Volume 34, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2020, Page 1-200


Protective effect of placental mesenchymal stem cells on histological changes of pancreas experimentally induced by alloxane in mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Rasha A. Al-Sabawy; Hamad J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163563

In an attempt to find a treatment for diabetes by Placental mesenchymal stem cells, we induced diabetes in albino mice by injected them with the diabetic agent Alloxan intra peritoneal cavity dose 70 mg / kg of body weight for the group 1 and 2, then injection of the diabetic mice with Placental mesenchymal stem cells in the peritoneal cavity for the group 2 then the glucose levels in the blood of these mice were measured by using a GLUCOTREND 2, while group 3 was control injected with normal saline only. Pancreas tissue where tested by studying histopathological effect of Alloxan, the endocrine pancreas histologically showed decreased in the size and number of Langerhans islets with vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of almost all cells in the atrophied islets. Also, there was congestion of blood vessels in the interlobular space and there was distortion of exocrine pancreas. There was vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial cells of the acini, also there was atrophy of acini which lead to edema and dilatation of interacini space. Moreover, there was thickening in the wall of blood vessels, and there was thrombus in some blood vessels. In addition to the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interlobular septa. Compared with the section of pancreas of control group showed the normal structure of islets notice the normal cells shape surrounding by exocrine pancreas. Then the pancreas studied after injection of Placental mesenchymal stem cells, while there was regeneration of islets and acini which seem to be normal comparing with control group, there was improvement of normal histological appearance of mice treated with alloxan and then injected with placental mesenchymal stem cells. The results of the diabetic mice which treated with placental mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated present of significant differences (P≤0.05). Our conclusion of this study revealed that placental mesenchymal stem cells have a protective role against the histological changes of pancreas induced by alloxan.

The histological changes induced by Cytarabine on rabbits livers (with and without vitamin E administration)

Saif Al-Jammas; Ayad Al-Saraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163564

The present study was intended to determine the histological changes induced by Cytarabine drug on the structure of rabbit's livers and the protective effects of vitamin E on these histological changes. The treated group with daily intraperitoneal dose of (50 mg/kg body weight) of Cytarabine alone, showed a massive histological change represented by infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, epithelioid cell and Kupffer's cells in hepatic tissue. Fibrosis in portal area, congestion of blood vessels as well as hyperplasia of bile canaliculi and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes were also noticed in other sections. While the group that received protective (800 IU of vitamin E) prior to each Cytarabine injection, showed a considerable histological improvement than the group received Cytarabine alone, as the histological sections of this group showed a nearly normal histological architecture of the liver that represented by normal arrangement of hepatic cords, no fibrosis no congested blood vessels were seen. though distension of hepatic sinusoids and coagulative necrosis of some hepatocytes were still observed. The present study suggested that vitamin E is an effective chemo-protective agent against hepatotoxicity when used as a protective agent prior to Cytarabine drug taken.

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in broiler and broilers farm workers in Duhok, Iraq by using conventional and PCR techniques

Mahde S. Assafi; Hishiyar A. Hado; Ibtessam S. Abdulrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 15-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125757.1145

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a global public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence rates of MRSA infection amongst broiler chickens and broilers farm workers. The total samples used in this study were 306. Cloacal swab samples from 231 broilers and nasal swab samples from 75 broilers farm workers were collected from five farms in Duhok city, Iraq. Isolation and identification of MRSA isolates were carried out and the antibiotic susceptibility were screened. Molecular characterization of all isolates was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the mecA gene.S. aureus was detected among 84% (63/75) of the farms workers samples and among 84.8% (196/231) of the broiler's samples. The S. aureus isolated from farm workers and broilers appeared resistant to oxacillin 28.6% (18/63), and 32.1% (63/196), respectively. MRSA colonization in farm workers and broilers was 24% (18/75) and 27.3% (63/231) respectively. The S. aureus isolates showed the most resistant to chloramphenicol and the least resistant to vancomycin. The results of the PCR assays revealed that 85.7% (12/14) of S. aureus isolates from farm workers and 44.4% (16/36) of S. aureus isolates from broilers were positive for the mecA gene. The direct handling of broilers by farm workers plays the important role for transport the MRSA isolates from broilers to broilers farm workers.

Influence of chitosan on hematological and histopathological changes in mice infected with Brucella melitensis immunized with Rev - 1 vaccine

Muna A. Al-Khafaji; Hamza H. Al-Sultany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163583

This study aimed to assess the changes of blood cells constitutions and study the histopathological sections of liver and spleen in dual sexes mice infected with brucella melitensis and the role of chitosan supplement with and without Rev-1 vaccine in enhancing the inflammatory proses, two experiments were undertaken on 100 albino mice, aged 8-10 weeks for 60 days, first experiment done on 50 males and second one done on 50 females. Results of hematological analysis showed that there are significant increase at P3), red blood cells count RBC (× 106), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular value (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte (LY%), granulocyte (GR) and lymphocytes m/mm3 (LYM) in males treated groups comparing with females, the highest values were in immunized infected mice with chitosan diet supplement compared to infected animals. The histopathological lesions recorded there is presence of chronic inflammatory reaction characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration with presence of granulomatous lesion in the liver of immunized animals, presence of mild to moderate lesions characterized by hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue in spleen and small granulomatous lesions in liver of immunized animals fed diet with chitosan supplement.

Evaluation of cardiac enzymes and acute phase response as biomarkers for rapid diagnosis of myocarditis in calves with FMD

Kamal M. AlSaad; Hasanin N. Al-Autaish; Jihad A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163584

Troponin-I, homocysteine, Creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase and acute phase response had been evaluated in calves with myocarditis due to FMD. The study was conducted on 52 local breed calves 1-6 months old and from both sexes, their dams have no history for vaccination against FMD and show classical foot and mouth disease signs. Ten clinically healthy calves of the same ages were considered as controls. Suspected calves neither show oral blisters, rope salivation, nor foot lesions. Diseased calves showed signs of dullness, in activity, panting with mouth breathing, unable to suck, recumbency, However, five of diseased calves were died within 24-72 hours and on macroscopic examinations of autopsied animals, necrotic myocarditis with pale foci with a zone of hyperemia which were present on the papillary and ventricular cardiac muscles, moreover, on histopathological examinations there were severe inflammatory cells infiltration in the interstitial of myocardial fibers with obvious area of coagulation of myocardial fibers and marked area of hyalinization, furthermore, severe mononuclear cells infiltration, mainly lymphocytes, with few neutrophils closed to necrotic myocardial fibers were also detected. Diagnosis of FMD virus was confirmed by using commercially NSP ELISA kits for foot and mouth. A significant increase (p>0.05)was encounteredin body temperature, respiratory and heart rates in diseased animals than in controls, Furthermore, abnormal cardiac sounds (organic murmurs) were indicated on auscultation of the heart. Results of hematological parameters shown a significant increase indicated in ESR values of diseased calves than in controls, moreover, total leukocyte count was increased significantly with significant lymphocytosis. Furthermore, the results were also showed significant increase in values of serum cardiac troponin, homocysteine, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and fibrinogen in seropositive calves for FMD compared with controls. It can be concluded that determination of cardiac biomarkers and acute phase response concentration in calves with myocarditis can considered as a guide to quantify early heart damage.

Estimation of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in sheep infested with Taenia hydatigena cysts in Sulaymaniyah province/Iraq

Aram A. Mohammed; Mohammed A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125543.1065

This study was carried out in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq to estimate the concentration of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in the serum of sheep infected with the metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena. The present study included the measurement of some biochemical parameters as total protein, albumin and globulin and evaluation of trace elements as zinc, copper and iron using automatic analyzer and spectrophotometer respectively. For this purpose, up to 40 serum samples from sheep infected with T. hydatigena cysts and 10 serum samples from non-infected group had been used. The findings of the current study showed significant elevated levels in both total protein and globulin compared to non-infected group, where the total protein and globulin levels were 8.04 ± 0.275 g/dl and 5.90 ± 0.321 g/dl respectively, compared to the non-infected group 6.686 ± 0.409 g/dl and 4.124 ± 0.479 g/dl respectively. While, the mean serum albumin in infected sheep was significantly decreased 2.14 ± 0.224 g/dl compared to non-infected one 2.562 ± 0.152 g/dl. About the results of trace elements, the serum Cu was significantly increased in infected group 1.42 ± 0.466 mg/L compared to non-infected one 0.90 ± 0.171 mg/L, while the mean serum Zn concentration was significantly decreased in infected group 0.37 ± 0.230 mg/L compared to non-infected group 0.70 ± 0.108 mg/L. Although, the mean serum Fe of infected sheep 1.42 ± 0.388 mg/L was slightly lower than non-infected one 1.26 ± 0.490 mg/L, statistically there was no significant difference between them. It was concluded that T. hydatigena cysts had significant effects on serum total protein, globulin, Zn and Cu.

Effect of Prosopis farcta extracts on some complications (hematology and lipid profiles) associated with alloxan induced diabetic rats

Ismael H. Mohammed; Esmail S. Kakey

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125574.1089

This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl acetate Prosopis farcta extracts on some complications associated with diabetes in rats. The experimental rats of 1.5-2 months old that weighed 190-220 g were randomly divided into six groups of seven animals each. Body weight, serum glucose, hematological changes and lipid profiles were studied. Alloxan was used of induction diabetes in rats. 252 rats were used anddifferent doses of the ethyl acetate extracts of roots, fruits, and leaves of P. farcta were orally administered daily for 28 daysfornormal and diabetic rats and the effective dose was 200 mg/kg BW for each kind of extracts. The results showed that administration of root, leaves and fruit extracts of P. farcta caused improvement in body weight, blood glucose, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), hematocrit (HCT orPCV) in alloxan diabetic rats in insulin like treatment manner, with the most effective improving effect for roots extract. Regarding to the effects on total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, administration of extracts caused decrease in the total WBC and neutrophil count. Administration of root, leaves and fruit extracts of P. farcta, showed suppression in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and increasing in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) of alloxan diabetic rats. In conclusion, the P. farcta extracts possesses properties of improving some health complications accompanied diabetes in rats.

Bioremediation of lead and cadmium and the strive role of Pediococcus pentosaceus probiotic

Raghad Jaafar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 51-57
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125581.1092

Consumption of food and water contaminated with heavy metals poses a huge threat to the life. Both of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are heavy metals and important environmental pollutants. Away from traditional treatments, the current study aims to adopt probiotic bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceu to treat heavy metal pollution. Present results indicated a good probiotic property of P. pentosaceus, where they were able to survive pH range from 3-9, during incubation periods 3 and 24 hours, and bile salt range 0.15-0.5% for the same period. The number of bacteria in gastric (pH 3) and intestinal juices (pH 8) after 24 hours of incubation was 390 and 205, respectively. Bacteria showed an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella sp. The antibiotic susceptibility test revealed them resistant to clindamycin, intermediate resistant against benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and their sensitivity to the rest tested antibiotics. Isolated bacteria identified based on their morphology, biochemical characteristic in addition to the use of automated instrument for bacterial identification (Vitek II), and depending on the results bacteria were identified as P. pentosaceus. In bioremediation study, the lowest inhibitory concentration of lead and cadmium and (MIC) was done, followed by assay the removal capacity by P. pentosaceus, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) analysis. Bacteria show high MIC (1800 and 150 ppm) for Pb and Cd respectively. With removal efficiency for Pb 62.10-68.39% in the concentrations 25 and 50 ppm, respectively, and for Cd 52.71-11.25% in the same concentrations. Depending on the present finding probiotic bacteria (P. pentosaceus) can apply in the bioremediation of heavy metals in the fish ponds when contamination occurs, in addition to their tradition used as safety additive to prevent fish disease and an enhancement agent .Finally the isolation of these bacteria from fish ponds can be considered as a good indicator for a healthy state of fish ponds in the studied area.

Isolation and detection of reovirus from arthritis in chickens

Safwan Yousif Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125580.1093

In this study 70 samples were collected from 14-26 weeks old egg laying hens. Clinical signs of infected chickens characterized by lameness, swelling in hock joint. Samples include blood for preparation of serum also hock joints and tendon for virus isolation. Hyperimmune sera was prepared by injection of broiler chickens four times with vaccine strain Reo 1133R 0.2 ml subcutaneously in the neck. Samples were processed and prepared for virus isolation by using 6 days old embryonated chicken egg which was inoculated in yolk sac four passages. Lesions in egg embryo was recorded for each passage then the isolates were diagnosed by using neutralization test using convalescent and hyperimmune sera. Clinical signs of infected birds characterized by swelling and enlargement and edema of hock joint, postmortem lesions revealed swelling and injury in tendon, ulceration and erosions in cartilage and discoloration in synovial fluid, hemorrhage in the leg and yellow necrotic foci in the liver, the result of virus cultivation in embryonated chicken egg show dwarfism in growth, death of embryo with subcutaneous hemorrhage, initiated in 2nd passage and subsequent passages, this lesion increase in severity with progress of passages and with decrease in death time in hours and increase in titer of virus particles. The virus titer was decreased when neutralized by using neutralization test it gives 22 isolates were positive from 34 isolates.

Haematological, oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis

Chigozie Ukwueze; Ekemini S Akpan; Romanus C Ezeokonkwo; Chika I Nwosuh; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125582.1094

Haematological changes, oxidative stress markers and electrolyte alterations were evaluated in puppies infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) that were presented to veterinary hospitals and clinics in South Eastern, Nigeria. Fifty-one dogs were used for the study and they were assigned into three groups. Group I consist of 21 diarrhoeic dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus, groups II, were 15 diarrhoeic dogs uninfected with canine parvovirus and group III, were 15 apparently healthy dogs which served as the control. Immunochromatographic (IC) test was used to screen the dogs for canine parvovirus type 2 infections. The mean red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were significantly lower in the diarrhoeic infected than diarrhoeic non-infected and the control groups. The mean catalase (CAT) of diarrhoeic non-infected group was significantly lower than diarrhoeic infected group and the control. The mean malondialdehyde (MDA) of both diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups were significantly higher than the control. The mean serum sodium (Na+) level of the diarrhoeic non infected group was significantly lower than the diarrhoeic infected group. The mean serum potassium (K+) level was significantly lower both in diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups compared to the control groups. It was therefore concluded that the levels of oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations may not be affected by the origin or aetiology of a disease (CPV-2), but on the severity of the infection.

Histopathological effect of fluoxetine drug on the brain of pregnant mice and their embryos

Baidaa Barwarei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 71-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125467.1006

The present study was designed to identify the histopathological effect of fluoxetine (fluoxetine hydrochloride) on the pregnant mice brain and their fetuses as well as recording weight changes at doses of 60 and 80 mg/kg of body weight which were administrated to the pregnant mice from the 7th up to the 18th day of pregnancy and once a day. The results showed histopathological lesions in the adult pregnant mice brain at the dose of 60 mg/kg. induced massive necrotic area of neurons in the cerebral cortex, necrosis of the molecular layer cells while the dose of 80 mg/kg the changes include vasogenic edema in the sub cortical area, severe degeneration and necrosis of the cortex. The lesions in cerebellum were more severe than recorded in the cerebrum. The results also showed the presence of many lesions in the fetus brain at the dose 60 mg/kg and they were degeneration, necrosis of many neurons in the cerebrum while at the dose of 80 mg/kg. There were increase of degeneration and necrosis in the cortical area of fetus brain. In conclusion, the use of fluoxetine in pregnant mice caused decrease in body weight and Histopathological changes in the brain of both of the mothers and their embryos, thus the use of antidepressant by pregnant woman can be harmful for the mothers and the fetus.

Diagnosis of reovirus infection in broiler breeders flocks by using PCR technique in Erbil province

Fanar Isihak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125469.1007

Avian reoviruses can infect birds without any clinical signs of infection, the infection may associate with different manifestations including viral arthritis/tenosynovitis and malabsorption syndrome. The objective of this study was to use advance methods representing by molecular methods (RT-PCR, RT-qPCR) in the diagnosis of ARV infection in broiler breeders' flocks. A 4 flocks of broiler breeders (ROSS breed) 39 weeks age with approximately10% morbidity rate due to Avian Reovirus (ARV). The clinical examination of 16 infected birds revealed unilateral lameness and swelling of hock joint. Blood samples were collected from wing vein of infected birds. Sera were tested for antibodies titer against ARV and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). 5 of 16 positive samples were selected randomly for amplification by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The results showed in postmortem examination of infected birds, unilateral arthritis with visible joint lesions. Antibodies titer measured by ELISA in the sera of birds after 4 and 20 weeks of infection with ARV was positive and high. In RT- PCR1 of 5 samples gave positive reaction for amplification while in RT-qPCR all five samples gave positive results for amplification in comparison with +ve and -ve control.

Epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic study for mange in sheep of Anbar province- Iraq

Soad Sh. Shahatha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163587

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of mange in sheep in Anbar province by examining 462 heads of sheep. The disease was diagnosed by examining the skin scraping taken from the infected animals in the laboratory. The results showed that sheep were infected with Sarcoptes scabiei parasite, and the total infection rate was 34.6%, and no significant difference was recorded between males 34% and females 35.2%, the highest rate was recorded in the month of January %56 and the lowest in the month of August 13.1%, and the highest rate of infection was 49% in sheep at the age of 6 months - 2 years and significant differences for the rest of the ages. Head and neck lesions recorded the highest infection rate of 28.7 and 34.3% respectively. The study also included the effect of the crude watery extract of Onobrychis ptolemaica on the parasite, concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/ml have significantly affected parasites, it was noted the greater the concentration, the greater the effect during the different treatment periods. The highest concentration of 10 mg /ml resulted in the disappearance of all scabies parasites on day 14 of the treatment. Results showed sheep infection in Anbar province with mange in both sexes, high incidence of infection in young ages, high rate of infection in the winter months, and head lesions recorded the highest percentage of infection, the results showed the effect of concentrations of the crude watery extract of Onobrychis ptolemaica plant largely on the parasite.

Detection of Shigella in raw bovine milk by polymerase chain reaction

Noor Soulieman; Aemaan Al-Mariri; Faizah Al-Atrash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125758.1146

Shigella is an intracellular bacterium can infect both human and animal. Its species especially Shigella dysenteriae cause shigellosis worldwide, with 165 million cases of severe bloody diarrhea and mucoid feces. The aim of this study was to find a rapid, sensitive and specific method for screening Shigella in raw bovine contaminated milk. For this goal, 70 samples of milk collected in sterile containers for isolating of Shigella and culturing it on selective media to identify and characterize its morphology, biochemical and molecular characteristics. This study was compared between three different DNA extraction techniques for polymerase chain reaction (direct DNA extraction using a kit, alkaline DNA extraction, and filtrated milk). Our results showed that PCR was able to detect Shigella in 15 out of 15 cases after the milk samples filtered. In other words, the filter technique can be used to detect Shigella in contaminated milk.

Uses of direct and indirect immuno-fluorescent techniques for demonstration of nematodes infection in sheep in Nineveh government

Enas S. Hussein; Sura S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 17-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125482.1027

 This study was conducted for comparison between two different modern methods for the diagnosis of the nematode worms' infection in sheep we used acridine orange fluorochrome and specific staining kit in fecal samples. We examined 50 sheep fecal samples; the total infection rate was about 96% when was used lectin - fluorescein kit while the total infection rate was 74% when we used acridine orange fluorochrome technique. In conclusion of this study indicated that lectin - fluorescein kit is more effective than acridine orange fluorochrome in the diagnosis of nematode worms' eggs. Also, we conclude from this study the importance of using fluorescence - lectin kit technique in the diagnosis of nematodes eggs because they are distinguished by their speed, efficiency and accuracy, as they compare with the fecal culture technique to cultivate the larvae from eggs in order to diagnosed the type of nematodes eggs, the lectin - fluorescein kit technique is the first in Iraq.

Study on the blood protozoa in geese

Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125499.1028

This study included the investigation of blood parasites in 150 geese. The results showed a high infection rate of 70.7%. The infection rate in the geese with small ages was higher compared to the large ages with 84.2 and 47.3% respectively, with no significant difference in infection rate between males and females. The highest infection rate of the parasite is Aegyptianella sp. 26.4% followed by Haemoproteus sp., Plasmodium sp., Leucocytozoon sp. and Trypanosoma sp. with infection rates of 19.8, 18.9, 14.2 and 2.8% respectively, as well as micro larvae of Microfilariae sp. with an infection rate of 17.9%, the two-type infection was the highest, with 45.3%. Microscopic examination of stained blood samples during laboratory experiments showed microscopic developments of the ookinete, which appeared within five hours after blood exposed to air and the ookinete measurement rate was 19.5 × 2 microns.