Articles in Press

Duhok University Conference - Research Article

Effect of ultrasound on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro and in vivo

Asmaa A. Ali; Baraa B. Ramadhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.126906.1410

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ultrasound on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus by enforcing steady numeral of frequencies during a certain interval (20000 pulse/s) (1.8 w/cm2), using exposure time 30,20,15,12,10 and 5s, individually and respectively. Consequently, six albino mice groups were immunized against cystic echinococcosis, which injected with exposed protoscoleces, to acquire specific cell-mediated immunity, called delayed type-hypersensitivity (DTH) which assessment by measurement the foot pad density. The results displayed significant excess (P≤ 0.001) of DTH by increase of foot pad thickness in injected groups. The results showed maximum thickness of 1.54 mm, 1.4mm, 0.9 mm. after 3h, 24h, and 48h post - injection, respectively, that compared with the thickness of control group 1.072, 0.638, 0.328 mm, respectively, during five months of experiment. The present research exhibited the action of ultrasonication technique on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro. Conclusion, Ultrasound frequencies used in the present study could be have consequential impact on the cellular immunity in albino mice.

Effect of nefopam in normal chickens and its relationship to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127013.1433

The objective designated to discover the analgesic effect of nefopam in the normal (non-stressed) chickens and its possible alteration due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress (OS) in 7-14 day old chickens. The analgesia of nefopam has been increased by 47% in the stressed chickens by measuring the analgesic Median Effective Dose (ED50) value. This value was 9.10 mg/kg, IM in the normal chickens where it became 4.80 mg/kg, IM in stressed chickens. There is a significant rise in the antinociceptive action of nefopam 18 mg/kg, IM by 88% in the stressed group of chickens in comparison with the normal one elicited by an electro-stimulation and formaldehyde 0.05 ml of 0.1% tests for induction of nociception. The observations showed several significant stimulatory modifications in the neurobehaviour when nefopam treated with a subtle dosage 1 mg/kg, IM in the stressed chickens concerning the latency to move, squares crossed and time of the tonic immobility response test. Significant damage was detected in the liver function when nefopam injected at 18 mg/kg, IM in stress chickens in comparison to normal one by 28, 33 and 65% as estimated through Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate trans-aminase (AST) and Alanine trans-aminase (ALT) concentrations in the serum, respectively. The sum of data findings indicated that H2O2-inducedOS increased the analgesic activity of nefopam in the chickens; despite the changes occur on the neurobehaviour and liver function. The dose of nefopam should be reduced when preparing the therapeutic regimen in the stressed animals.

Comparison the efficiency of different techniques for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ewes

Sura S. Aghwan; Haitham S. Al-Bakri; Sadam M. Albaqqal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127058.1452

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of human and other warm-blooded animals causes toxoplasmosis. In the present study a total of 50 uterus samples collected from slaughtered ewes were investigated for detection of T. gondii. Several techniques have been used to diagnose the infection with this parasite. Firstly, the impression smears staining methods used for the all samples using giemsa stain. Secondly, uses of direct fluorescence technique by acridine orange method for staining the impression smears of the uteri. As well as the histological section technique was used to determine the developmental growth stages of the parasite of all uterus samples and finally the serological method by latex agglutination test was used for the detection of antibodies of parasite. The results showed that detection of T. gondii using these four methods was 100, 80, 80 and 50%, respectively. It was concluded that the impression smears of the uterus staining with Giemsa stain was more readily, effectively and efficiently, followed by the direct immunofluorescence technique and histological section stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain technique, and finally the serological method.

Study the analgesic effect of diclofenac and silymarin coadministration in chicks

Yasser M. Albadrany; Ahmed S. Naser; Mohammad M. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127065.1453

The study aimed to investigate the analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac and silymarin in chicks. The up and down procedure was used to assess the effective median analgesic dosages (ED50s) of diclofenac and silymarin administered intraperitoneally either alone or at the same time in chicks. Also, Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were measured by using the formalin test. Isobolographically, ED50s of drugs were assessed for the manner of interaction between both. Formalin testing also supervised analgesic and anti-inflammatory coadministration impact of diclofenac and silymarin at doses 5 and 40 mg/kg and 2.5 and 20 mg/kg respectively.Analgesic ED50s for diclofenac and silymarin in chicks were 10.74 and 83.4 mg/kg separately. Concomitant administration of drugs at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 and 0.25:0.25 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 2.10:16.81 mg/kg and 3.90:23.50 mg/kg separately. ED50s isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs. Additionally, coadministration of both drugs had effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, as seen by formalin test, led to a significant rise in latency to lift right foot beside a significant decline in foot lifting frequency when compared with control value, the anti-inflammatory reaction was demonstrated by a significant decrease in foot thickness compared to control value.In conclusion, the data indicate that diclofenac and silymarin coadministration controls acute pain synergistically, and suppress inflammatory reaction.

Acute toxicity of metronidazole and its interaction with chlorpyrifos in chicks

Douaa H. Alsanjary; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127035.1442

Metronidazole is antimicrobial drug for human and animal use, The more characteristic side effect associated with use high dose of metronidazole is neurotoxic signs, some of these signs that recorded in animal represented by ataxia and tremor, there is limited information is available on the pharmacological profile of metronidazole in birds The aim of our study explain some of its neurological effect in chicks by its interaction with one of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos that have well-known excitatory effect on nervous system. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos were determined depending on up and down method. The intraperitoneal and oral LD50 of metronidazole were 516.9 mg/kg, 3061.8 mg/kg respectively. The oral LD50of chlorpyrifos was 13.705 mg/kg, intraperitoneal treatment of metronidazole with Oral treatment of chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:1, 1: 0.5, and 0.5:1, respectively of LD50at the same time increased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the isobolographic analysis showed that the points of interaction occurred above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each; while oral treatment of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:0.5 LD50at the same time decreased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the point of interaction was above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each in conclusion we found that isobolografhic analysis for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in different percentages and routs of treatment reveal to antagonist effect despite the similarity in the toxic signs.

Research Paper

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Extraction and Purification of Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (local strain) and study its pyrogenic activity

Ammar M. Al-AAlim; Ali AL-ledani; Mohammad A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128963.1614

The Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family can cause wide ranges of infections including enteric, extra enteric or opportunistic infection especially in young animals. E. coli outer membrane composed of phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide which reflect the inner and outer layer of the membrane, the main components of lipopolysaccharide LPS are lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O- antigen. Immunity of LPS was clearly understood in the last 20 years when discovered signaling response in immune cell system, LPS acting as potent activators of immune system especially innate immunity and as a result produce a large variety of the adverse, unfavorable physiological response leading to injury of tissue and endotoxic shock and lastly death.
In this study, we tried to extract and purify the LPS from E.coli local strain and determine the molecular weight, purity, and pyrogenic effect of the product and compare with stander E.coli O55:B5 LPS, the result shows that the hot phenol method with enzymatic treatment give highly pure LPS with high yield reach to 242.4 mg, staining the SDS page gel with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate uncover the high purification of the extracted LPS (ELPS) with no protein contamination, with molecular weight range between 15-23 kDa, HPLC test reveals that purity of ELPS was 100 % compared with standard LPS. The rabbits' pyrogen test confirmed that the biological activity of ELPS. In conclusion, the method of extraction used in this research was valid and give highly pure LPS with enduring substantial pyrogenic activity.

College of Pure Sciences Conferences: Research Article

Control of stray dog population by single intratesticular injection of tannic acid

Ibraheem A. Zedan; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130454.1826

The present study was aimed to perform the alternative technique of chemical castration for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. Eight adult male dogs were used in the current study. The dogs were Experimentally divided randomly into two groups. The first group included four dogs that were injected intratesticular with tannic acid while the second group which includes four dogs were injected intratesticular with normal saline and considered as a control group. The clinical examination, hormonal assay, and histopathological changes were detected. The result of the current study shown testicular tissue swelling in both treated and control groups this swelling subsided gradually within 48 hours, but without any serious complications. There were no significant changes in testosterone levels in both the control and treated groups. The histopathological results of the treated group after 30 days post-surgery showed focal necrosis and desquamation of germinal cells and Sertoli cells. We can conclude that chemical neutralization is a simple technique, can be used for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. 

Research Paper

Pathological study of the relation between the incidences of claws lesions and carpo-digital joint capsule lesions in front limbs of sheep slaughtered in Mosul

Karam H. Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127788.1530

For detecting a possible relation between claws lesions and the lesions of carpo-digital joint capsule, the nearest joint to the claws, with an importance in diagnosing the exact cause of lameness in sheep resulting to be brought for casualty slaughter. For that goal 128 front limb were collected from slaughtered sheep at Mosul abattoir for period from 5-25/2/2013, the gross examination was made for observing the claws lesions and the synovial capsule were harvested, preserved and prepared for histopathologic examination, then examined microscopically with recording lesions. the correlation coefficient values were estimated between claws affection and joint capsular lesions at the same limb. Results demonstrated affection of 83 limbs with claws lesions as foot rot and erosions at incidence ratio 64.84%. The histopathological examination revealed a chronic type of changes including Fibroplasia in both synovium and tunica densa at incidences 8.59% and 6.25% respectively, Foci of hyperplastic synovial lining at 4.68% of samples, adipose tissue marbleizing synovium at 7.03% of the examined sections. Mild degree of chronic synovitis was observed within 10.93% of total samples, connective tissue metaplasia was evident at 3.9% of sections at tunica densa layer, the arteriolar musculature showed vacuolation at 18.75% of samples. The correlation coefficient value was significantly positive between occurrence of foot rot disease and the incidence of chronic synovitis in carpo-digital joint capsule which can be considered as the most important conclusion in the study. 

Effect of vitamin C treatment on some central nervous system functions in young rats whose mothers treated with hydrogen peroxide during the lactation period

Afrah Y. Jasim; Suha A. Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127894.1544

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of vitamin on young rats whose mothers exposed to 1% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water during the lactation period on the function of the nervous system. The study consisted of three groups, Control group, hydrogen peroxide group, vitamin C with hydrogen peroxide group, showed that treatment with hydrogen peroxide for mothers led to significant decrease in the weights of young-rats-age21 days and significant increase in the righting reflex test, cliff avoidance and the olfactory discrimination test in young rats at age of week and also in the onset movement test and at the time of negative geotaxis test in-young-rats age21days. Treatment of mothers with hydrogen peroxide caused significant decrease in open-field activity and number of times standing on backlists during 3minutes and in the approach response, touch and sound of young rats at age 21 days. While, hydrogen peroxide treated group resulted in significant increase in time of negative geotaxis test and hydrogen peroxide had no effect on response of tail pinch as compared to other groups. When treating mothers with vitamin C significant increase in weights of youngsters age21days, as well as in onset of movement test and in number of squares cutoff within 3minutes in open-field activity and number of times standing on backlists during 3minutes in young-rats age 21 days. Also there was significant decrease in righting reflex test, olfactory distinction and negative geotaxis test compared to hydrogen peroxide treated group. It was concluded from the study that vitamin C plays an important role as an antioxidant by improving the nervous system function in young rats their mothers exposed to with hydrogen peroxide in drinking water.

Biochemical and behavioral responses in carp fish exposed to tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222) as anesthetic drug under transport conditions

Shahbaa AL-Taee; May Thanoon Anaz; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany; Alla Hussein ALHamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.128035.1552

This study aims to determine the effects of Tricaine methane‐sulfonate (MS-222) at concentration 150mg/l for one hour as an anesthetic agent to reduce the stress conditions during transfer the fish. Forty fish (Cyprinus carpio) were divide in to four groups: the 1st is control group (fish without both transfer and anesthesia), the 2nd group (fish transfer without anesthesia), the 3rd group (fish anesthesia without transfer) and the 4th group (fish transfer with anesthesia). The induction time reached to 3 minutes while the recovery time take at lasted for 7 to 10 minutes. Furthermore, the cortisol was significantly decreased in fish serum in both anesthetized groups that were transferred or that were left in the pond without transmission in compare to control groups (both transfer and without transfer fish). The glucose level rose significantly (P <0.05) in the serum of fish in both 3rd and 4th groups in compare to control groups. There was no difference in hematological parameters (hemoglobin and packed cell volume), blood sodium ion concentration, and enzyme activity represented by Alanine amino transferase in all groups while level of creatinine phosphate was decrease significantly in both groups 2nd and 3ed in compare to 1st group. It can be concluded that tricaine methane‐sulfonate stimulates the recovery and shortens the time of induction and reduces the stress condition caused by fish transport.

A Comparative pharmacological study on moxidectin and propolis ointment in rabbits naturally infested with Psoroptes cuniculi

Mohamed F. Dakroury; Asmaa A. Darwish

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128171.1560

Ear mange is an annoying problem for all animal breeders including rabbit's breeders. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of moxidectin and 10% propolis ointment on rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi with especial reference to some related biochemical parameters diagnostic and prognostic value. For this purpose, a total of thirty-two rabbits: 8 non-infested rabbits (control group (CG) and 24 naturally infested rabbits were used. Infested rabbits were equally divided into three groups: 1st group remained without treatment (diseased group (DG)), 2nd group was treated with moxidectin ((0.2 mg/kg body weight) S/C (MG)). Propolis ointment (10%) was applied topically to rabbits of the 3rd group (PG) once daily. Ear scrapes and blood samples were taken on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. The ear scraping was examined microscopically and the biochemical parameters were estimated and statistically analyzed. The results cleared that moxidectin achieved the complete healing (14th day) faster than propolis ointment (21st day), but MG suffered from a significant (P<0.05) hypoalbuminemia, increased liver and kidney function tests and cortisol levels when compared to PG. Liver and kidney function tests and cortisol yielded good values of the area under the curve, sensitivity%, specificity%, likelihood ratio, PPV%, NPV%, accuracy rate% in DG, MG (except creatinine) and PG. The study concluded that propolis had a prominent antipsoroptic effect without inducing hepatic or renal toxicity. Liver and kidney function tests and cortisol may be useful markers for rabbit mange diagnosis and prognosis and following up its treatment. 

Effect addition of Cinnamomum cassia on treatment of pathological infections in Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings

Mahmoud A Mohammad; Shahbaa AL-Taee; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128258.1564

The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the causative agents that causes death in Yankee Hatch / Erbil fingerling Cyprinus carpio and to investigate the effect of Cinnamon on the infected fish handled. Both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are strongly isolate followed by Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated from liver, kidney and intestine which cause histopathological changes in these organs, characterized by fibrosis in liver, coagulative necrosis in renal tubules in the kidney and sever enteritis. Cinnamomum cassia added to the ration of infected fish at concentration 0.75, 1 and 1.5 %for eight weeks. The histopathological examination reveals that the 1.5% is best the percentage used as food additive for repair and regenerative tissue damage in the liver, kidney and intestine. These study conclude that C. cassia have been used as additive food in fish feed ration at 1.5% and have important role in regenerative tissue damage and keep fish in health status.

A study of the incidence of Lucilia sericata fly in ovine in Mosul city

Nadia S. Alhayali; Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128276.1566

The objective of the current study is to examine the incidence of Lucilia sericata larvae in the sheep in Mosul city, Iraq. From a total of 670 sheep examined, 92 sheep of them 13.7% were infested with Lucilia sericata larvae. For the 516 larvae found in the sheep, 146 (28.3%) was detected to be of the first instars larva, 120 (23.3%) was second in stars larva and 250 (48.4) as third instars larva. As the average number of larvae in the infested animals was 5.6. The infestation percentage in males was higher 26.3% compared to the females 4.2%, where there is no significant difference reported concerning with the age. The prevalence of Lucilia sericata larvae was 8.4% in spring, 38.9 % in summer, 2.4% in autumn and 1.5% in winter. The difference in terms of seasons were statistically significant. Sheep in the rural areas had higher infestation rate in comparison to the sheep in urban area. Most lesions occurred in the breech region, flank, leg and inter digital space of a foot. The percentage of adult flies that merged was 73.3% and the pupariation period was 12 to 20 hours, while the incubation and moulting periods were 7 to 10 days. All flies were similar in the external appearance and belonging to Lucilia sericata causing strike disease in sheep.

Immunohistochemical detection of P53 and MDM2 and its correlation with histological grading system in ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma

Enas S. Mustafa; Waseem H. Al-Jameel; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127779.1527

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a cancer disease in sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The retrovirus is distinctive among viruses for inducing carcinogenesis of lung epithelial cells and cause a lung adenocarcinoma. OPA has numerous characters same as human lung adenocarcinoma, involving a similar histological organization and motivation of most cell signalling pathways. P53 pathway is frequently changed in human lung adenocarcinoma, in specific due to the increase expression of MDM2 and it is the main regulator of P53. Here, we have a go at something new to confirm the possible expression of p53 and MDM2 in OPA as a translational animal model for human lung adenocarcinoma, and to identify the correlation between P53 and MDM2 expression. 1645 of lung samples from different breeds were macroscopically tested. OPA was recognized in 21 samples and further assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Histologically, proliferative cancer foci were distributed and contained of cuboidal or columnar cells and arising papillary to acinar patterns. The nuclear expression of P53 and MDM2 was detected in 90% and 95% respectively in the cancer epithelial cells of OPA respectively. Detectable immunoreactivity for P53 was detected in 6 out of 7 grade I, 7 out of 8 grade II, and 6 out of 6 grade III cancers. In reverse with P53, MDM2 was detected in 18 cases with moderate and high expression. In addition, there was statistically relationship between both protein expressions. Our findings suggested that overexpression of MDM2 plays an essential part in OPA carcinogenesis and is dependable on the grading system, and its overexpression can be convinced by P53 expression.        

Case Report

Surgical treatment of omphalocele with intestinal evisceration in cow calf of Sahiwal: A case report

muhammad Kashif; Mazhar Abbas; Amar Nasir; Farah Ijaz; Majid Ali Nasir; muhammad Qaiser Riaz; Jawad Zahoor

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128322.1569

Omphalocele is a rare type of congenital abdominal wall defect that allows intestines (and sometimes a portion of liver) covered by a paper-thin membrane (amnion) to protrude from the abdominal wall at the navel area. The aim of the current study is to report the first successful rectification of a congenital omphalocele in a day old neonatal cow calf using a basic suture pattern in laparotomy at cattle populous area of Jhang (Punjab). The case was presented at College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang. The calf after surgery manifested a steady and progressive growth rate without any complication suggesting the success of the surgical remedy. At the same time this approach is quite economical to the farmer in the context of saving the life of his farm. It is concluded that this surgery can instituted with success in cases with fair body condition, less contaminated in the absence of predominant necrosis of the tissues.

Research Paper

Pathological and molecular study of ovine diaphragms naturally infected by Sarcosystis spp.

Enas S. Mostafa; Nadia S. Alhayali; Eman G. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128327.1570

 Sarcosystis spp., has a close relationship with muscles due to its unique localization within skeletal muscle in humans and the animals it infects, as the chronic condition of the disease causes significant economic losses, especially in terms of meat production as a result of the formation of cysts, whether macroscopic or microscopic, in their muscle fibers. Sarcosystis tenella and Sarcosystis arieticanis are the most important pathogenic cysts forming in sheep. In this study, 50 samples of diaphragm muscles of sheep slaughtered in the butchers' shops and the Mosul abattoir were examined grossly, histologically, and using PCR technique as a diagnostic tool to identify or diagnose the causative and responsible species of these changes. The diaphragm samples appeared white and pale on the macroscopic examination, while the tissue lesions were characterized by the presence of Sarcosystis in different numbers and sizes among the muscle fibers, which led to the occurrence of zinker necrosis and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophil, monocyte, macrophage and giant cells, and also oedema and proliferation of fibroblast. With the formation of fibrous tissue whose intensity was inferred (mild, medium and intense) by using the masson’s trichrome stain. The results of the molecular analysis using the nested PCR technique indicated that these diagnosed microscopic cysts belong to Sarcosystis tenella with a reaction product of 800bp and 500bp.

Serological and molecular investigations of Brucellosis in dairy cows at certain areas of Al-Sulaymaniyah governorate- Iraq

Kani M. Ridhae; Suha A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127688.1520

This study aimed to detect Brucella antibodies in the sera of dairy cows and to identify Brucella species in the milk of seropositive cows. A total of 100 sera and 100 milk samples were collected from two 50-cows groups (group 1 with and group 2 without a history of reproductive problems and/or decreased milk production). Rose Bengal plate test and indirect ELISA were used to explore Brucella antibodies in the serum samples and thereafter milk samples of seropositive cows were undergone PCR analysis using Brucella genus specific primers and 3 pairs of species specific primers for identification of B. abortus, B. melitensis and B. suis. The RBPT showed 22 cows were carriers for the Brucella antibodies, 18 in group 1 and 4 in group 2 whereas the iELISA showed only 10 cows out of these 22 cows were positive, 9 in group 1 and only 1 cow in group 2. The PCR assay, which was performed on milk samples of the RBPT positive cows, revealed 18 samples were positive for the Brucella genus and the Brucella abortus species and were negative for Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis species. As a conclusion, the results of this study showed that brucellosis has been encountered in cows with or without a history of reproductive problems, and the RBPT followed by PCR assay for milk samples of the seropositive cows could provide more specific detection than performing either test alone and could be more useful for rapid screening of brucellosis in dairy cows.

Comparative study on the effect of cadmium and hydrocortisone treatment on the brain of rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Karam H. Yahya; Sura S. Aghwan; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128436.1575

This study was dedicated to detecting the effects of cadmium chloride and of cortisone on experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rats through studying brain tissue. Twenty-four adult albino male rats were used, divided into four groups, comprising: untreated control as group 1, group 2: infected with intraperitoneal injection of Toxoplasma gondii 80 tissue cysts per animal, group 3: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride 1.5mg/kg once a week, group 4: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone in a dose 0.5 mg/kg once a week. After 30 days of treatment for all groups, the animals were sacrificed, and the gross and histopathological examinations were performed on the brains of the rats. The results revealed the presence of changes in the infected groups including appearance of toxoplasma tissue cysts in the grey matter, with mild to moderate perineuronal and periaxonal edema. There were further changes observed in infected groups which treated with cadmium chloride including perineuronal satelletosis, perineuronal edema and demyelination in neuronal axons, otherwise the infected groups treated with cortisone did not show any noticeable difference from the group of infection only. It is concluded that cadmium increase the intensity of occurrence of lesions induced by Toxoplasma gondii in the brain tissue of the rats, considering that all noticeable lesions ranged from mild to moderate in severity, and the differences between groups may be related to the nature of the pathogen used. 

Histological effects of chronic sodium fluoride toxicity on some reproductive organs of male and female adult albino rats

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Bushra I. Al-Kaisie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127896.1540

The current study aimed to determine the pathological effects of chronic poisoning with sodium fluoride on some reproductive organs like ovary, and testis of adult’s male and female albino rats. Thirty-six male and female adult’s albino rats were divided into six groups. The first and second group of male and female rats are control groups was given tap drinking water, the third and fourth groups of male and female rats was given 150 ppm of NaF, the fifth and sixth group of male and female rats was given 300 ppm of NaF respectively for 90 days. The weights of male and female genital were recorded. Histological exam of control groups of female rats showed the typical histological structure of the ovary, while the NaF treated groups showed a decrease in growing follicles, in addition to thickening in tunica albuginea and deposition of eosinophilic material. In male control groups, the sections showed the typical histological structures of the testis, while the treated groups showed multinucleated spermatids in addition to the deposition of amorphous eosinophilic material in the interstitial tissue, coagulative necrosis, in addition to apoptotic and sloughed spermatogonia in the lumen of seminiferous tubule. These results indicate that sodium fluoride with 300 ppm has toxic effects on organ body weights and on the histology of the gonads of adult’s male and female albino rats.