Main Subjects : Biology


Bronchodilator activity of ethyl acetate extract of Nigella Sativa

Ihsan Husain Mohammed Ali; Qasim Hasso Abdullah; Omer Abdul Majeed AL-Habib

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126455.1333

This study aims to investigate the mechanism(s) included in the bronchodilation effect exerted by Nigella sativa. Ethyl acetate extract (NS.EA) was prepared using a maceration method. Adult albino rats were recruited for thoracotomy and removal of the trachea. After cutting into pieces, the tissue was set in organ bath. The influence of cumulative concentrations of ethyl acetate extract was examined on contractile responses of isolated trachea to acetylcholine using different blockers such as Nifedipine (Ca2+channel blocker), Tetraethylammonium (Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channel blocker), Glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), BaCl2 (inward rectifier K+ channel blocker), methylene blue (soluble gaunylate cyclase inhibitor) and indomethacin (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Significant inhibition of bronchodilation was observed when tracheal rings were pretreated with indomethacin and BaCl2 with (P<0.001), and with methylene blue and nifedipine with (P<0.05). The IC50s were (5.635, 6.9, 7.86 and 4.987 mg/ml) respectively. Conversely, 4-AP, GLIB and TEA showed no significant changes in the bronchodilation induced by the extract. Therefore, The Emax value for indomethacin significantly reduced from 101.34 to 73.28%, BaCl2 from 53.62 to 30.31%, methylene blue from 55.78 to 38.94% and nifedipine from 101.34 to 80.88%. On the other hand, the Emax for 4-AP and GLIB were non-significantly reduced from 53.62 to 40.14 and 40.13% respectively; and TEA more or less unchanged to 54.34%. In general, ethyl acetate extract of N. sativa induces bronchodilation through four mechanisms (activation of Kir channel, non-selective cyclooxygenase and to lesser extent the soluble guanylate cyclase, and blockade of Ca2+ channel).

Antimicrobial activity of peptides extracted from camels' blood neutrophils against some pathogenic bacteria

M.A. Mahmood; M.A. Essa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126239.1270

The aim of the current research was to isolate and purify antimicrobial cationic peptides (Amps) taken from camel blood and to study its antibacterial activity against some multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis. The results showed the possibility of obtaining these peptides from camel's white blood cells, and was separated by using Reversed-Phased-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) technical equipment. The results showed the presence of 21 absorption peaks of the isolated peptide extract. The two-stage-radial diffusions method was used to study the activity of the crude peptide against the studied bacteria. The results showed that these peptides were effective without any resistance. The best effect was on the Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of 31 mm inhibition, while the less effect was on the Salmonella typhimurium with a diameter of 20 mm.

The genotype of Entamoeba histolytica in bloody diarrhea samples of humans, cows and sheep

Hassan H. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 453-458
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126135.1242

The present study was carried out to detect the genotype of E. histolytica that found in human fecal specimens and animals feces with Haemorrgic diarrhea by amplifying the SREHP gene, using RT-PCR technique, Cyber ​​green dye and by fusion curve analysis. The study also included molecular detection of amoebic parasite species using Nested-PCR technology. The study recorded presence of parasites E. histolytica; E. dispar; E. bovis with total infection rates 82.9, 26.8, 4.9%, respectively. The study revealed the presence of E. histolytica parasite in five different genotypes (I, II, III, IV, V) with rate presence 9.75, 53.65, 19.5, 9.75, 7.3%, respectively. In conclusion, there are five genotype of E. histolytica, in human and animals, most of these genotypes may be infect any host, E. bovis was recorded in sheep and cows.

Detection of similarity and genetic distance between Iraqi chicken varieties and different standard strains

Thamer A. Ezzulddin; Dhyaa M. Jwher; Sufian A. Dabdoub

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 333-337
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126109.1235

Forty-eight wing vein blood samples were collected from different locations of poultry rearing farms and back yard chickens of Nineveh governorate from the of local and exotic chicken. The chicken divided into twelve groups four birds each according to colors and phenotype for the local and exotic chicken respectively. Blood DNA was extracted and amplified by thermocycler apparatus and the electrophoresis was done using 1.2% agarose gel for DNA bands exhibiting. The results showed high genetic similarity within the local chickens ranged between 0.78- 0.96 at an average of 0.88, while it ranged between 0.73- 0.86 at an average of 0.78 in exotic breeds. The degree of similarity between Iraqi and exotic breeds was 0.74-0.88 at average of 0.80. The calculated average of differences among each of Iraqi and exotic chickens and in between were 0.12, 0.22 and 0.20, respectively. However, the genetic distance within the local chicken, exotic breed and in between them was 0.128, 0.24 and 0.21 respectively. The study concluded that the genetic similarity was higher within local chicken groups than those of exotic breeds.

Application of ultrasound contra infection with secondary hydatidosis in mice

Baraa B. Ramdan; Asmaa A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 397-403
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126132.1240

The present research explained the impact of ultrasound on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro application of fixed frequency waves at 20000 pulse/sec and 1.8 w/cm2, with different exposing periods, thirty, twenty, fifteen, twelve, ten and five seconds respectively, subsequently prevention of mice against interjected with minor hydatid cysts, in comparison with the control animals infected with protoscolices without exposure to ultrasound waves, depending on many criteria including the numbers, weights and diameters of developed hydatid cysts. The results displayed an obvious impact of ultrasound waves on Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices viability number by increase of exposure period in vitro, in addition to a decrease of 100% of hydatid cysts numbers in the dealt ones with 17% fertility exposed for 20 seconds, the reduction rate was 99.23% in the group of fertility 35% which exposed for 15 seconds, after four and five months of infection.