Articles in Press


Research Paper

Age-related anesthetic effect of ketamine in the chickens

Yaareb J. Mousa; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127100.1458

The objective of this study is to determine the histological effects experimentally induced by injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg B.w. on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration in testis include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells and paucity of sperms in the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. The histological alteration of female reproductive organs includes disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.




The objective of this study is to determine the histological effects experimentally induced by injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg B.w. on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration in testis include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells and paucity of sperms in the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. The histological alteration of female reproductive organs includes disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.




 

Morphological and molecular identification of Parabronema skrjabini of camels (Camelus dromedary) in Najaf province

Haider H. A-Fatlawy; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127101.1459

The current study was conducted during the period from September 2019 to December 2019, the number of examined samples 150 abomasums isolated from males 127 and females 23 to identify the species of Parabronema skrjabini that infected one-humped camel slaughtered in Al-Ashraf Najaf slaughterhouse. The microscopic examination of the worms was properties compared to other worms of the digestive system, and then confirmed using genetic markers with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the use of sequencing and phylogenetic analysis technologies relative to those that are predominant in world regions registered in the Gene bank. The results of the microscopic examination showed that Parabronema skrjabini distinguished by a red color, females are curved dorsally and longer than males with a vertically curved and head features that resemble a horseshoe for both sexes. The number of infected samples is 53 (35.33%) and the non-infected samples 97 (64.64%). The highest rate of infection during December month 63.41%. On the other hand, the prevalence rate has been reported 65.21% females and 29.92% males with significant differences. In this research, PCR technique was used the molecular examination with the selection of the highest DNA samples, which were 10 samples to determine the alignment range according to the ITS2 gene, all samples were well suited to primer in length 783 bp and confirmed the diagnosis of these nematodes.

A study of the gastrointestinal parasites in awassi sheep and surrounding environment

Dhyaa M. Jwher; Maan T. Jarjees; Aqeel M. Alshater

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127174.1478

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence gastrointestinal parasites in Awassi sheep and the contamination of surrounding environment in ten different locations of Nineveh governorate, during March up to June/2018. A total of 781 of different samples including 231 fecal, 192 soil, 188 feed and 170 water samples were investigated for the detection of ova and oocysts. Traditional parasitic techniques were followed in the study. The results showed that fecal samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts 30.63, 9.09, 14.28% respectively. Soil samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts at 21.35, 10.93, 44.79% respectively. Feed samples declared that contamination with nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts were 22.34, 26.06, 51.59%, respectively. Examination of water troughs examined, showed that nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts were occurred at 14.11, 8.82, 31.76%, respectively. It concluded that parasitic infection in sheep could attain from different sources, and every effort should be applied to reduce the contamination.

Investigation of the principal vectors of abortive diseases in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius)

El Aid Kaaboub; Nassim Ouchene; Nadjet A. Ouchene; Ali Dahmani; Imene Ouchtati; Asma Haif; Djamel Khelef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126914.1415

One-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) are important source of meat, milk and leather production for humans in southern Algeria. Camel livestock farming is confronted with several obstacles, including abortive diseases which can be transmitted mainly by ticks. The study was carried out in Ouargla region, South Algeria, between January and December 2017. The objective of this study was to identify ticks in camels and to study the relationship between camel abortion rate and the presence of different species of ticks. A total of 350 camels (including 171 males and 179 females) was used in this study. Ticks were searched on the entire camel body (head, neck, hump, abdomen, forelegs, back legs, and tail area). Results showed that 215/350 (61.4%) camels were infested by ticks including 137/171 (80.1%) and 78/179 (43.6%) males and females, respectively. A total of 46/179 (25.7%) camel females had aborted and all these were revealed infested by ticks. A total of 298 ticks was collected including the following species Hyalomma dromedarii (90.9%), Hyalomma impeltatum (5.37%) and for the first time in Algeria, Amblyomma variegatum (2.35%) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.34%). H. dromedarii was the most frequent (p<0.001). The study showed that the dromedary was highly infested by ticks. The presence of ticks in all aborted female camels certainly indicates their important role in one-humped camel abortions in Algeria. The identification of tick-borne abortive agents in camels is important in order to establish an effective abortion control plan.

Novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the prolactin gene of Awassi ewes and its role in the reproductive traits

Tahreer M. Al-Thuwaini

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126973.1423

This study was conducted to determine the genetic variation of the prolactin (PRL) gene in 5' flanking region and its role with several reproductive traits in Awassi sheep. One-hundred six Iraqi sexually mature and healthy Awassi ewes that aged between 2 and 2.5 years were included in this study. Ewes were classified into two the main divisions: ewes producing twins and ewes producing single offspring. Two genotypes (AA and AT) were observed in Awassi sheep. While genotype AA was detected in Awassi ewes that produced twins, genotype AT was detected in ewes that produced a single offspring. The sequencing reactions identified nine SNPs in the prolactin gene at the 5′ flanking region in Awassi sheep, differing from the prolactin reference sequence (GenBank accession number X16641.1). Genotype AT possessed one single nucleotide polymorphism SNP substitute comparison with the AA genotype in Awassi ewes. The association analysis revealed that the AA genotype is characterized by significantly higher levels of the progesterone concentration, twinning ratio, fecundity, and prolificacy than the AT genotype. In conclusion, a new SNP (g.1209 A>T) was discovered within the ovine flanking region which potentially influences prolactin gene expression. These results showed that the genotype AA associated with high prolificacy of Awassi sheep may be used as a selection criterion for improving the reproductive performance of Iraqi Awassi sheep.

Anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in Sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus

Hamid H. Hamid; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126976.1424

The current study conducted to investigate the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in sparrow hawk accipiter nisus. By using an optical microscope and histological stains. Anatomical results showed that the cornea composed of two parts, the peripheral cornea and the central cornea, and there was variation in corneal thickness according to the anatomical region. Histologically, the cornea consists of five layers. The first layer of the central cornea consists of non- keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue composed of four rows of cells. Whereas, Bowman's membrane appeared clear and thicker on the dorsal side than on the ventral side. The corneal stroma consists of collagen fibers arranged in three secondary layers within the stroma. The corneal stroma also distinguished by the presence of fibroblast cells, which randomly distributed among the collagen fibers. The Descemet membrane appeared clear and equal in thickness between the dorsal and ventral sides. The endothelium tissue appears in the form simple squamous epithelia. The histological structure of the cornea root seemed similar to its formation in the central cornea. Still, it characterized by the presence of pigment cells spread in the stromal corneal root. Among the distinct results that appeared in this study is the presence of blood vessels spreading in the root of the cornea. The study concluded that the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in this bird distinguished by some specialties that contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the function of the cornea in this bird.

Impact of breed, sex and age on hematological and biochemical parameters of local quail

Abdullah Fathi Abdul-Majeed; Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126960.1432

The current work aimed to study the normal values of some hematological and biochemical criteria of local quail and the effect of the breed, sex, and age on them. Two hundred quail (100 birds belong to each of white and light brown feathers local breeds), they were randomly distributed at 1st-day-age into 5 replicates, 20 birds/ replicate for each breed, and the study continued till the age 84 days. The results of the current study had revealed that the breed and the age, each alone did not significantly affect the physiological and biochemical parameters in this study, whereas the sex factor affects significantly most of the study parameters. The males were highly significant as compared to the females in the following parameter values: red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes%, basophils%, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity. While the females were significantly higher to the males in mean corpuscular volume, lymphocytes%, triglycerides, total protein, globulin, and alanine aminotransferase activity. In conclusion, the sex of the bird alone and its interaction with breed and age had the greatest impact on the hematological traits.

Molecular characterization of extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dogs

Ihsan M. Ahmed; Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh; Dhyaa M. Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127032.1441

Shepherd dogs have been implemented in the transmission and distribution of many threatening pathogens. The presence of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli (ESCR E. coli) in dog feces can constitute a significance risk to human health due to transmission of antibiotics resistance from dogs to humans, other animals and the surrounding environment. Therefore, in this study, phenotypic and molecular characterization of fecal ESCR E. coli were investigated in shepherd dogs accompanied sheepherders in urban areas. Sixty-seven fresh fecal samples were collected from shepherd dogs from different regions of Mosul city. Bacteriological examination of ESCR E. coli was done using MacConkey agar with cefotaxime followed by subsequent PCR confirmation of the CTX-M gene using specific primers and molecular characterization using specific primers directed to CTX-M-1, 2 and 9 groups. The results of bacterial examination showed successful confirmation of ESCR E. coli which has been isolated from fecal samples of shepherd dogs 58.2% (39/67). In addition, detection of CTX-M gene was confirmed in 53.7% (36/67) of E. coli isolates. Furthermore, molecular characterization of CTX-M gene revealed the presence of only one genotype belongs to CTX-M-1. However, both of CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 genotypes were not detected in this study. This study concluded that shepherd dogs have an essential role in carrying and spreading of ESCR E. coli especially in urban regions.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.