Main Subjects : Veterinary Clinical Pathology

Phylogenetic analysis of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Iraqi Awassi sheep

Saad Al-Husseiny; Asaad Jassim; Khalefa A. Mansour; Qassim H. kshash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 351-355
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126172.1255

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection in sheep results in contagious ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The aim of this study was to detect the presence of JSRV in Iraqi Awassi sheep of Al-Qadisiyah Province using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Lung secretion samples from 50 adult sheep (1.5 to 2-year-old) during 2016-2018 that were suffering from chronic respiratory distress with suspected clinical OPA were collected. RT-PCR assay for detection of JSRV was conducted using primers specific for its 382 bp envelope protein gene. The results showed that 22 of the 50 (44%) lung secretion samples were positive for JSRV. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the JSRV sequence detected in the local Iraqi sheep population was closely related to NCBI BLAST locus isolates KT279066.1 and KT279065.1. The study found that the JSRV disease is prevalent in the Iraqi Awassi sheep flocks and that the local JSRV isolate is genetically divergent from most other global isolates. 

The significance of milk ring test for identifying brucella antibodies in cows and buffaloes' raw milk at Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq

D.A. Al-Mashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 395-400
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163085

This study was undertaken to monitor Brucella antibodies in the milk of cows and buffaloes in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, using mik ring test (MRT) assay. A total of 210 samples of milk (130 from cows and 80 from buffaloes) were randomly collected from lactating females. The overall prevalence of Brucella antibodies in all the milk samples was 8.6% (18/210). The highest rate was 9.2% found in the cow milk (12/130), while the lowest rate was 7.5% of the buffalo’s milk (6/80). Out of 210 milk samples, only 15 (7.1%) were culture-positive for Brucella; about 7.7% (10/130) and 6.3% (5/80) from cows and buffaloes respectively. In terms of comparison between MRT and standard milk culture method, MRT was found more sensitive (83%), specific (98%), with the accuracy of 97% in comparison to the employed culture approach to detect Brucellosis agents in milk. The results also revealed that 70% and 60% of isolates were Brucella abortus, while 30% and 40% were Brucella melitensis from the milk of cow and buffaloes respectively. The highest rate of frequency for Brucella antibodies according to MRT was found in February (12.1%), while the lowest rate was found in June (5.7%). This study emphasizes that Brucellosis is still a significant public health hazard in the Kurdistan region. The study recommends MRT adoption in routine monitoring of brucellosis in milk collection centre, dairy factories, and farm. Consumers are also recommended to sufficiently heat the milk to destroy this foodborne pathogen before consumption or industrial processing.

Sequencing-based phylogenetic-study of Babesia spp detected in tick tissues in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Marwa Saleem Hajeel; Monyer Abdulameir Abd Alfatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 9-12
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125512.1034

Our study purpose was to investigate the evolution of Babesia spp isolated from tissues of ticks that were found on 150 cows in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. To fulfill the required purpose, sampling of 10 ticks was performed from each infested cow. These obtained ticks were morphologically recognized first, and then they were introduced to Lab investigation that was started with crushing the tick tissues to extract the genomic DNA of the Babesia spp. The DNA was then applied to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to recognize the amplification of the region that is related to the 18S rRNA gene. The resulted-amplified products were sequenced for the purpose of confirming and doing the phylogenetic analyses. Here, our study has demonstrated 2 different species according to the results of the sequencing and the phylogenetic analyses of the tested Babesisa species. These 2 species are SP1 and SP2. When the phylogenetic tree was built up, the results showed that SP1 and SP2 are closely related to Babesia bovis (HQ264126.1), an isolate from Texas, USA. Our study indicates interesting and valued data that could be used to study various aspects of the tick, Babesia species, and their control in Al-Diwaniyah City, Iraq.

Use molecular techniques as an alternative tool for diagnosis and characterization of Theileria equi

M.A. El-Seify; N.M. Helmy; N.M. Elhawary; Sh.S. Sorour; A.M. Soliman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 5-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153787

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical, subclinical and chronic infection with the equine parasite T. equi in some Egyptian localities (Cairo and Giza governorates). A panel of 396 equine blood samples representing 141 horses, 250 donkeys and 5 mules was collected from equines during the period from April 2015 to March 2016 using microscopic examination and conventional PCR. Microscopically a twenty two (5.56%) of 396 were positive for T. equi merozoites that appeared as small rounded, pyriform shaped and maltase cross shaped merozoites. Among 8/141(5.67%) horses and 14/250 (5.60%) donkeys were found to have positive for T.equi. A one hundred blood samples (45 horses, 50 donkeys and 5 mules) selected randomly were also examined by PCR. The results of PCR showed 30/100(11/45 (24.4%) horses, 18/50 (36%) donkeys and 1/5 (20%) mule) were positive for T.equi. When the sequenced PCR amplicons (n=3) were aligned to the reference nucleotide sequences of T. equi accessed in Genbank, the horse isolate showed insertion of Thymine (T) base at position 23 and substitution of Thymine (T) base with Cytosine (C) base at position 91, while the donkey and mule isolates have no alterations when compared to the reference sequences. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequenced PCR isolates belonged to T. equi. The obtained sequences were deposited in the GeneBank database under accession numbers MF192854, MF192855 and MF192856.

Serosurvey of Q fever in active reproductive rams in northern Palestine

N. Jalboush; I. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 87-90
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145602

This investigation of Q-fever or Coxiellosis was undertaken to study the presence and the infection rate of C.burnetii infection in reproductively active rams in the Northern Palestine, where most of the sheep herds are located. In all, 2806 samples which collected from active rams during the reproductive season from herds in five cities (Jenin, Jericho, Nablus, Tulkarm and Tubas). Sera were tested by ID Screen® Q Fever Indirect Multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of C. burnetii immunoglobulin G (IgG). A total of 28.1 % of ram sera were positive for C. burnetii IgG. There was no significant difference between the four location cities studied However, a significantly low difference was observed in the Tubas city (P<0.05). Highest infection rate was detected in rams of Tulkarm (29.8%), followed by Nablus (29.5%), Jericho (28.4%), Jenin (28.2%) and Tubas (16.1%). Moreover, at the farm level, 73.3% had at least one seropositive animal. It had been concluded that a high infection rate were detected in rams of Northern Palestine, at both individual and herd level. Therefore, Q fever could be responsible for considerable numbers of ovine abortions in Palestine, as well as of public health significance, Hereby control programs should be advised.

Comparison of seasonal effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters between ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes

R.N. Sani; M. Moezifar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 5-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116861

This study was conducted to compare the effects of season on some hematological and biochemical parameters in ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes. A total of 1192 milk and blood samples were collected from ewes between February and April (791 samples in spring), August and October (401 samples in summer). California Mastitis Test (CMT), milk culture, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were obtained from the medical records. Samples which were positive by bacterial culture and CMT as were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in our study was around 12% (in one year). Of 144 (18.2%) and 47 (11.72%) positive samples in CMT, 134 (16.94%) and 44 (10.97%) samples were positive for bacterial culture in spring and summer, respectively. Comparison of results of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM and healthy ewes in spring and summer showed that WBC counts, total protein concentrations and plasma fibrinogen in both groups of ewes were significantly higher in spring than summer (P˂0.05). The results of the present study indicated that when interpreting hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM should be consider the effect of season on these parameters.