injected intratesticular with tannic acid while the second group which includes four dogs were injected intratesticular with normal saline and considered as a control group. The clinical examination, hormonal assay, and histopathological changes were detected. The result of the current study shown testicular tissue swelling in both treated and control groups this swelling subsided gradually within 48 hours, but without any serious complications. There were no significant changes in testosterone levels in both the control and treated groups. The histopathological results of the treated group after 30 days post-surgery showed focal necrosis and desquamation of germinal cells and Sertoli cells. We can conclude that chemical neutralization is a simple technique, can be used for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. 

Research Paper

Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in layer chickens of Bangladesh

Ahsan Raquib; Answar Uddin; S.M. Nurozzaman; Mohammod Misbah Uddin; Golam Ahsan; Md Masudur Rahman; Md Mahfujur Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127511.1506

Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes major health hazards in poultry birds in Bangladesh which results in huge economic losses every year. This study was carried out to estimate and analyze the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection in commercial layer chickens at Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh during the period from November 2018 to October 2019. A total of 505 serum samples from 94 commercial layer farms of Kishoreganj Sadar Upazila and Pakundia Upazila of Kishoreganj district were collected. Serum plate agglutination (SPA) was performed to detect the antibody against MG. Prevalence was found 73% in the Kishoreganj district by SPA test. MG was significantly (P<0.01) more prevalent in Pakundia Upazila 82% than Kishoreganj Sadar Upazila 61.11%. In case of season, winter season had significantly higher (X^2=30.94, p=0.000) prevalence of MG infection. In relation to age, seroprevalence of MG infection was highest 78% in birds of 65 weeks’ age and lowest 71% in 6-25 weeks’ age birds. Any significant (P>0.05) association was not found between flock size and seroprevalence of MG. Seroprevalence was highest in flock containing above 2600 birds. MG infection is prevalent in the chicken population of Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh. Measures should be taken for successful prevention and control of this disease in Bangladesh.

Molecular characterization and phylogenic analysis of Anaplasma spp. in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah governorate, Iraq

Shadan H. Abdullah; Hiewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128475.1581

Anaplasma spp. are significant arthropod-borne bacteria globally, but documented information about anaplasmosis in small ruminants in the north of Iraq is insufficient. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and identify sheep and goat tick vector populations in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, north Iraq. The study population consisted of 470 sheep and 145 goats from 45 livestock farms in 10 geographical locations of Sulaymaniyah Governorate. The study was accomplished from April to December 2017. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein and used for DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using primers based on the 16S rRNA of Anaplasma spp. Fragments of PCR products were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 58.9% based on the PCR results. Furthermore, 58.9% of sheep and 57.9% of goats were positive for anaplasmosis. The sequences represented 100% identity with previously documented GenBank isolates of A. ovis from Iran, the Netherlands, China, and Mongolia. Altogether, 150 Ixodid ticks were picked from small ruminants within the same flocks and were identified based on morphological features. Various infestation rates were observed; about 40% of the Ixodid ticks belonged to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 34% belonged to Rhipicephalus turanicus, 18% were Hyalomma anatolicum, and 8% were Boophilus microplus (Rhipicephalus microplus). The present report is the first molecular study of Anaplasma species in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah Governorate in northern Iraq to the best of our knowledge. The study concluded that anaplasmosis was endemic in small ruminants from the investigated areas. 

Effect of Oregostem® and imbalance diet on body performance and reproductive efficiency in male quails

Hiyam N. Maty; Mahmood S. Sheet; Suha M. Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128810.1602

This study was aimed to determine the influence of Oregostem® and imbalance diet on body performance, hematology and spermatogenesis of male quails. A total of 160 birds have been distributed into four groups (40 birds) each with 2 replicates starting at 12 weeks of age, the four treatments includes:(G1) was fed on balanced diet only. (G2) was received a balanced diet with Oregostem® with drinking water. While G3 was fed on imbalance diet (ground yellow corn) and G4 received imbalance diet with Oregostem®. The parameters including body performance, reproduction, blood and biochemical Figure and histology of testes were measured at 4th and 8th weeks from beginning of treatment. The results showed that the supplementation of Oregostem® caused a significant increase in body and right testis weight, gonadosomatic index, sperm count as well as live sperm in G2 relative to other groups at 4th and 8th weeks post treatment. In G3, WBC and lymphocytes decrease significantly with increasing hetrophils percentage and stress index at 4th and 8th weeks post treatment. Also there was a significant decrease of cholesterol with an increase of total protein and creatine kinase in G3 at 8th week of treatment. While the groups treated with Oregostem® did not differ from control group. This study concluded that liquid form of Oregostem® had a positive effect on body weight, sperm count with improvement hematological and biochemical parameters of the male quails.

Detection of endometritis using uterine cytobrush and ultrasonography in mares

Mohammed A. Rahawy; Ammar G. Al-Haaik; Eman H. Hayawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128858.1608

The objective of this study was todetect the percentage of Polymorph nuclear cells) PMNs (from the uterine smears using the local manufactured uterine cytobrush instrument, and to determine the echogenicity the intrauterine fluid byUltrasonography. Thirty (Arabian) repeat breeder mares were used. Animals were examined through rectal palpation and ultrasound. Mares were divided into 4 groups depending on the results of: 1) the amount of intrauterine fluid using ultrasound; 2) the endometrial samples were collected during estrus cycles, 3) the numbers of uterine epithelial cells and PMNs using locally manufactured cytobrush tool, 4) the number of lymphocytes. The results showed that the incidence of endometritis had significantly related to that age of the animals. The number of PMNs were significantly different between groups. The mean number of PMNs was 1.63±0.23, 3.34±0.18, 4.78±0.26 and 5.26±0.46 in G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively. The echogenicity of the accumulated fluid in the endometrial lumen was significantly associated with the percentage of lymphocytes. The mean number of lymphocytes was 1.02±0.42 and 1.84±0.37%, in G3 and G4 respectively. This study concluded that the cytobrush technique is rapid, cheap, safe technique and easy to obtain samples from mare's uterus in the field. Consequently, Ultrasound and cytological techniques could be recommended for diagnosis of endometritis in mares.