Articles in Press


Research Paper

Histopathological alterations of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the histological effects experimentally induced by injection of alloxan 100 mg/kg B.w. on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration in testis include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells and paucity of sperms in the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. The histological alteration of female reproductive organs includes disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals: An interplay between seasonal predisposition and dietary imbalance

Khan Sharun; K. M. Manjusha; Rohit Kumar; A. M. Pawde; Yash Pal Malik; Prakash Kinjavdekar; S. K. Maiti; - Amarpal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126662.1358

The present study was aimed to record and analyze the prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals like cattle, buffalo, horse, goat, sheep, dog and cat presented at RVP-TVCC, Indian Veterinary Research Institute. A total of 777 cases were reported during the academic session starting from April 2018 to March 2019 from Bareilly and its surrounding regions. Incidence were highest among ruminants 92.92% comparing to other domestic animals 7.08%. Among the different animal species, caprine were found to be the most affected, followed by buffalo and canine. A positive correlation was noted between the occurrence of obstructive urolithiasis and the season with maximum number of cases being reported during the winter season December - February. The female to male ratios in urolithiasis affected animals were 1:81, 1:75 and 1:22 for buffalo, goat, and dog, respectively indicating higher occurrence in male animals. Majority of the goat 67.89% and buffalo 84.80% presented with obstructive urolithiasis were also found to be fed exclusively with a grain rich diet that are excess in phosphorous thereby contributing to urolith formation. The role played by behavioral changes associated with different seasons and the dietary status of the animal plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of urolithiasis. Such an interplay between the season and the dietary imbalance will lead to higher incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals.

Study the effect of cloned pET-32a(+) plasmid by Lysostaphin gene against Staphylococcus aureus

Jalal Yseen Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126698.1362

Lysostaphin is a protein zinc metalloproteinase, extracted from Staphylococcus simulans, which disrupting peptide layer of S. aureus. In this study, Lysostaphin gene was detected in the S. simulans isolates. The molecular weight of the Lysostaphin gene is 750 bp. We were used the pET-32a(+) plasmid to cloning lysostaphin gene which transformed to competent rubidium chloride E. coli DH5α for producing the lysostaphin protein. The lysostaphin protein from this gene which isolated from S. simulans, then used the expression of used to killed S. aureus, which has the thick layer of wall that is the very difficult bacteria response to treatment. The result was reported succeeded pET-32a (+) plasmid to expressed lysostaphin gene and gave lysostaphin protein with high quality and quantity. As well as the result was appeared the high accuracy of his tag method in protein extraction and purification, and the quality and quantity more than other studies.

A survey of chewing lice of some raptors in southern Iraq, with remarks on prevalence and occurrence

Alaa Hatem; Mufid Abou Turab; H.K. Abdul-Zahra; Muhammad Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126717.1365

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the chewing lice from some raptors in Basrah, Thi-Qar, and Missan provinces located in south of Iraq. Samples of birds were collected from January to December 2018. The survey was accomplished with a total of 87 raptors belonging to five species, sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, lesser kestrel Falco naumani, kestrel Falco tinnuculus, and black kite Milvus migrans. Totally 58 of 87 birds were infested with chewing lice, the overall prevalence was 66.67%. Five chewing lice species were identified: Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Degeeriella fusca, Degeeriella rufa, and Laemobothrion maximum. All these specieswere identified in Iraq for the first time. D. rufa was recorded the highest prevalence in all raptors with 28.74%, whereas C. platystomus was the lowest 10.34%. As for the prevalence of bird’s species, the highest percentage was recorded in kestrels and black kite with 71.43%, while sparrow hawk was the lowest 53.85%. Some notes about ecology and occurrence of the chewing lice were reported.

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and histopathological changes in muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the Iraqi rivers

Basim Al-Mayahi; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa; Shahbaa AL-Taee; H.H. Nahi; Mohammed Adnan; M.A. Al-Salh Al-Salh; B. Al-Mayahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126748.1368

The aim of this study is to evaluate the contamination status of Iraqi rivers in the north of the Tigris river (Tikrit city) and the middle region of Euphrates (Babylon Governorate). In this study As, Zn, Fe, Pb, and Cu in the muscle tissue of carp fish were measured. The results show that the concentration of arsenic in the fish muscles in the middle region was 425.05 ppm higher than its concentration of about 192.25 ppm in fish muscle in the Tigris river with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Which it causes histopathological changes characterized by Zenker necrosis in skeletal muscle and infiltration of inflammatory cells with edema additional to edematous dermatitis. Other heavy metals in fish muscle were less than in fish muscles which agreement with the international legislation limits. Also, there were positive correlation ships between Zn and Pb and between Cu and Zn. While negative correlation has been detected between arsenic and both (Pb) and(Zn). This study is concluded that the accumulation of heavy metals causes histological changes in fish muscle provides an opportunity to assess fish health as well as information on possible health hazards coming from their environment.

Using Schiff base method for protecting amino acids and modified in vitro method for measuring rumen protected amino acids

MITRA mazinani; abbas ali naserian; brian rude; abdoulmansur tahmasbi; reza valizadeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126756.1371

The goal of this study was to modify three steps method for measuring protection rate of amino acids which has smaller size than nylon bag pores. To prepare the protected amino acids by the Schiff base method, each of the essential amino acids (methionine and lysine) in the aqueous solvent were brought to isoelectric pH and then reacted with the same molar ratio of aldehydes the reaction was refluxed for 30 minutes to 6 days (depending on the type of aldehyde used). The three-step in vitro method was used to estimate rumen insoluble protein in the rumen. In the manufacture of protected amino acid ligands, compounds with methionine amino acid had higher efficiency than lysine compounds and also glutaraldehyde ligands showed higher production efficiency compared to benzaldehydes. The glutaraldehyde lysine ligand showed the lowest release after 2 h of incubation in the rumen medium. At time 4 the methionine benzaldehyde ligand had the lowest release. Benzaldehyde had the lowest release at time 6 and 8. According to the results of this table, Lysine benzaldehyde had better resistance to different phases and methionine benzaldehyde had the lowest release rate compared to the other ligands. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the use of chemical methods to protect amino acids can be applied.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Molecular Analysis of ompA Gene Pasteurella multocida Indonesia Local Isolates

A. T. Soelih Estoepangestie; Arini Rahmi Dewi; Suwarno Suwarno; Didik Handijatno; Rahaju Ernawati; Wiwiek Tyasningsih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125934.1191

The aim of this research was to analyze ompA molecular gene of Pasteurella multocida buffalo isolate and bovine isolate from Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Katha strain isolate from Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccine. Determinant of P.multocida local isolates ompA gene amplification sequencing PCR then conducted to see the sequence of nucleotide sequences of ompA gene. The results of PCR amplification showed an amplicon of 559 bp of all isolates. The homology analysis result of the isolates ranged from 93 – 100% with 13 P.multocida isolates from GeneBank, and phylogenetic tree analysis shows that buffalo isolate were closely related to Katha strains, Iran, India and China isolate. Whereas bovine isolate far enough with buffalo and Katha strain isolate. Nucleotide sequences were compared to amino acids then by the method of Kolaskar and Tongaonkar antigencity predicted antigens in P.multocida. Epitope predictions from local isolates and Katha strain were found in five peptides: QVSPVFAG, IPELALRVEYQ, GQSVYVPEVVSKT, LKSASVAVAG, and ANYLVAKG .

Administration of Nitrobacter as Ammonia Decomposer in Maintenance Media of Clarias gariepinus with Aquaponics

Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja; Adinda Septyasari Taragusti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

Abstract. Many Indonesian catfish farmers apply the aquaponics system to overcome the problem of limited cultivation land. However, the use of high-stock solid method on aquaponics system causes a decrease in water quality due to the accumulation of fish feces and food scraps that are not consumed by fish and are left to pile up and turn into ammonia. Ammonia in water is toxic and dangerous for fish health. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias sp.) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The control group were treated without Nitrobacter administration and 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters observed were SGR, SR and FCR. Whereas, the supporting parameters were water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) plant growth and water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Histopathological and Some Biochemical Effects of Platinum Drug on the Liver and Kidney of Pregnant Mice Mus musculus and their Embryos

Baidaa A. barwarei; Hanan S. Sadoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126793.1382

The current study was done to investigate the effect of two doses 3, 6 mg/kg b.w. of Platinum drug on the structure of the liver and kidneys of pregnant mice and their embryos and weight changes including ; mothers body weight, embryos,maternal liver and kidneys, as well as some serum biochemical parameters were established. Thirty pregnant mice were used and they were divided into three groups (10 mice/group),as the following ; group I (control group); animals were injected intraperitonialy (IP) with distilled water on the days 7th,12th,and 17th of gestation,whilst groups II,III were injected intraperitonialy (IP) with the selected doses above of platinum on the days 7th, 12th, 17th of gestation,respectively. Microscopically; maternal and fetal' liver sections of group II revealed; vaculation, swelling, apoptosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion, degeneration and involvement of extra medullary hematopoietic cells, respectively. Pervious lesions were increased in both maternal and fetal’ liver of group III. Maternal and fetal kidney sections of group II revealed ; degeneration, expansion of Bowman's space, inflammatory cells infiltration into interstitial tissue, and blood capillary congestion The previous lesions showed more severity in group III.

Change in acetylcholine activity and some blood parameters in adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin

Aydin S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126813.1385

The aim of this was to elucidate the effects of deltamethrin dipping on acetylcholine activity in serum and some blood parameters of sheep. The study was conducted on forty adult sheep dipped in deltamethrin in concentration of 1:1000L of water. Venous blood samples were collected from each animal before and after dipped. There was significant inhibition in the acetylcholine esterase in all subjected animals after dipping. Mean values of hematological investigations showed a significant rise in the number of total leucocytes (leukocytosis) with significant decline in hemoglobin concentration and Red cell indices in all dipped animals after dipping in deltamethrin when compared with mean values obtained from the same animals before dipping. Conclusion of our results revealed that poisoning with deltamethrin affects blood parameters through the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase.