Main Subjects : Infectious and Epidemic Animal Diseases

Multivariable binary logistic regression model to predict risk factors of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Goat and Sheep.

Abdelrhman sobeih; khairy el bayomi; mahmoud el-tarabany; ahmed abuel-atta; sherif moawed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132934.2151

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious illness that affects both domestic and wild small ruminants, causing significant economic losses. The goal of this study was to use a multivariable logistic regression model to determine risk factors for PPR. A total of 113 apparently healthy non-vaccinated goats and sheep (63 goat and 50 sheep) more than 5 months (1st group from 5-12 months,2nd group above 12 months), subjected to a seroprevalence study by competitive ELISA which used to detect antibodies against PPRV antibodies is serum sample during the period between April 2018 and March 2019. The incidence of PPR in autmun was significantly increase when compared with the spring. Additionally, animals had 4.08 more likelihood of being infected with PPR in the autumn when compared with the spring season There was a significant difference between male and female groups, The female group had 5.236 times increased the odds of being infected with PPR than male group. Moreover, Old age group had 2.771 times increased the odds of being infected with PPR than young age group. The test model, on the other hand, found no evidence to support any significant differences between sheep and goat species. PPR is more common in female and mature small ruminants, according to the findings. Furthermore, throughout the spring season, the incidence of PPR was significantly reduced. Indeed, the current study may help planning an effective vaccination program against the PRP disease in Egypt.

Prevalence and Some Risk Factors with Therapeutic Trial of Sheep Dermatophytosis in Egypt

Elshaima Fawzi; Mohammed Abd-Elmegeed; Mamdouh El-Mekkawi; Abdelkarem Mansour Morsi; Eman Abd-Elfatah; Eman El-Diasty

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133376.2214

Dermatophytosis is a fungal disease that affects superficial skin layers and hair of farm animals with worldwide distribution including Egypt with great public health concern and devasting economic losses in form of skin and hide damage and long course of treatment in spite of self-limiting nature of the disease in addition to loss of body weight. This study was undertaken to determine the most prevalent species of dermatophyte in sheep, identification of incriminated species both microscopic and culture methods with assessment of animal and environmental risk factors moreover, evaluated the effectiveness of three antifungal compounds (Ticonazole cream and clotrimazole spray and fluconazole capsule), on twenty-four naturally infected sheep were employed. Out of one hundred and three examined sheep with clinically suggestive lesion from Sharkia and Dakahalia Governorates during 2018 to 2019, 47.6% was proved to be positive of dermatophyte infection either by clinical signs, microscopic or culture or both with great infection rate was registerated in male, young age ˂ 6 months and in winter season. Three antifungal medications were used for 1st time in treatment of ovine dermatophytosis and were successes to subside of skin lesion with hair growth and return to normal clinical picture with 100% curative rate with preferable and easily applicable of topical ones especially ticonazole cream was highly curative in short time with easily applicable and good alternative to usual antifungal medication in sheep. Consequently, minimize the role of animal source in spread of infection and may allow adaption of efficient control measures.

Classical and molecular identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infestation cattle wounds with myiasis in Basrah governorate, Iraq

Moaed H. Sayhood; Abeer L. Mohammed; Mohanad F. Abdulhameed; Muna M. Jori

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 641-646
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131196.1930

Thepresent study was carried out to describe some epidemiological facts of myiasis infestations in cattle; therefore, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified from various infested sites with maggots from February to September 2019. It involved three districts (Shatt-Alarab, Al-Qurnah, and Al-Dyr) north of Basrah Governorate/Iraq. A total of 54 herds/owners were visited, with 150 cattle were found to be infested with maggots and diagnosed from different sites of the animal body. The result was indicated that 31% (95%Cl, 26.9-35.4) of examined animals were infested with myiasis, and there were no significant differences detected between sex and ages of the animal groups under study. Staphylococcus aureus was diagnosed using classical methods as morphological characteristics, physiological (coagulase tube method), biochemical tests, and growth on selective medium as Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) at a percentage of 32% (48/150). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the nuc gene in this isolated species, indicating the presence of nuc size (423) bp compared with a ladder used. The study clearly states that myiasis is a severe threat to cattle populations and that veterinary and agriculture authorities must recall control measures. These measures should be forged to include using a trapping/catch system, applying effective treatment, spraying pesticides, and sterilizing male flies with radiation to inhibit producing offspring.

Abortion in ewes in Nineveh governorate, Iraq: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Eman K. Alameen; Mohammad O. Dahl

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 681-688
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131343.1942

The current study was designed to examine the evidence and knowledge gaps in studies investigating abortion in ewes in Nineveh, Iraq, and quantify the overall incidence of abortion and the prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion. PubMed, CABI, and GoogleScholar databases were used as search engines to track pertinent peer-reviewed studies. Additional relevant articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists of identified full-text articles and contacting colleagues who worked on pertinent topics. Identified studies were divided into two main groups, including studies that reported the abortion rate in ewes and studies that reported the potential infectious etiology of abortion. A meta-analysis was performed for each group.A total of 17 studies were qualified for review, including six studies that reported the abortion rate. All of the 17 studies examined the prevalence of potential etiology of abortion. The overall incidence of abortion was 7.32%, and the pooled prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion indicated that 51.43%, 31.92%, and 6.83% were for Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella spp., and other pathogens, respectively. In conclusion, it is essential to identify epicenters of abortion in Nineveh, the association between the incidence of abortion and parity, the effect of pregnancy season on the incidence of abortion, and confirm the prevalence of T. gondii in aborted ewes is high.

The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia, oxidative stress and serum biochemical parameters in Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs

Chigozie S Ukwueze; Polycarp O Akpa; Rita I Odo; Chinwe J Aronu; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 753-760
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131843.2009

This study investigated the effect of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia, oxidative stress and serum biochemical changes in the Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs. The mean pre-patent period (MPP) of infection was 5.75±0.96 (5-7) days and 9.00 ± 0.82 (8-10) days between infected un-supplemented and supplemented respectively, which differed significantly (p<0.05). There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) post infection (pi) on the infected untreated group compared with the infected treated groups and the control. The mean serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P>0.05) higher than the infected treated groups. The mean ALT of infected treated with both resveratrol and diminazene aceturate (DA) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than other infected treated groups. The mean creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected untreated group. The creatinine level of the infected treated with both resveratrol and DA was significantly (P<0.05) lower than other infected treated groups, whereas the BUN did not differ significantly (P>0.05) within the infected treated groups when compared with the control. The mean albumin and total protein were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected untreated group, but the infected treated groups did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference. However, the total protein was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected treated with resveratrol than in other infected groups. It was concluded that pretreatment with resveratrol is beneficial in managing T. brucei infection, as it delays the onset of parasitemia and restores damages done to the liver and kidneys when combined with diminazene aceturate. 

The effect of retained placenta on the reproductive performance and its economic losses in a Holstein dairy herd

Eman R. Kamel; Hayaa A. Ahmed; Fardos M. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 359-365
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130287.1791

Retention of placenta (RP) is a failure of the fetal membrane to be expelled and remained from 8 to 48 hours, average 12 hours after parturition. There are a variety of risk factors for the occurrence of RP. So, the aim of this study was to quantify the relative risk of calving season, parity, and gestation length on the occurrence of RP, and assess the impact of RP on the subsequent reproductive parameters, and the economic losses. A data of 2940 purebred Holstein-Friesian cows were collected from reliable records of large commercial dairy farm, Sharkia governorate, Egypt. These cows calved during the period extended from January 2018 to December 2019. Cows that did not release the fetal membranes within the first 12 hours after calf expulsion were diagnosed with RP.Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that the important risk factors for the occurrence of RP were summer calving season and short gestation period. Odds ratio estimation for summer calving season compared to spring calving was 2.84. The probability of RP incidence in cows with shorter gestation period was 0.19 times more than cows with longer gestation length, and the total direct economic losses from RP was 47 $/cow.Finally, we can conclude that short gestation length and summer calving season are strongly correlated with the development of RP in dairy cows. Subsequently, the occurrence of RP significantly affects reproductive parameters resulting in economic losses in dairy herds.

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs at Basrah, Iraq

Jihad A. Ahmed; Hassanin H. Al-Autaish; Kamal M. AlSaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 471-477
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130539.1841

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs due to vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency was suspected in local adult lambs of Basrah, Iraq. The study was conducted on 82 adults local breed lambs 8-11 months of age. Suspected animals show panting with increase abdominal respiration and mouth breathing, recumbence and unable to stand with acute death within 24-48 h. Fifteen clinically healthy lambs were considered as controls. The hematological changes indicated a significant decrease in RBC, Hb, and PCV reflected macrocytic hypochromic type of anemia. Indices of clotting factors show significant changes in diseased adult lambs. Results of the biochemical changes indicated a significant decrease of vitamin E, and the glutathione peroxidase, in diseased animals, whereas, a significant increase indicated in the values of AST, CK and troponin I. Results of the post-mortem examinations showed enlargement of the heart with a white-colored irregular patch. Furthermore, results of histopathological changes indicated an acute cellular degeneration of myocardial fibers associated with diffuse interstitial edematous fluid in the myocardial parenchyma and acute cellular degenerative myocardial fibers with a marked degree of degeneration in the myocardial parenchyma. It has been concluded that, acute enzootic muscular dystrophy has an adverse harmful clinical effect on adult diseased lambs which could always be terminated with death.

Molecular characterization and phylogenic analysis of Anaplasma spp. in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah governorate, Iraq

Shadan H. Abdullah; Hiewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128475.1581

Anaplasma spp. are significant arthropod-borne bacteria globally, but documented information about anaplasmosis in small ruminants in the north of Iraq is insufficient. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and identify sheep and goat tick vector populations in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, north Iraq. The study population consisted of 470 sheep and 145 goats from 45 livestock farms in 10 geographical locations of Sulaymaniyah Governorate. The study was accomplished from April to December 2017. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein and used for DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using primers based on the 16S rRNA of Anaplasma spp. Fragments of PCR products were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 58.9% based on the PCR results. Furthermore, 58.9% of sheep and 57.9% of goats were positive for anaplasmosis. The sequences represented 100% identity with previously documented GenBank isolates of A. ovis from Iran, the Netherlands, China, and Mongolia. Altogether, 150 Ixodid ticks were picked from small ruminants within the same flocks and were identified based on morphological features. Various infestation rates were observed; about 40% of the Ixodid ticks belonged to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 34% belonged to Rhipicephalus turanicus, 18% were Hyalomma anatolicum, and 8% were Boophilus microplus (Rhipicephalus microplus). The present report is the first molecular study of Anaplasma species in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah Governorate in northern Iraq to the best of our knowledge. The study concluded that anaplasmosis was endemic in small ruminants from the investigated areas. 

Prevalence of non-infectious claw disorders in Egyptian dairy farms in relation to the flooring system

Walid Refaai; Mohammad Gomaa; Abdelbasit M. Abdelaal; Ahmed S. Behery; Ahmed Abdelaal; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 207-211
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129754.1685

Lameness is one of the most prevalent and costly maladies affecting dairy cattle. It has been ranked as the third after mastitis and reproductive failure. One of the leading causes of lameness is corium tissue damage and hence claw horn lesions development. Flooring system was found to have an impact on the development of such lesions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to study the effect of flooring system on the development of four non-infectious claw disorders in Egyptian dairy farms. Another objective was to study the effect of claw disorders on reproductive performance and total milk production. Four dairy herds with earthen floor (n=2) and desert floor (n=2) from Ash-Sharkia and Ismailia Provinces were included in this study. Results revealed that the prevalence of white line disease (WLD) was the highest among recorded lesions in earthen floor farms (2.7%) followed by sole ulcer (SU) 2.1% and sole abscess (SA) 1.7% then vertical wall fissures (VWF) 1.6%. While in the desert floor farms, VWF and SA were reported in 0.8% of animals followed by WLD and SU in 0.4% and 0.3% of animals, respectively. The non-infectious claw disorders were detected mainly in hindlimbs in earthen floor farms when compared to forelimbs (6.6% and 1.5%, respectively) while in the desert floor farms were nearly equal for the forelimbs (1.1%) and hindlimbs (1.2%). In conclusion, the animals housed in earthen floor farms were more susceptible to non-infectious claw disorders than those housed in desert floor.

First serodetection and molecular phylogenetic documentation of Coxiella burnetii isolates from female camels in Wasit governorate, Iraq

Mawlood A. Al-Graibawi; Afaf A. Yousif; Hasanain A. Gharban; Jakob Zinsstag

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 47-52
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130888.1890

This study aims to detect Coxiella burnetii in one-humped female camels (Camelus dromedarius) using ELISA and confirmation of infection by PCR with the phylogenetic analysis of local isolates. The 91 adult female camels were selected for clinical examination and blood sampling from different areas in Badra and Al-Numaniyah districts in Wasit governorate, Iraq, from February to April 2019. The prevalence of Coxiella(C.) burnetii was 19.8% and 4.4% by ELISA and PCR, respectively. Targeting 16S rRNA genes from three positive samples were documented in the Genbank-NCBI under accession numbers of MN900579.1, MN900580.1, and MN900581.1. Clinical evaluation revealed insignificant variation in temperature, pulse, respiratory rates, and lymph node enlargement among the positive and negative animals. The findings also showed that camels of the Badra regions have positive signs. burnetii compared to other regions, and the infection was increased significantly in April and March. In conclusion, our findings confirmed the prevalence of C. burneth among Iraqi female camels, suggesting that these animals might be a source of the pathogen for humans and other animal species. Therefore, further studies are necessary to provide more detailed data about the prevalence of C. burnetiito to improve effective control measures.

Clinical and immunological study of specific Mycobacterium bovis-BCG transfer factor in lambs

Elaf A. Nayyef; Mawlood A. Al-Graibawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 67-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131305.1939

This study was designed to prepare and evaluate the specific Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) transfer factor (TF) from spleen cells of two lambs vaccinated subcutaneously S/C with BCG vaccine twice 2 weeks’ intervals, similarly one lamb injected with normal saline used as a donor of non-specific TF. The lambs were clinically examined at zero time and along 3 days post each immunization, then, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) was checked post 4 weeks. TF was obtained from spleen cells of the lambs, inspected for sterility; safety.TF was evaluated in 4 groups (five in each) of lambs 3-4 months old. The first group (recipient) was injected S/C with 2 ml of specific BCG-TF, similarly the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were injected with non-specific TF, BCG and normal saline respectively. The clinical signs and DTH test were checked as described above, only the specific TF recipient and BCG vaccinated lambs gave a positive DTH test. The serum concentration of inerlukin-17 (IL-17), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and migration inhibitory factor (MIF) cytokines were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which revealed a highly significant increase in the TF recipient lambs in comparison with the control and vaccinated groups. It concluded that the prepared specific M. bovis-BCG transfer factor was effective to induce cell mediated immunity via DTH and increasing the serum concentration of cytokines in recipient lambs.

A cross sectional study on the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al-Najaf province in Iraq

Khaleel Z. Al-Alo; Ahmed J. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 617-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127143.1471

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in many countries of the middle east including Iraq, despite the high attempts to control the disease in animals using vaccination programs. The study was conducted from January - March 2012, to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the Al-Najaf province in Iraq, which represent risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle. Blood samples were collected from 172 cows and 15 bulls of 20 dual-purpose cattle herds. Serological examinations are the most useful and widely used tool for the diagnosis of brucellosis in man and animals. All animal serum samples were tested by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBT), and the positive cases were confirmed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The overall prevalence of brucellosis was 5.81% divided between 5.81% in females and 0% in males, and 40% as herd numbers level. Females showed a higher seropositive reaction to the disease than males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of the disease and detected the seropositive reactions in animal samples in different farms of the province, with a difference in infection rate regarding the risk factor. Sanitary measures must be taken to avoid the occurrence and spread of the disease in humans and animals.

Review of diagnostic procedures and control of some viral diseases causing abortion and infertility in small ruminants in Egypt

Mohamed A. Mahmoud; Alaa A. Ghazy; Raafat M. Shaapan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 513-521
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127114.1461

Sheep and goats represent an essential source of meat, milk and wool production. Infectious viral diseases of small ruminants hinder the expected benefits from these animals. The aim of the present review was to shed light on diagnostic procedures and monitoring of some important infectious viral diseases that affect small ruminants. Border disease (BDV) is caused by Pestiviruses. The affected herds are usually expressed high rates of infertility and production of underweighted-lambs. Affected lambs usually die within days after lambing. A commercial killed whole virus vaccine was produced for BDV. Louping ill (LI) is caused by the Louping ill virus, which is transmitted by Ixods ricinus ticks. The LI virus typically causes fever, anorexia and encephalomyelitis. Death could occur 1-3 days after the beginning of signs. The available Louping ill vaccine is composed of inactivated killed virus. Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) is a tick-born infectious disease caused by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, characterized clinically by fever, abortion hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and high mortality. Inactivated killed oil adjuvant virus vaccines are available for the control of Nairobi sheep disease. Akabane disease (AKAV) is a Culicoides borne viral disease belongs to orthobunyavirus that has a teratogenic effect on the fetus of cattle and small ruminants. A live attenuated virus vaccine and inactivated virus are commonly used. This review concluded that the modern diagnostic tools are urgently needed not only for diagnosis but also for monitoring viral disease control and control programs.

Epidemiological Analysis for medical records of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul during 2017 to 2019

Mohammad O. Dahl; Omar Kh. Hamdoon; Obaida N. Abdulmonem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 541-548
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127141.1468

This analysis aimed to (i) report diseases of animals received at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Mosul between years 2017 and 2019, and (ii) examine whether its records can be used in studying the factors associated with different diseases. In this analysis, medical records of 1,280 cases examined and diagnosed at the internal medicine section and/or clinical pathology laboratory were used. Odds of diseases as a function of different factors were modeled using conditional logistic regression. Results revealed that the number of cases was increased in 2018-2019 compared to the previous academic year. The minimum number of cases was received in autumn, and the maximum was in summer. The most received cases were from areas located at the south inside Mosul city. The most received cases were generally gastrointestinal disturbances, blood parasites, and respiratory infections. Skin affections were also frequently received. Modeling diseases in ruminants indicated that blood parasites infection were higher in old ages compared to younger, greater in spring, summer, and autumn compared to winter, and more in city countryside compared to its inside. Gastrointestinal parasites infection was greater in old ages compared to younger, higher in summer compared to autumn, winter, and spring. Respiratory infections were higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in summer compared to autumn and spring. Enteritis of different causes was higher in young animals compared to older ages, and greater in winter compared to summer. In conclusion, records of this hospital are useful for studying animal diseases.

Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle farms in Egypt

Yassin K. Hamed; Essam Nasr; Mohamed Fahmy Azooz; Hassan Mohamed Youssef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 351-359
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126850.1399

A cross-sectional study was carried out from November, 2015 to April, 2018 to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test on 5327 dairy cattle in 16 dairy herds in mid-delta, Alexandria Road and Upper Egypt districts. Questionnaires used to collect data on herd size and management. The herd and individual animal prevalence at cut-off ≥4mm were 68.75% (95%, CI: 46 to 91.4) and1.67% (95%, CI: 1.3to 2.1) respectively. The individual prevalence was significantly associated with age, breed and different location of farms and density of cattle in yard. On herd level, history of BTB in the farm, management practices, raising of different species in the same facility and newly purchased cattle are important risk factors for BTB. The postmortem examination of positive reactors revealed 66 (85.71%) out of 77slaughtered cattle with visible lesions and 11(14.29%) with non-visible lesions. Bacteriological examination revealed 74.24% (49/66) from visible lesions and 9.09% (1/11) from non-visible lesions were Mycobacterium bovis. The indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IELISA) results revealed 31(40.26%) showed positive result including 29 (93.6%) visible lesions and 2(6.4%) nonvisible lesions. In conclusion, the prevalence high in herds with poor management condition, raised different species in the same facility, had previous history of BTB infection and purchased new animals. At animal level Holstein breed, 3-6 years age, kept in high density and located in mid- delta district were at higher risk to be reactor to comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test.

Prevalence of border disease virus in sheep and goats in Mosul, Iraq

Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 257-262
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126758.1372

Globally, Border disease virus (BDV) has caused substantial economic losses among small ruminants (sheep and goats). This is the first molecular study carried out in Mosul city, Iraq. To determine the prevalence of Border Disease Virus and to examine problem of persistent infection (PI) using Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR) in female local breed of small ruminants. During the period between November 2018 to June 2019, 364 blood samples were collected from 264 local Awassi sheep and 100 local cross breed goats secure provided by private breeders. The animals were of ≥1.5 years old and the samples were obtained from various locations in Mosul city, with varying rearing methods and had not been vaccinated against BDV. This investigation indicated that the prevalence of BDV infection in sheep and goats were 15.9% (42/264) and 3% (3/100) respectively, whereas the occurrence of PI in sheep was 2.38% and in goats was 0%. Hence it was concluded that Border disease was circulating in small ruminants in Mosul city. This calls for a need to design programs to monitor and control the disease and eventually eradicate it is prevalence in Mosul city.

Molecular detection of rfbO157, shiga toxins and hemolysin genes for Escherichia coli O157: H7 from canine feces in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq

Karam M. Abdulrazzaq; Maher S. Owain; Hala M. Majeed; Osama H. Hazim Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 325-329
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126831.1392

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is considered as an important pathogen of diarrhea in adult dogs and puppies because it contains virulence genes. The study objective was to the molecular detection of the rfbO157 encoding the O-antigen specific for E. coli O157: H7,shiga toxins and hemolysin genes of E.coli O157:H7 in feces of dogs that collected from different regions in Tikrit and Mosul cities, Iraq. One hundred fecal swabs were collected from pet and K9 dogs including (72 dogs with diarrhea, and 28 without diarrhea). All the Collected swabs were cultured in the nutrient and MacConkey agars, Then the suspected colonies were cultured in the EMB agar. Metallic sheen colonies were cultured by using the chrome agar. All bacteriological identified isolates were enrolled by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The results of this study showed that 7(9.7%) of 72 dogs suffered from diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 6), carry stx1 gene (n= 3), carry stx2 gene (n= 3), and hlyA gene (n= 1). On the other hand, 2 (7.1%) of 28 dogs without diarrhea were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that contained the rfbO157 gene (n= 1), stx2 gene (n= 1), and hlyA gene (n= 1). In conclusion, dogs can be a significant reservoir for pathogenic E. coli O157:H7, particularly dogs with diarrhea.

Prevalence and molecular investigation of caseous lymphadenitis among the slaughtered sheep at Duhok Abattoirs; experimental infection with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in rabbits

Nawzat Issa; Rezheen Fatah; Zanan Taha; Muhammad Hussen; Kareem Kareem; Handren Hamadamin; Zirak Najeeb; Bahroz Ahmed; Hivi Hameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 263-270
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126772.1377

Caseous lymphadenitis is a chronic infection caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis that affects the lymphatic system, resulting in abscesses in the lymph nodes and internal organs. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis among slaughtered sheep in Duhok abattoirs, Duhok, Iraq and to investigate to what extend rabbits can develop caseous lymphadenitis just like that in sheep. A total of 1052 carcasses of sheep were randomly selected (939 males and 113 females) and carefully inspected for detection any suspected caseous lymph adenitis. The isolated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from lymph nodes of sheep carcasses were identified by PCR before used in in vivo infection in rabbits. Data revealed that the prevalence rate of caseous lymphadenitis was at 1.9% among the slaughtered sheep and the prevalence rates were higher in females and older ages than that of males and younger ages, respectively. Experimentally infected rabbits developed various clinical signs were ranging from in inappetence to sudden death, mainly during first week of infection. Histopathologically, the infected rabbits developed caseous lymphadenitis and pyogranuloma after a time point of 10 days post-infection. Liver, spleen and lymph nodes of infected rabbits showed caseo-necrotic foci with multiple micro-granulomas with presence of thick pyogenic membrane infiltrated with leukocytic cells; these findings are strictly resemblance to that reported in sheep. The obtained preliminary data of using rabbits as an animal model is promising which will enhance a better understanding the pathogenesis of caseous lymphadenitis in animals.

Evaluation of cardiac enzymes and acute phase response as biomarkers for rapid diagnosis of myocarditis in calves with FMD

Kamal M. AlSaad; Hasanin N. Al-Autaish; Jihad A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163584

Troponin-I, homocysteine, Creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase and acute phase response had been evaluated in calves with myocarditis due to FMD. The study was conducted on 52 local breed calves 1-6 months old and from both sexes, their dams have no history for vaccination against FMD and show classical foot and mouth disease signs. Ten clinically healthy calves of the same ages were considered as controls. Suspected calves neither show oral blisters, rope salivation, nor foot lesions. Diseased calves showed signs of dullness, in activity, panting with mouth breathing, unable to suck, recumbency, However, five of diseased calves were died within 24-72 hours and on macroscopic examinations of autopsied animals, necrotic myocarditis with pale foci with a zone of hyperemia which were present on the papillary and ventricular cardiac muscles, moreover, on histopathological examinations there were severe inflammatory cells infiltration in the interstitial of myocardial fibers with obvious area of coagulation of myocardial fibers and marked area of hyalinization, furthermore, severe mononuclear cells infiltration, mainly lymphocytes, with few neutrophils closed to necrotic myocardial fibers were also detected. Diagnosis of FMD virus was confirmed by using commercially NSP ELISA kits for foot and mouth. A significant increase (p>0.05)was encounteredin body temperature, respiratory and heart rates in diseased animals than in controls, Furthermore, abnormal cardiac sounds (organic murmurs) were indicated on auscultation of the heart. Results of hematological parameters shown a significant increase indicated in ESR values of diseased calves than in controls, moreover, total leukocyte count was increased significantly with significant lymphocytosis. Furthermore, the results were also showed significant increase in values of serum cardiac troponin, homocysteine, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and fibrinogen in seropositive calves for FMD compared with controls. It can be concluded that determination of cardiac biomarkers and acute phase response concentration in calves with myocarditis can considered as a guide to quantify early heart damage.

Haematological, oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis

Chigozie Ukwueze; Ekemini S Akpan; Romanus C Ezeokonkwo; Chika I Nwosuh; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125582.1094

Haematological changes, oxidative stress markers and electrolyte alterations were evaluated in puppies infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) that were presented to veterinary hospitals and clinics in South Eastern, Nigeria. Fifty-one dogs were used for the study and they were assigned into three groups. Group I consist of 21 diarrhoeic dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus, groups II, were 15 diarrhoeic dogs uninfected with canine parvovirus and group III, were 15 apparently healthy dogs which served as the control. Immunochromatographic (IC) test was used to screen the dogs for canine parvovirus type 2 infections. The mean red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were significantly lower in the diarrhoeic infected than diarrhoeic non-infected and the control groups. The mean catalase (CAT) of diarrhoeic non-infected group was significantly lower than diarrhoeic infected group and the control. The mean malondialdehyde (MDA) of both diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups were significantly higher than the control. The mean serum sodium (Na+) level of the diarrhoeic non infected group was significantly lower than the diarrhoeic infected group. The mean serum potassium (K+) level was significantly lower both in diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups compared to the control groups. It was therefore concluded that the levels of oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations may not be affected by the origin or aetiology of a disease (CPV-2), but on the severity of the infection.

Phylogenetic analysis of ovine herpes virus-2 (OHV-2) in malignant catarrhal fever infected cattle in AL-Qadisiyah of Iraq

Yahia Khudhair; Hayder N. Aeyyz; Muthanna H. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125522.1044

Ovine herpesvirus-2 is a member of the gammaherpesviruses of the herpeseviridae, which is the etiologic agent of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a significant fatal disease of cattle. MCF disease was diagnosed in native Iraqi cattle of AL-Qadisiyah governorate of Iraq, during the period from April 2014 and August 2016. Twenty three blood samples were collected from clinically suspected cattle. The presence of the virus in samples was ascertained based on clinical pictures, postmortem examination and molecular assays. Pansystemic involvement included respiratory, digestive, urinary, nervous systems and ocular lesions were described. A molecular analysis based on a tegument protein gene by specific semi-nested-PCR, DNA sequence and multiple alignments of all PCR products confirmed the Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection, and revealed a single and double nucleotide deletion, insertion and substitutions,. Some of these mutations were non-silent, resulting in changes at the predicted amino acids level into viral tegument protein. The phylogenetic analysis showed the disease was caused by two genovariants of OHV-2 including at one cluster and were related to other sequences from others countries was analysed. MCF is sporadically occurring in cattle in Iraq, the head and eye form is more pronounced form. It has been concluded that study is provides valuable information about the genetic variation among the OHV-2 genotypes in Iraqi cattle. Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of tegument protein gene, this paper elucidated genetic relationship between identified Iraqi OHV-2 with other strains detected in other geographical regions. These results provide new information on the epidemiological and genetically of OHV-2 in Iraq.

Mastitis in mare: case report

M.SH. Rhaymah; Q.T. Al-Obaidi; M.A. Hamad; M.A. Altalby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153831

Mastitis is rare in mares compared with cattle, a mare suffered from mastitis was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul for examination with a history of abortion before two months and gradually loss of body weight. Clinical examination revealed, a swollen left mammary gland, painful to palpate, there was mild degree of edema in the tissue surrounding the gland, fluid with clot expressed from the gland, body temperature was 37.4ºC and heart rate was 40/ minute. Fluid (mammary secretions), milk samples were collected under sterile condition and submitted to the laboratory for bacterial culture and identification test. The results of the culture and biochemical tests showed that the Staphylococcus spp was the etiological agent. This case was treated with systemic and local antibiotic therapy (Penicillin preparation).

Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

E.P. Candlan; F.P. Khoran; L. Hana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 51-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126710

In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat) 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.