Volume 35, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2021, Page 1-210


Physiological effects of lactic acid bacteria against melamine induced toxicity in female albino rats

Ali H. Jameel; Mohammed J. Mohammed; Manal S. Mahdi; Karkaz M. Thalj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126183.1259

The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of two type of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus against melamine toxicity by some physiological indicators in mature female rats after 21 days. In this study using 35 of female mature rats and divided randomly into seven groups each group contain five animals. The results showed that melamine caused a significant decrease in the organs weights liver and spleen and increase in kidney weight with increase of melamine concentration. Also showed to decrease in value of hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocyte and platelets, while the values of granules were increasing with increase of melamine concentration as compared with control group. Also found that the addition of melamine led to increase in cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and blood glucose, while the values of triglyceride and high density lipoproteins was decreased with increase of melamine concentration. The addition of two types of lactic acid bacteria L. casei and L. acidophilus led to decreasing the negative effect of melamine on the values of all the parameters determined.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the veterinary teaching hospital

Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Layth M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that the total number of the excised tumours was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. The tumours were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leucosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and transmissible venereal tumour 2.78%. We concluded from the current study occurrence a different type of tumours which was malignant or benign in different species of animals.

Using acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of laminitis in racing horses: a comparative study

Abdulmuniem Ibrahim Aljobory; Shaheen Jaafar; Aydin Siddiq Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 15-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126217.1263

This study was designed to compare the efficiency of using conventional acupuncture (CA) and electroacupuncture (EA) in the laminitis therapy in race horses, twenty adult race horses with laminitis were randomly selected. Clinical examination was carried out and acupuncture points were determined according to the results of diagnostic palpation of acupuncture. The horses were grouped into two equal groups; the 1st group was treated daily for 6 consecutive weeks, with CA and the 2nd group with EA. evaluation of lameness was depended on the visual and objective examination using the “American Association of Equine Practitioners” (AAEP) lameness scale and confidence stride lengths criterion for forelimbs which performed by the force plate indices. The lameness level was statistically analyzed applying t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis and p-value (P<0.05) was significant. Both visual and objective lameness examinations showed gradual statistical significant reduction (P<0.05) in the severity of lameness and improvement in the gait of the horses after CA and EA treatment. It is also showed that the lameness level was significantly (P<0.05) decreased after every weekly session of EA treatment in comparison with CA treatment. It is concluded that continued EA treatment by current study pattern showed a marked improvement in the movement of the laminitic horses when compared with CA treatment.

A retrospective study of fracture cases managed in the veterinary teaching hospital; 181 cases (2014-2018)

Sozan Ali Muhamad; Othman Jalal Ali; Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Hardi Fattah Marif; Rizgar Rahim Sleman; Brwa Mhamed Ali; Dekan Ali Raza; Harem Habeel Hama Ali; Gashaw Mustafa Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126228.1266

The aim of the study to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in age and sex of the different breeds that were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From cases, dogs represented 49.72% (90/181), whereas cats represent 18.23% (33/181) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology of the fractures multifactorial, but car accidents represented the main cause of fractures particularly in dogs. Femoral fractures were reported as the most prevalent types of fractures that represented 26.51% (48/181), followed by fractures in radius-ulna 19.33% (35/181), tibia-fibula 13.81% (25/181) and the pelvis 9.94% (18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of case history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered an excellent scope and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical internal fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found to be very convenient and without any difficulties, on the contrary to the cases with external cooptation were not. We recorded postoperative inflammation in 4 cases, as well as mal-union was recorded in 5 cases and incomplete alignment in 2 cases was found. We concluded that fractures in pet animals are common in Sulaimani province, which must be considered, and the best-employed methods of fracture repair were the internal fixation techniques, particularly intramedullary pinning.




The aim of the study to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in age and sex of the different breeds that were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From cases, dogs represented 49.72% (90/181), whereas cats represent 18.23% (33/181) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology of the fractures multifactorial, but car accidents represented the main cause of fractures particularly in dogs. Femoral fractures were reported as the most prevalent types of fractures that represented 26.51% (48/181), followed by fractures in radius-ulna 19.33% (35/181), tibia-fibula 13.81% (25/181) and the pelvis 9.94% (18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of case history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered an excellent scope and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical internal fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found to be very convenient and without any difficulties, on the contrary to the cases with external cooptation were not. We recorded postoperative inflammation in 4 cases, as well as mal-union was recorded in 5 cases and incomplete alignment in 2 cases was found. We concluded that fractures in pet animals are common in Sulaimani province, which must be considered, and the best-employed methods of fracture repair were the internal fixation techniques, particularly intramedullary pinning.




 

Antimicrobial activity of peptides extracted from camels' blood neutrophils against some pathogenic bacteria

M.A. Mahmood; M.A. Essa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 33-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126239.1270

The aim of the current research was to isolate and purify antimicrobial cationic peptides (Amps) taken from camel blood and to study its antibacterial activity against some multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis. The results showed the possibility of obtaining these peptides from camel's white blood cells, and was separated by using Reversed-Phased-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) technical equipment. The results showed the presence of 21 absorption peaks of the isolated peptide extract. The two-stage-radial diffusions method was used to study the activity of the crude peptide against the studied bacteria. The results showed that these peptides were effective without any resistance. The best effect was on the Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of 31 mm inhibition, while the less effect was on the Salmonella typhimurium with a diameter of 20 mm.

Incidence of internal parasites of the slaughtered local breeds of ducks and geese

Baydaa Younis Al-lahaibi; Manal Himmadi Hasan; Ahlam Fathi Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126242.1272

This study was carried out to determine the presence of gastrointestinal parasites of local ducks and geese in Nineveh province. Sixty-four ducks and seventy geese of different ages and sexes were purchased from local markets. Necropsy findings in ducks reviled a total infection rate of 68.8% was with protozoa, 50% was with nematodes, while 28.1% were with cestodes. On the other hand, in geese, the percentages with the mentioned parasites were 78.6% with protozoa, 54.2% with nematodes, 31.4% with cestodes. Four types of nematodes were identified in ducks; Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, and Subulura brompti, the same were also found in geese except Heterakis.isolonche. Cestodes identified in ducks and geese were Railletina tetragona, Railletina echinobothrda, Railletina cesticillus and Coantaenia infundibulum. The detected protozoa include Eimeria spp., Tyzeria spp., Wenyonella spp., Cryptosporidia spp., Giardia spp. Double infection with parasite was higher in ducks while the triple infection in geese was the higher.

Histopathological effects of experimental exposure to lead on nervous system in albino female rats

Asrar Al-khafaf; Hana Kh. Ismail; Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 45-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126248.1273

Lead toxicity is a common health issue. Lead (Pb) is harmful to vital organs of body particularly the nervous system. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on the cerebellum, cerebrum and spinal cord in rat model, focusing on histopathological changes. 24 female mature albino rats of 200-300g randomly divided into 2 groups, the first is the control, and the second group were treated with lead acetate at dose 30mg/kg B.W. for 30 days. Microscopic examination revealed degeneration and necrosis of Purkinje cells and molecular cells and decrease in the number of granular cells and molecular cells also observed. Some Purkinje cells lost axons and shrunken and some areas showed depletion of Purkinje cells. Congestion of blood vessels with perivascular cuffing of mononuclear inflammatory cells, hemorrhage, neurophagia, glial nodules were observed in the brain parenchyma. Demyelination reported in white matter, with microglial proliferation around vertebral canal of spinal cord. This study referred to the increased risk of central nervous system damage due to the exposure to lead.

Detection of multiple presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep at Duhok abattoir, Iraq

Shireen A. Yousif; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multi-presence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses at Duhok abattoir using ELISA technique. Eighty-eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty-two sheep carcasses. These samples included Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney. The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

Chemopreventive effect of Quercus infectoria galls on DMBA induced mouse skin tumorigenesis

Sherzad Ibrahim Mustafa; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 57-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126267.1281

Chemoprevention is an important strategy to control the process of carcinogenesis and a number of plants with anti-cancer properties are being researched, some of which have shown promising results. Quercus infectoria galls is a well-known medicinal plant which has been used in medicine as larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of the aqueous extract on the two stage process of skin carcinogenesis, consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) three times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, and cumulative number of papilloma was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with 2 gm/kg of Quercus infectoria galls extract as compared to the positive control group treated with DMBA plus croton oil administered. Furthermore, Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced significantly before and after galls extract oral administration. The results thus concluded that Quercus infectoria galls extract exhibits significant anti-tumor activity and may serve in future drug development programs for the cancer prevention of skin cancer.

Effects of COQ10 with vitamin E supplementation on semen quality and seminal plasma parameters of broiler breeder males

Samah M. Raouf; Ahmed T. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 65-70
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126287.1289

This study aimed at detecting the effects of COQ10 with and without vitamin E on some semen characteristics of the broiler breeder males. Twenty-five males at 43weeks of age divided into five categories of treatment with five replicates. The first treatment (control group) included drenching with corn oil capsules only. The second and fourth treatments were about drenching with capsules containing the COQ10 enzyme at a concentration of 5 mg / male / day with and without10 mg of vitamin E whereas the third and fifth treatments included drenching with capsules containing the Q10 enzyme at a concentration of 10 mg / male / day with and without 10 mg of vitamin E. This whole scheme of treatments was to study their effects on certain semen and seminal plasma properties. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the ejaculation volume, both individual and mass motility in addition to sperm concentration, all accrediting the fifth treatment. Furthermore, the results clear a significant decrease in the percentage of dead and abnormal sperms. The COQ10 with and without vitamin E led to improved semen quality marking a reduction in AST and ALT, glucose concentration and total protein with improved antioxidant status referring to a high level of GSH and low MDA. We conclude from this study that COQ10 with and without vitamin E has the ability to improve the semen characteristics of age-old broiler breeder males and can improve the status of antioxidants in semen.

Evaluation the safety and synergistic effect of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with antibiotic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Hala M. Majeed; Heba Younis Khalef; Halah Abdulkhaleq Awadh; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Nihad Abdul-Hussain jafar; Khaild Ahmad Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 71-77
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126298.1294

The antimicrobial resistance currently impedes and threatens the future of effective prevention and treatment of the continually expanding range of infections caused by bacteria. This study aimed to identify the bacterial causes the wound infection among animals and using the antibiotic/nanoparticles mixture as a new attempt for the treatment the wound infection induced in rats. For this purpose, 112 swabs wound infection cases in the different animal types (36 sheep, 21 goats, 12 cows, 4 horses, 8 dogs, 9 rabbits, 7 genies pigs and 15 rats) were studied in the for bacterial isolation. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was tested for its sensitivity to the antibiotics and the nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and NiFe2O4) in vitro by using the MIC method. Also the wound infection was induced in the rats and the effect of nanoparticles/antibiotics mixture were tested in vivo. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was the predominant bacterial type that the caused wound infection. The minimum inhibitor concentration of NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were 32 µg /ml and 16 µg /ml respectively. A clear synergistic effect of antibiotic/ nanoparticles as antibacterial were noticed which appear as a decrease in MIC and increase of the inhibitory diameter zone. According to the result of Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA test, the nanoparticles effects on genetic material of P. aeruginosa observed as an appearance/disappearance of bands, increase in thickness and clarity of the bands.

Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum from sheep and goats in Duhok governorate, Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126330.1298

Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat, form Duhok Governorate including: Barwaria, Zakho, Sumeil, Mangeshik, Sersing, Shekhan and Akre, between May and June 2016, between April and June 2017. The result found during this study were six species under two genera of the hard ticks were identified by molecular study and sequencing including: three species were under the genus Hyalomma and three species were under the genus Rhipiciphalus that infect small ruminants in Duhok governorate from these species a new species under the Hylomma genra (Hyalomma asiatium asiaticum) with accession number (MN594484), was first time reported in Duhok governorate. Also phylogenetic tree was constructed depend on the 16S rRNA.

A histological study on the effect of imatinib on the rats' testis after early postnatal exposure

luma khalel; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 85-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126342.1303

The safety region of imatinib, and markedly its role in testicular toxicity has been studied in a controversial manner in current years. This study was designed to address the repercussion of administration of groups of pups with imatinib mesylate (at neonatal or infantile periods) using histological analysis of their testes in several end points and in adulthood. Intact pups (albino-male) exposed to 200 mg/kg of oral imatinib once daily at neonatal and early infantile period on PND 1 to PND10 (for ten days). All experiments performed with age and weight matched control which administered with Distilled water. Pups were into categorized into 4 subgroups, according to the ages of euthanasia: 15 days postpartum (PND); 40days postpartum; 70 days postpartum and 140 days postpartum. The histological analysis was conducted in blind fashion after staining with (Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Ten randomly selected testicular sections from each rat were analyzed qualitatively and quantitavely. In addition, Johnsen' scores were used to analyze the effect of drug on spermatogenesis. Data were recorded and value is considered as significant when it P

Effect of adding different levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) on growth and chemical composition criteria of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Mahmoud A. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126362.1308

This study was conducted to evaluate the addition of three levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp), 96 common carp Cyprinus carpio L. at a mean weight of 5±0.15 g/fish on four experimental diets with three replicates per treatment 0% with three experimental diets containing 0.75%, 1%, and 1.5% of the total diet 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the parameters of the total weight increase, daily growth rate, relative growth rate, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein productive value between the control diet and the fish feeding on the fourth diet, meanwhile there were no a significant difference in final weight, food intake, protein efficiency ratio criteria. Chemical body analysis revered there were no a significant difference for dry weight, crude protein and ash, while cinnamon powder added have a significantly differences in body fat deposited. Based on the above results, 1.5% cinnamon can be added can improve the growth performance and nutritional value of common carp fish.

Molecular fingerprinting of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human and poultry in Duhok, Iraq

Hishiyar A Hado; Mahde S Assafi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 99-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126375.1310

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recently identified in poultry and farm workers. The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiological relatedness of MRSA among chickens and farmworker. MRSA isolates (n=50) from human (n=14) and from chikens (n=36) were tested for molecular epidemiological relatedness between human and poultry. RAPD-PCR was carried out for fingerprinting of MRSA isolates genome. Seven genotypes group (A-G) have been identified. All human MRSA were belonging to genotype A. Whereas, chickens MRSA isolates was belonging to different genotype patterns groups (A-G). To conclude, human MRSA was belonging to one genotype pattern but the chickens MRSA strains were belonging to seven genotypes. The genotype pattern A was the most dominant among all MRSA isolates. It is possible that the chickens play an important role for the human exposure to MRSA by direct contact. Further studies are required to address the relatedness between human and chicken MRSA.

Molecular differentiation of Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species based on 18s rRNA gene in small ruminants

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Yahia Kh. Ismail; Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Israa N. Ibadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126407.1313

This study was conducted to investigate Anoplocephalidia Cestoda in sheep and goat and evaluate the 18s rRNA to genetically differentiate the genera of this family. Sixty sample tapeworms were collected from small intestines of 30 sheep and 30 goats from different slaughterhouses in Al-Najaf and Al-Qadisiyah provinces, during September, 2016 to February, 2017. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 18s rRNA gene partial sequencing (18sGPS) methods used, tapeworm infection of sheep and goat’s intestines was 32.9% and 31.4%, respectively. The partial gene sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene showed two closely related isolates of M. benedeni which are aligned distinctly to an NCBI isolate of the same species from China. For T. giardia, the outcomes of the phylogenetic analysis unveiled three distinct local isolates which were similar to an NCBI database isolate from China. The current data ensure the importance of the molecular techniques in differentiating between Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species that were identified for their presence in the small intestines of sheep and goats.

Effect of levofloxacin on some body tissues in mice

Rand A. Abdullah; Faten D. Taee; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126416.1316

Levofloxacin is a third generation of fluoroquinolones family. It is commonly used in the treatment of a several bacterial infections. However, misusing antibiotics impose damage to hepatocytes and myocytes. The present study was conducted to access the effect of levofloxacin on tissue histology in mice taking in consideration dose and duration of exposure. 24 matured male Albino mice were divided into 3 groups, Group G1: was considered as a control group. They received normal saline intraperitoneally / day. Group G2: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 10 days. Group G3: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. Microscopic examination of liver sections of group G2 revealed severe congestion of blood vessels in the portal area and central veins with inflammatory cells infiltration. While in group G3, Apoptosis, Degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with giant cell transformation were noticed. In addition to kupffer’s cell activation. Heart sections showed moderate congestion of blood vessels with edema in between the myocytes and inflammatory cells infiltration. Group G3 Necrosis with pyknosis of cardiac muscle nuclei was noticed. We concluded that levofloxacin induces toxic effects on liver and heart according to the dose of administration and duration of treatment.

Clinical and molecular identification of ruling Theileria annulata strains in cattle calves in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Asaad A. Jasim; Noor E. Jarad; Saba F. Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126429.1319

This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary status of T. annulata in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. In this study, the clinical examination of 50 infected animals was performed with blood sample collection (2.5ml per animal), and drug targets cytochrome b, a vital component of the electron transfer chain in the mitochondria of the protozoan, cytb gene was targeted using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure. Also, 18S rRNA gene as a molecular target for the PCR and a partial gene sequencing (PGS) were included. The PCR that involved using the 18S rRNA and cytb genes as genetic targets revealed amplification of the targeted pieces at 620bp and 1092bp, respectively, in all tested samples. The18S rRNA gene sequence of local T. annulata isolates were aligned with global reference strains for T. annulata recorded in the GenBank. The local strains were close, 100%, in their identity to isolates from Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan; however, they were 99% similar to a nucleotide sequences from India and Bangladesh. Diseased calves showed clinical signs such as high fever (40.3-41.5°C), decreased appetite or in appetence, asymmetrical enlargement of superficial lymph nodes particularly the pre-scapular ones, some cases with diarrhea, pale or icteric mucus membrane of eyes, bulging eyes, lacrimation, ecchymotic hemorrhages on the sclera, incoordination, nervous signs (Dullness, depression, lethargy), salivation, and bloated young calves. The data observed from the present inspecting work may reveal genetic evolution in the local strains with others recorded in the GeneBank. This means that our local strains might have close relationships with some global strains.

Toxic effects of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany; Entisar R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 121-128
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126435.1322

This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity in rats of heated and un heatedbutylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Sunflower oil dissolved BHT, heated at 98±2ºC by a water bath. The animals were divided into five groups. The control group dosage orally with sunflower oil, the first group treated with 250 mg/kg BHT, the second group treated with 250 mg/kg heated, BHT the third group treated with 500 mg/kg BHT and the fourth group treated with 500 mg/kg heated BHT. All groups received oral treatment. The results showed a substantial reduction in motor activity relative to other groups at a dose of 250 mg/kg heated BHT. There was a substantial distinction in the negative geotaxis test in groups of 500 mg/kg heated and un-heated BHT, while a cliff avoidance test in the heat treated dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg was observed in the cliff avoidance test compared to other groups. A significant reduction occurred in all groups in the pocketing and dorsal tonic immobility test. The pathological changes of heated BHT groups were more severe than those of un-heated BHT groups especially the dose of 500 mg/kg heated BHT. It represented by coagulative necrosis, muscle atrophy in heart, interstitial pneumonia, serofibrinous exudate, pulmonary emphysema in lung and neuronal degeneration, microgliosis, myelin vacuolation and satellitosis in the brain. The study concluded that heated BHT at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg had toxic effects to motor and neurobehavioral activity, and histopathological changes in the brain, heart, and lung.

Development of the wing bones in quail’s embryo; Coturnix japonica

Hadia K. Zorab; Kamal A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126438.1324

Quail is an essential model in avian research because of economic importance in poultry industries around the world. Furthermore, its use in the experimental embryology research field. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the onset of chondrification and ossification of the wing bones also to summarize the main histological sequences related to the formation of the humerus in Japanese quail. Six embryos were taken every 24 hrs from 3-16 days of incubation. Three embryos were prepared and stained with Alcian blue and Alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. The other three embryos have been processed for histological examination. The Macroscopical findings showed that the humerus, radius, ulna, coracoid, scapula, third, and fourth metacarpals were chondrified on 5th day. However, first signs of ossification were observed in the humerus, radius, and ulna on 8th day. While the minor digit remained none ossified at prehatching. The microscopical stages of developing humerus associated with the limb bud, apical ectodermal ridge formation, and chondrocyte differentiation on 3rd, 4th, and 5th day, respectively. The cartilage template of the humerus was established on 6th day. The diaphysis and epiphyses of the humerus were formed on 7th and 8th day, correspondingly. The periosteal-bone collar was formed on 8th day, and vascularization of chondroepiphysis has occurred on 9th day. There was a difference in the timing of chondrification and ossification in the forelimb skeleton and humerus developed by the endochondral mechanism. The obtained results should be considered in teratological and molecular studies in skeletogenesis.

Ultrasonography of left displaced abomasum in local cattle breed

Osama M. Aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 139-144
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126447.1328

The aims of the current study were a definitive diagnosis of left displaced abomasum by using ultrasonography furthermore determination of abomasal position and measurements. Study includes sixteen local cattle breed, six have anorexia, weakness and drop milk production, on clinical examination there was decrease rumen contractions 3.6 \ 5 minutes, furthermore a pinging sound heard on auscultation of left intercostal spaces there were diagnosed as left displaced abomasum, other ten clinically healthy cows considered as normal control group. Ultrasonographic imaging was performed for stand nonsedated cows by use 3.5-5 MHz transducer at the ventral midline and in the intercostal spaces 9, 10, 11, and 12 from the left side. Ultrasonography revealed a left side displaced abomasum to an area between the abdominal wall and the rumen, which appeared as hypoechoic fluid content ventrally and hyperechoic parallel echogenic lines of gas gap dorsally, abomasal folds appear as filiform echogenic lines. While in healthy cows an abomasum located in the ventral midline and directed mainly to the right side. In conclusion, ultrasonography as a non-invasive technique could be used as a confirmative diagnosis of left displaced abomasal and help for differential diagnosis of left abomasum displacement a well as can be useful for measurement of abomasum in healthy local breed cattle.

Bronchodilator activity of ethyl acetate extract of Nigella sativa

Ihsan Husain Mohammed Ali; Qasim Hasso Abdullah; Omer AL-Habib

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 145-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126455.1333

This study aims to investigate the mechanism(s) included in the bronchodilation effect exerted by Nigella sativa. Ethyl acetate extract (NS.EA) was prepared using a maceration method. Adult albino rats were recruited for thoracotomy and removal of the trachea. After cutting into pieces, the tissue was set in organ bath. The influence of cumulative concentrations of ethyl acetate extract was examined on contractile responses of isolated trachea to acetylcholine using different blockers such as Nifedipine (Ca2+channel blocker), Tetraethylammonium (Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker), Glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), BaCl2 (inward rectifier K+ channel blocker), methylene blue (soluble gaunylate cyclase inhibitor) and indomethacin (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Significant inhibition of bronchodilation was observed when tracheal rings were pretreated with indomethacin and BaCl2 with (P<0.001), and with methylene blue and nifedipine with (P<0.05). The IC50s were (5.635, 6.9, 7.86 and 4.987 mg/ml) respectively. Conversely, 4-AP, GLIB and TEA showed no significant changes in the bronchodilation induced by the extract. Therefore, The Emax value for indomethacin significantly reduced from 101.34 to 73.28%, BaCl2 from 53.62 to 30.31%, methylene blue from 55.78 to 38.94% and nifedipine from 101.34 to 80.88%. On the other hand, the Emax for 4-AP and GLIB were non-significantly reduced from 53.62 to 40.14 and 40.13% respectively; and TEA more or less unchanged to 54.34%. In general, ethyl acetate extract of N. sativa induces bronchodilation through four mechanisms (activation of Kir channel, non-selective cyclooxygenase and to lesser extent the soluble guanylate cyclase, and blockade of Ca2+ channel).

Effect of methotrexate and aspirin interaction and its relationship to oxidative stress in rats

yamama zuher Alabdaly; Mohammed Ghassan saeed; Hadeel mohammed Al-hashemi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 151-156
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126490.1335

This study aims to investigate the effect of aspirin in methotrexate toxicity (increase or decrease) relating to oxidative stress and histopathological changes of the liver and kidney in male rats. Twenty rats were divided into equal 4 groups, the first is considered control group, the second was treated with methotrexate in a dose of 10 mg/kg, the third was treated with methotrexate and aspirin in doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg respectively, the fourth was treated with aspirin alone with a dose of 30 mg/kg. All doses were given by daily oral dosage for 4 constitutive days. The result revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of both glutathione and albumin and a significant increase in the concentration of both malondialdehyde and ALT enzyme in the two groups treated with methotrexate alone or in combination with aspirin as compared to the control group. The histopathology revealed that the severity of lesions was in the group of methotrexate with aspirin, group of methotrexate only and a group of aspirin respectively, which are representing by coagulative necrosis and hypertrophy of hepatocytes in the liver while the lesions of kidney were atrophy of some glomeruli and renal cystic formation. The study concludes that aspirin increases the toxic effect of methotrexate at the level of oxidative stress concomitant with the occurrence of hepatic and renal toxicity.

Evaluation of the heavy metal content in the muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in groundwater in Basrah province, Iraq

Arafat Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126491.1336

The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Cd) in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in groundwater in Khor Al-Zubair, Basrah province (in the south of Iraq) were assessed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. XRF is a powerful technique for element analysis in different environmental samples with many advantages compared with conventional laboratory methods. The mean concentration of the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish (Cr= 11.42, Ni= 2.75, Hg=1.53, Pb= 1.93, and Cd=4.42 mg/ kg dry weight) exceeded the recommended maximum acceptable levels proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), The commission of the European Communities (EC), and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The results suggest that the tested fish muscle tissue was not safe for human consumption and that the groundwater in the Khor al-Zubair area is possibly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly owing to industrial activity.

Creatine kinase and C reactive protein as an indicator for tissue damage in the retained placenta in cows

Barra D. Al-Watar; Eman Lazim; Osama H. Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 163-167
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126496.1338

The current study aimed to investigate concentrations of Creatine Kinase (CK) and C Reactive Protein (CRP) in blood serum of cows with the retained placenta to compare with cows of normal parturition, also, to compare their concentrations in association with fetal sex, previous parturition and time to placenta expel. A total of sixty-three cows suffered from retained placenta with cows of normal parturition (n=10) were included in the current study during the period starting from December 2018 till September 2019. Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from the jugular vein to determine the concentration of CRP and CK in blood serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA). The result showed that the serum concentrations of CRP and CK in cows suffering from retained placenta was 28.03 μg/ml and 238.93 ng/ml significantly higher than in cows with normal parturition 22.80 µg/ml and 137.50 ng/ml. The result of ELIZA showed that the serum concentration of CRP and CK in cows did not significantly affect depending upon the sex of the fetus and previous parturition history. On other hands, the serum concentration of CRP and CK in cows significantly differed depending upon the time to expel the placenta. In conclusion, the serum concentration of CRP and CK in cows with retained placenta was markedly higher than recorded in cows with normal parturition, and this can be used to identify days past since cows with retained placenta and to give a prognosis for their health and reproductive status.

Biomarkering metabolic activities of the tapeworm Khawia armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915) in association to its fish host Barbus grypus (Hekle, 1843)

Bushra H. Al-Niaeemi; Maruah H. Dawood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126518.1339

The present work was aimed to study the relation between the tapeworm Khawia armeniaca infection and some metabolic extents in both the parasitic tapeworm and the parasitized fish Barbus grypus, using LDH and transaminase activities as a vital connotation. 57 adult Barbus grypus fish (Hekle fish) were hunted from Tigris river - Rashidiya area -North of Mosul - Iraq. The adult tapeworm K. armeniaca were collected from small intestine of the fish. Extract of Liver and intestinal tissues of the infected and uninfected fish in addition to tapeworm tissues were prepared. Some macromolecules concentrations and LD, AST and ALT activities were assayed using colorimetric methods.The results revealed that concentration of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids were lesser significantly at P≤0.05 in the intestinal tissues of infected fish 176.92µg/gm wet weight, 147.21µg/gm wet weight and 112.14 mg/dl respectively than that of uninfected fish 264.70µg/gm wet weight, 223.71µg/gm wet weight and 176.37 mg/dl respectively. Concentration of lipids in the tapeworm tissues was relatively high 130.67mg/dl. As for Liver LDH activity, it was significantly higher in the infected fish 279.90 IU/L than that of the uninfected fish 253.56 IU/L. whereas, liver ALT activity was diminished significantly at P≤0.05 in the liver of uninfected fish. On the other hands, there were no significant different in liver AST activity between the infected and the uninfected fish. There were significant differences at P≤0.05 between activities of the three enzymes in both infected and uninfected fish and tapeworm tissues. On the other hands, AST activity 35.46 IU/L was relatively higher than ALT activity 27.22 IU/L in tapeworm tissues. It is concluded that activitiesofliver LDH and ALT were significantly affected by intestinal tapeworm infection in Hekle fish and may considered as bioindicators for tapeworm infection in fish.

Effect of supplementation of rumen protected methionine and lysine on some physiological aspects of fattening calves

Hiyam N. Maty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 177-181
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126580.1344

This study was carried out during the period from February-April 2019 at a private breeding field. A total of 82 imported calves for fattening 9-12 month of age. These calves were divided randomly into 3 groups and treated for 90 days as follows: G1 (27 calves) supplied with basal diet only and considered as the control group, Calves of G2 (27 calves) of were supplied with basal diet complemented with RPM in complete feed using 15 g/animal/day, while G3 (28 calves) was supplied with basal diet complemented with RPL with 10g/animal/day. The results showed a significant increase in growth hormone value in the G2 in comparison with G1 and G3 at 90-day post-treatment. While the mean values of body weight were (310.8±12.97) and (334.3±15.41) in G2 at 60 and 90 days respectively with significance deference in compare with G1and G3 (p≤ 0.05). The significant increase in red blood cells count (RBCs) showed in G2, while the White Blood Cells (WBCs) increased in G1 when compare between groups. In addition, the results showed a significant increase (p< 0.05) in cholesterol and triglycerides values in G2 in compare with G1 and G3. While no significant changes in total protein values revealed between groups. The results of this study confirmed that supplementation of RPM has the potential to improve body weight in fattening calves with the enhancement of the immune status of animals and enhancement of oxygen flow to the tissues by increasing of RBCs counts especially with RPM, but lasser effects with RPL.

The impact of storage duration and conditions on the formation of biogenic amines and microbial content in poultry meat

Shamail Abdulaali Saewa; Zaid Khalaf Khidhir; mustafa hamza Al Bayati

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126584.1346

 This research was conducted to estimate the safety of breast and thigh meat (Ross 308) stored in refrigeration and freezing for different periods (0, 3 and 6) and (0, 15 and 30) days, respectively (total samples 12). High pH found in the 6th day of refrigeration storage for thigh meat; 6.414, while low recorded in the 6th day for breast meat; 5.757. High pH was found in the freezing storage period 0 day for chicken breast meat; 6.168, and low pH was found in breast meat in the 30th day of freezing storage; 5.826. The 6th day of refrigeration storage gave the highest TPC for thigh meat; 111.33×106 cfu/ gm. Also, the 15th day of freezing storage recorded significant increase in TPC for breast and thigh meat; 244×105 cfu/ gm and 274×105 cfu/ gm respectively. Significant differences were noted for histamine, cadaverine and spermidine during storage periods, high levels recorded in the 6th day of storage for breast meat; 0.395, 0.078 and 0.643 mg/ kg respectively. Significant differences were noted between the mean levels of biogenic amines for breast samples during all storage periods. High levels of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine and spermidine were recorded in the 15h day of storage; 2.654, 0.358, 1.589, 0.124 and 2.652 mg/ kg respectively. In thigh meat, significant differences were recorded for levels of biogenic amines during the freezing storage periods except putrescine. Histamine did not exceed the legal limit set by the US FDA; 50 mg/ kg in all samples.

The effect of CO-Q10 on the testicular histological changes in rats induced by imatinib

Luma K. Al-Allaf; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126587.1347

The safety zone of imatinib, and specifically its relevancy to organ toxicity, has been discussed dialectically in current years. Oxidative stress may be one of the causes of imatinib -mediated toxicity. This study aimed to examine the possible role of co-enzyme Q10 in ameliorating the adverse effect of imatinib on the testicular histology of male albino rats -if it is present. Twenty-eight male Albino rats were used randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: Group 1 includes 40-45 days aged rats (n=8) which were gavage a dose of 200 mg/kg/day/30 days of imatinib mesylate. Group 2 includes age matched control rats which were administered with distilled water(n=4). Group 3 includes eight rats were received Q10, 50mg/kg, alone, Q10-sorb capsule of 50 mg given with the same schedule. Group 4. Includes eight rats were co administrated orally with 50 mg/kg of Q10+200 mg/kg of imatinib (once/day/30days). Euthanizing of animals with ether 24 hours after the final dose was done. Testes of rats from each experimental group were obtained. The tissues processed and stained by routine histological method. Histological sections of testes's rats treated with 200mg/Kg of imatinib revealed different testicular lesions compared to those of control group (P<0.05). Six 6(75%) of these sections revealed degenerated tubules, detached Sertoli cells, and apoptosis. These histological sections also showed thick tunica albuginea, seminiferous tubules with thick basement membrane. sometimes only a few of Sertoli cells were appeared in histological sections of imatinib treated rats. Mean Johnsen’s scores in these sections was 5.1±0.1 (P˂0.001). Features of retained spermatid were also noticed in some sections. There was significant reduction in both seminiferous tubular diameter and the epithelial height of histological sections of group 2(P˂0.001) with mean of 140.2±3.2µm and 14.8±1.1 µm respectively. Moreover, the number of Sertoli cells/ seminiferous tubule were significantly increased (P˂0.001), with mean of 27.4±0.2 and Leydig cell number is also significantly raised with mean of 7.5±0.5. In conclusion, treatment of peripubertal rats with imatinib induced several testicular alterations (including Sertoli cells) in comparison to control rats indicated that this drug is a gonadotoxic agent as it affects the quality and quantity of spermatogenesis. An Ameliorating effect of co-enzyme Q10 co-administration on imatinib-induced testicular toxicity was concluded.

Semen collection in Rusa timorensis under general anaesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine: Clinical study

Wan-Nor Fitri; Wahid Haron; Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Siti Aimi Sarah; Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi; Muhammad Azrolharith; Zubaidah Kamarudin; Donny Yawah; Ahmad Zulhizri; Che-Amat Azlan; Yap Keng Chee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 197-205
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126614.1350

There is a scarcity of information for a reliable and safe protocol for semen collection in R. timorensis. The induction of general anesthesia by Ketamine-Xylazine in both intravenous and intramuscular routes provides valuable information for the practicality of the procedure. Five healthy and matured Rusa timorensisstags, aged more than 3 years, weighing an average of 68.5 ± 2.4 kg were selected for this experiment. General anaesthesia was conducted by using a combination of Ketamine and Xylazine at the dosage of 2mg/kg, and 1mg/kg respectively in both intramuscular and intravenous routes. The procedure was performed from April to November 2012 resulting in 30 collections. The physiological parameters included were respiratory rate, heart rate and temperature before, during and post-procedure. The onset, recovery and total time are significantly different between IV and IM route at 5.13 ± 0.88 min, 7.47 ± 1.61 min, 18.67 ± 1.47 min, and 11.67 ± 1.44 min, 11.73 ± 1.03 min and, 29.07 ± 4.01 min respectively. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in the duration time of anesthesia between IV and IM route at 15.27 ± 3.03 min and 17.40 ± 3.55 min respectively. Both routes provide the same success rate and yield the same semen quality, however, the intravenous route is desirable due to fast induction and recovery time. General anaesthesia is integral for the restraining of wild cervidae, intravenous route of drug administration should be considered for semen collection in Rusa deer.

Isolation and identification of Circovirus in pigeon

Safwan Yousif Al-Baroodi; Mozahim yasen Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 207-210
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126706.1364

The purpose of this study is first trial to detect of pigeon circovirus, so 1sr group include 100 cloacal swabs were collected 55 healthy and 45 ill pigeons, 36 yearlings and 64 adults, the 2nd group included organs was liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius from 41 young pigeons 10-30 days old and bursa of Fabricius, liver, spleen from 28 dead in shell pigeon embryo in the 3rd group. DNA extracted from this samples and detection of virus DNA was attempt using polymerase chain reaction, after DNA amplification, the final products of the amplicon with 331 bp was cleared by using electrophoresis using agarose gel at concentration 2%. Results of viral DNA amplification were positive, which revealed as band in 331 bp the results showed that ill yearling pigeons recording high infectivity rate 66.7% compare with healthy yearling pigeons and adult once, the bursa of Fabricius samples of dead yearling pigeons recorded high prevalence 36.58% when compare with liver and spleen samples, DNA of pigeon circovirus high detected 60.71% in bursa of Fabricius of dead in shell pigeon embryo.in conclusion pigeon circovirus affected the racing pigeon in Mosul, Iraq.