Main Subjects : Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases


Molecular characterization and phylogenic analysis of Anaplasma spp. in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah governorate, Iraq

Shadan H. Abdullah; Hiewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128475.1581

Anaplasma spp. are significant arthropod-borne bacteria globally, but documented information about anaplasmosis in small ruminants in the north of Iraq is insufficient. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and identify sheep and goat tick vector populations in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, north Iraq. The study population consisted of 470 sheep and 145 goats from 45 livestock farms in 10 geographical locations of Sulaymaniyah Governorate. The study was accomplished from April to December 2017. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein and used for DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using primers based on the 16S rRNA of Anaplasma spp. Fragments of PCR products were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 58.9% based on the PCR results. Furthermore, 58.9% of sheep and 57.9% of goats were positive for anaplasmosis. The sequences represented 100% identity with previously documented GenBank isolates of A. ovis from Iran, the Netherlands, China, and Mongolia. Altogether, 150 Ixodid ticks were picked from small ruminants within the same flocks and were identified based on morphological features. Various infestation rates were observed; about 40% of the Ixodid ticks belonged to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 34% belonged to Rhipicephalus turanicus, 18% were Hyalomma anatolicum, and 8% were Boophilus microplus (Rhipicephalus microplus). The present report is the first molecular study of Anaplasma species in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah Governorate in northern Iraq to the best of our knowledge. The study concluded that anaplasmosis was endemic in small ruminants from the investigated areas. 

A cross sectional study on the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al-Najaf province in Iraq

Khaleel Z. Al-Alo; Ahmed J. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 617-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127143.1471

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in many countries of the middle east including Iraq, despite the high attempts to control the disease in animals using vaccination programs. The study was conducted from January - March 2012, to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the Al-Najaf province in Iraq, which represent risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle. Blood samples were collected from 172 cows and 15 bulls of 20 dual-purpose cattle herds. Serological examinations are the most useful and widely used tool for the diagnosis of brucellosis in man and animals. All animal serum samples were tested by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBT), and the positive cases were confirmed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The overall prevalence of brucellosis was 5.81% divided between 5.81% in females and 0% in males, and 40% as herd numbers level. Females showed a higher seropositive reaction to the disease than males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of the disease and detected the seropositive reactions in animal samples in different farms of the province, with a difference in infection rate regarding the risk factor. Sanitary measures must be taken to avoid the occurrence and spread of the disease in humans and animals.

Review of diagnostic procedures and control of some viral diseases causing abortion and infertility in small ruminants in Egypt

Mohamed A. Mahmoud; Alaa A. Ghazy; Raafat M. Shaapan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 513-521
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127114.1461

Sheep and goats represent an essential source of meat, milk and wool production. Infectious viral diseases of small ruminants hinder the expected benefits from these animals. The aim of the present review was to shed light on diagnostic procedures and monitoring of some important infectious viral diseases that affect small ruminants. Border disease (BDV) is caused by Pestiviruses. The affected herds are usually expressed high rates of infertility and production of underweighted-lambs. Affected lambs usually die within days after lambing. A commercial killed whole virus vaccine was produced for BDV. Louping ill (LI) is caused by the Louping ill virus, which is transmitted by Ixods ricinus ticks. The LI virus typically causes fever, anorexia and encephalomyelitis. Death could occur 1-3 days after the beginning of signs. The available Louping ill vaccine is composed of inactivated killed virus. Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) is a tick-born infectious disease caused by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, characterized clinically by fever, abortion hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and high mortality. Inactivated killed oil adjuvant virus vaccines are available for the control of Nairobi sheep disease. Akabane disease (AKAV) is a Culicoides borne viral disease belongs to orthobunyavirus that has a teratogenic effect on the fetus of cattle and small ruminants. A live attenuated virus vaccine and inactivated virus are commonly used. This review concluded that the modern diagnostic tools are urgently needed not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring viral disease control and control programs.

Epidemiological Analysis for medical records of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul during 2017 to 2019

Mohammad O. Dahl; Omar Kh. Hamdoon; Obaida N. Abdulmonem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 541-548
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127141.1468

This analysis aimed to (i) report diseases of animals received at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul between years 2017 and 2019, and (ii) examine whether its records can be used in studying the factors associated with different diseases. In this analysis, medical records of 1,280 cases examined and diagnosed at the internal medicine section and/or clinical pathology laboratory were used. Odds of diseases as a function of different factors were modeled using conditional logistic regression. Results revealed that the number of cases was increased in 2018-2019 compared to the previous academic year. The minimum number of cases was received in autumn, and the maximum was in summer. The most received cases were from areas located at the south inside Mosul city. The most received cases were generally gastrointestinal disturbances, blood parasites, and respiratory infections. Skin affections were also frequently received. Modeling diseases in ruminants indicated that blood parasites infection were higher in old ages compared to younger, greater in spring, summer, and autumn compared to winter, and more in city countryside compared to its inside. Gastrointestinal parasites infection was greater in old ages compared to younger, higher in summer compared to autumn, winter, and spring. Respiratory infections were higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in summer compared to autumn and spring. Enteritis of different causes was higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in winter compared to summer. In conclusion, records of this hospital are useful for studying animal diseases.

Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle farms in Egypt

Yassin K. Hamed; Essam Nasr; Mohamed Fahmy Azooz; Hassan Mohamed Youssef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 351-359
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126850.1399

A cross-sectional study was carried out from November, 2015 to April, 2018 to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test on 5327 dairy cattle in 16 dairy herds in mid-delta, Alexandria Road and Upper Egypt districts. Questionnaires used to collect data on herd size and management. The herd and individual animal prevalence at cut-off ≥4mm were 68.75% (95%, CI: 46 to 91.4) and1.67% (95%, CI: 1.3to 2.1) respectively. The individual prevalence was significantly associated with age, breed and different location of farms and density of cattle in yard. On herd level, history of BTB in the farm, management practices, raising of different species in the same facility and newly purchased cattle are important risk factors for BTB. The postmortem examination of positive reactors revealed 66 (85.71%) out of 77slaughtered cattle with visible lesions and 11(14.29%) with non-visible lesions. Bacteriological examination revealed 74.24% (49/66) from visible lesions and 9.09% (1/11) from non-visible lesions were Mycobacterium bovis. The indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA) results revealed 31(40.26%) showed positive result including 29 (93.6%) visible lesions and 2(6.4%) nonvisible lesions. In conclusion, the prevalence high in herds with poor management condition, raised different species in the same facility, had previous history of BTB infection and purchased new animals. At animal level Holstein breed, 3-6 years age, kept in high density and located in mid- delta district were at higher risk to be reactor to comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test.

Molecular detection of rfbO157, shiga toxins and hemolysin genes for Escherichia coli O157: H7 from canine feces in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq

Karam M. Abdulrazzaq; Maher S. Owain; Hala M. Majeed; Osama H. Hazim Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 325-329
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126831.1392

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is considered as an important pathogen of diarrhea in adult dogs and puppies because it contains virulence genes. The study objective was to the molecular detection of the rfbO157 encoding the O-antigen specific for E. coli O157: H7,shiga toxins and hemolysin genes of E.coli O157:H7 in feces of dogs that collected from different regions in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq. One hundred fecal swabs were collected from pet and K9 dogs including (72 dogs with diarrhea, and 28 without diarrhea). All the Collected swabs were cultured in the nutrient and MacConkey agars, Then the suspected colonies were cultured in the EMB agar. Metallic sheen colonies were cultured by using the chrome agar. All bacteriological identified isolates were enrolled by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results of this study showed that 7(9.7%) of 72 dogs suffered from diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 6), carry stx1 gene (n= 3), carry stx2 gene (n= 3), and hlyA gene (n= 1). On the other hand, 2 (7.1%) of 28 dogs without diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 1), stx2 gene (n= 1), and hlyA gene (n= 1). In conclusion, dogs can be a significant reservoir for pathogenic E. coli O157:H7, particularly dogs with diarrhea.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 257-262
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Prevalence and molecular investigation of caseous lymphadenitis among the slaughtered sheep at Duhok Abattoirs; experimental infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in rabbits

Nawzat Issa; Rezheen Fatah; Zanan Taha; Muhammad Hussen; Kareem Kareem; Handren Hamadamin; Zirak Najeeb; Bahroz Ahmed; Hivi Hameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 263-270
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126772.1377

Caseous lymphadenitis is a chronic infection caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis that affects the lymphatic system, resulting in abscesses in the lymph nodes and internal organs. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis among slaughtered sheep in Duhok abattoirs, Duhok, Iraq and to investigate to what extend rabbits can develop caseous lymphadenitis just like that in sheep. A total of 1052 carcasses of sheep were randomly selected (939 males and 113 females) and carefully inspected for detection any suspected caseous lymph adenitis. The isolated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from lymph nodes of sheep carcasses were identified by PCR before used in in vivo infection in rabbits. Data revealed that the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis was at 1.9% among the slaughtered sheep and the prevalence rates were higher in females and older ages than that of males and younger ages, respectively. Experimentally infected rabbits developed various clinical signs were ranging from in inappetence to sudden death, mainly during first week of infection. Histopathologically, the infected rabbits developed caseous lymphadenitis and pyogranuloma after a time point of 10 days post-infection. Liver, spleen and lymph nodes of infected rabbits showed caseo-necrotic foci with multiple micro-granulomas with presence of thick pyogenic membrane infiltrated with leukocytic cells; these findings are strictly resemblance to that reported in sheep. The obtained preliminary data of using rabbits as an animal model is promising which will enhance a better understanding the pathogenesis of caseous lymphadenitis in animals.

Evaluation of cardiac enzymes and acute phase response as biomarkers for rapid diagnosis of myocarditis in calves with FMD

Kamal M. AlSaad; Hasanin N. Al-Autaish; Jihad A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163584

Troponin-I, homocysteine, Creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase and acute phase response had been evaluated in calves with myocarditis due to FMD. The study was conducted on 52 local breed calves 1-6 months old and from both sexes, their dams have no history for vaccination against FMD and show classical foot and mouth disease signs. Ten clinically healthy calves of the same ages were considered as controls. Suspected calves neither show oral blisters, rope salivation, nor foot lesions. Diseased calves showed signs of dullness, in activity, panting with mouth breathing, unable to suck, recumbency, However, five of diseased calves were died within 24-72 hours and on macroscopic examinations of autopsied animals, necrotic myocarditis with pale foci with a zone of hyperemia which were present on the papillary and ventricular cardiac muscles, moreover, on histopathological examinations there were severe inflammatory cells infiltration in the interstitial of myocardial fibers with obvious area of coagulation of myocardial fibers and marked area of hyalinization, furthermore, severe mononuclear cells infiltration, mainly lymphocytes, with few neutrophils closed to necrotic myocardial fibers were also detected. Diagnosis of FMD virus was confirmed by using commercially NSP ELISA kits for foot and mouth. A significant increase (p>0.05)was encounteredin body temperature, respiratory and heart rates in diseased animals than in controls, Furthermore, abnormal cardiac sounds (organic murmurs) were indicated on auscultation of the heart. Results of hematological parameters shown a significant increase indicated in ESR values of diseased calves than in controls, moreover, total leukocyte count was increased significantly with significant lymphocytosis. Furthermore, the results were also showed significant increase in values of serum cardiac troponin, homocysteine, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and fibrinogen in seropositive calves for FMD compared with controls. It can be concluded that determination of cardiac biomarkers and acute phase response concentration in calves with myocarditis can considered as a guide to quantify early heart damage.

Haematological, oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis

Chigozie Ukwueze; Ekemini S Akpan; Romanus C Ezeokonkwo; Chika I Nwosuh; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125582.1094

Haematological changes, oxidative stress markers and electrolyte alterations were evaluated in puppies infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) that were presented to veterinary hospitals and clinics in South Eastern, Nigeria. Fifty-one dogs were used for the study and they were assigned into three groups. Group I consist of 21 diarrhoeic dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus, groups II, were 15 diarrhoeic dogs uninfected with canine parvovirus and group III, were 15 apparently healthy dogs which served as the control. Immunochromatographic (IC) test was used to screen the dogs for canine parvovirus type 2 infections. The mean red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were significantly lower in the diarrhoeic infected than diarrhoeic non-infected and the control groups. The mean catalase (CAT) of diarrhoeic non-infected group was significantly lower than diarrhoeic infected group and the control. The mean malondialdehyde (MDA) of both diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups were significantly higher than the control. The mean serum sodium (Na+) level of the diarrhoeic non infected group was significantly lower than the diarrhoeic infected group. The mean serum potassium (K+) level was significantly lower both in diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups compared to the control groups. It was therefore concluded that the levels of oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations may not be affected by the origin or aetiology of a disease (CPV-2), but on the severity of the infection.

Phylogenetic analysis of ovine herpes virus-2 (OHV-2) in malignant catarrhal fever infected cattle in AL-Qadisiyah of Iraq

Yahia Khudhair; Hayder N. Aeyyz; Muthanna H. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125522.1044

Ovine herpesvirus-2 is a member of the gammaherpesviruses of the herpeseviridae, which is the etiologic agent of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a significant fatal disease of cattle. MCF disease was diagnosed in native Iraqi cattle of AL-Qadisiyah governorate of Iraq, during the period from April 2014 and August 2016. Twenty three blood samples were collected from clinically suspected cattle. The presence of the virus in samples was ascertained based on clinical pictures, postmortem examination and molecular assays. Pansystemic involvement included respiratory, digestive, urinary, nervous systems and ocular lesions were described. A molecular analysis based on a tegument protein gene by specific semi-nested-PCR, DNA sequence and multiple alignments of all PCR products confirmed the Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection, and revealed a single and double nucleotide deletion, insertion and substitutions,. Some of these mutations were non-silent, resulting in changes at the predicted amino acids level into viral tegument protein. The phylogenetic analysis showed the disease was caused by two genovariants of OHV-2 including at one cluster and were related to other sequences from others countries was analysed. MCF is sporadically occurring in cattle in Iraq, the head and eye form is more pronounced form. It has been concluded that study is provides valuable information about the genetic variation among the OHV-2 genotypes in Iraqi cattle. Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of tegument protein gene, this paper elucidated genetic relationship between identified Iraqi OHV-2 with other strains detected in other geographical regions. These results provide new information on the epidemiological and genetically of OHV-2 in Iraq.

Mastitis in mare: case report

M.SH. Rhaymah; Q.T. Al-Obaidi; M.A. Hamad; M.A. Altalby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153831

Mastitis is rare in mares compared with cattle, a mare suffered from mastitis was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul for examination with a history of abortion before two months and gradually loss of body weight. Clinical examination revealed, a swollen left mammary gland, painful to palpate, there was mild degree of edema in the tissue surrounding the gland, fluid with clot expressed from the gland, body temperature was 37.4ºC and heart rate was 40/ minute. Fluid (mammary secretions), milk samples were collected under sterile condition and submitted to the laboratory for bacterial culture and identification test. The results of the culture and biochemical tests showed that the Staphylococcus spp was the etiological agent. This case was treated with systemic and local antibiotic therapy (Penicillin preparation).

Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

E.P. Candlan; F.P. Khoran; L. Hana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 51-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126710

In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat) 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.