Main Subjects : Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases


Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Evaluation of cardiac enzymes and acute phase response as biomarkers for rapid diagnosis of myocarditis in calves with FMD

Kamal M. AlSaad; Hasanin N. Al-Autaish; Jihad A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163584

Troponin-I, homocysteine, Creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase and acute phase response had been evaluated in calves with myocarditis due to FMD. The study was conducted on 52 local breed calves 1-6 months old and from both sexes, their dams have no history for vaccination against FMD and show classical foot and mouth disease signs. Ten clinically healthy calves of the same ages were considered as controls. Suspected calves neither show oral blisters, rope salivation, nor foot lesions. Diseased calves showed signs of dullness, in activity, panting with mouth breathing, unable to suck, recumbency, However, five of diseased calves were died within 24-72 hours and on macroscopic examinations of autopsied animals, necrotic myocarditis with pale foci with a zone of hyperemia which were present on the papillary and ventricular cardiac muscles, moreover, on histopathological examinations there were severe inflammatory cells infiltration in the interstitial of myocardial fibers with obvious area of coagulation of myocardial fibers and marked area of hyalinization, furthermore, severe mononuclear cells infiltration, mainly lymphocytes, with few neutrophils closed to necrotic myocardial fibers were also detected. Diagnosis of FMD virus was confirmed by using commercially NSP ELISA kits for foot and mouth. A significant increase (p>0.05)was encounteredin body temperature, respiratory and heart rates in diseased animals than in controls, Furthermore, abnormal cardiac sounds (organic murmurs) were indicated on auscultation of the heart. Results of hematological parameters shown a significant increase indicated in ESR values of diseased calves than in controls, moreover, total leukocyte count was increased significantly with significant lymphocytosis. Furthermore, the results were also showed significant increase in values of serum cardiac troponin, homocysteine, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and fibrinogen in seropositive calves for FMD compared with controls. It can be concluded that determination of cardiac biomarkers and acute phase response concentration in calves with myocarditis can considered as a guide to quantify early heart damage.

Haematological, oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis

Chigozie Ukwueze; Ekemini S Akpan; Romanus C Ezeokonkwo; Chika I Nwosuh; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125582.1094

Haematological changes, oxidative stress markers and electrolyte alterations were evaluated in puppies infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) that were presented to veterinary hospitals and clinics in South Eastern, Nigeria. Fifty-one dogs were used for the study and they were assigned into three groups. Group I consist of 21 diarrhoeic dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus, groups II, were 15 diarrhoeic dogs uninfected with canine parvovirus and group III, were 15 apparently healthy dogs which served as the control. Immunochromatographic (IC) test was used to screen the dogs for canine parvovirus type 2 infections. The mean red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were significantly lower in the diarrhoeic infected than diarrhoeic non-infected and the control groups. The mean catalase (CAT) of diarrhoeic non-infected group was significantly lower than diarrhoeic infected group and the control. The mean malondialdehyde (MDA) of both diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups were significantly higher than the control. The mean serum sodium (Na+) level of the diarrhoeic non infected group was significantly lower than the diarrhoeic infected group. The mean serum potassium (K+) level was significantly lower both in diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups compared to the control groups. It was therefore concluded that the levels of oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations may not be affected by the origin or aetiology of a disease (CPV-2), but on the severity of the infection.

Phylogenetic analysis of ovine herpes virus-2 (OHV-2) in malignant catarrhal fever infected cattle in AL-Qadisiyah of Iraq

Yahia Khudhair; Hayder N. Aeyyz; Muthanna H. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125522.1044

Ovine herpesvirus-2 is a member of the gammaherpesviruses of the herpeseviridae, which is the etiologic agent of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a significant fatal disease of cattle. MCF disease was diagnosed in native Iraqi cattle of AL-Qadisiyah governorate of Iraq, during the period from April 2014 and August 2016. Twenty three blood samples were collected from clinically suspected cattle. The presence of the virus in samples was ascertained based on clinical pictures, postmortem examination and molecular assays. Pansystemic involvement included respiratory, digestive, urinary, nervous systems and ocular lesions were described. A molecular analysis based on a tegument protein gene by specific semi-nested-PCR, DNA sequence and multiple alignments of all PCR products confirmed the Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection, and revealed a single and double nucleotide deletion, insertion and substitutions,. Some of these mutations were non-silent, resulting in changes at the predicted amino acids level into viral tegument protein. The phylogenetic analysis showed the disease was caused by two genovariants of OHV-2 including at one cluster and were related to other sequences from others countries was analysed. MCF is sporadically occurring in cattle in Iraq, the head and eye form is more pronounced form. It has been concluded that study is provides valuable information about the genetic variation among the OHV-2 genotypes in Iraqi cattle. Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of tegument protein gene, this paper elucidated genetic relationship between identified Iraqi OHV-2 with other strains detected in other geographical regions. These results provide new information on the epidemiological and genetically of OHV-2 in Iraq.

Mastitis in mare: case report

M.SH. Rhaymah; Q.T. Al-Obaidi; M.A. Hamad; M.A. Altalby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153831

Mastitis is rare in mares compared with cattle, a mare suffered from mastitis was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul for examination with a history of abortion before two months and gradually loss of body weight. Clinical examination revealed, a swollen left mammary gland, painful to palpate, there was mild degree of edema in the tissue surrounding the gland, fluid with clot expressed from the gland, body temperature was 37.4ºC and heart rate was 40/ minute. Fluid (mammary secretions), milk samples were collected under sterile condition and submitted to the laboratory for bacterial culture and identification test. The results of the culture and biochemical tests showed that the Staphylococcus spp was the etiological agent. This case was treated with systemic and local antibiotic therapy (Penicillin preparation).

Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

E.P. Candlan; F.P. Khoran; L. Hana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 51-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126710

In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat) 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.