Main Subjects : Milk Hygiene


Detection of the hbl complex genes in Bacillus cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran

R. Alipour Banaei; Saman Mahdavi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 459-463
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126120.1238

Bacillus(B) cereus is regarded as a major foodborne pathogen which is widely distributed in the nature. In addition, it plays an important role in the contamination of ready-to-eat and dairy products. B. cereus causes the two different types of food poisoning in human: the diarrheal and the emetic type. The aim of this study is detection of hbl complex genes in B. cereus isolated from cow raw milk in Northwest of Iran. In the present study, the number of the samples collected from cow raw milk were 120. All the isolates already had been identified phenotypically, and they were assessed for molecular confirmation by using the PCR method. B. cereus isolates were determined by detecting the hbl genes complex in the isolates. The result of this study showed that B. cereus were found in the raw milk samples 117 (97.5%) from the 120 samples. The frequency of the hblA, hblC, and hblD genes found in B. cereus isolates were 105 (89.7%), 102 (87.1%), and 102 (87.1%) , respectively. 99 isolates (84.6%) harboured 3 tested genes simultaneously. 12 B. cereus isolates (10.3%) lacked these genes. The results of current study showed that B. cereus isolated from raw milk have high potential in causing food poisoning and therefore the use of the procedures to reduce the bacterial contamination during the processing of dairy product is required.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Isolation, identification and detection of some virulence factors in yeasts from local cheese in Mosul city

I.I. Khalil; S.Y.A. Aldabbagh; A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153802

Fifty samples of local cheese were purchased from Mosul city markets during the period from April 2012 to November 2013 to identify and characterize yeast species in these samples. Fifty-eight yeast isolates were identified and confirmed biochemically. They were Candida albicans (13.8%), Candida krusei (9.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsiloosis (25.8%), Geotrichum candidum (20.6%), Rodotorella spp. (10.3%) and mixed yeasts (12.9%). Virulence factors (Hemolytic, Phospholipase, Aspartylprotinase and Estrase activities) of Candida isolates were determined. All isolates show one or more of these activities except Candida krusei. The presence of Candida isolates in this type of cheese refer to the importance of this genus to the health of consumers was discussed.

Impacts of processing heat treatments on deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk and raw milk from different animals

S.A. Abd Al-Zahra; A.J. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153790

A total of 163 milk samples (200 ml) human breast milk and (500 ml each) of cows, ewes, goats, buffaloes and camels were collected randomly at weekly intervals (10 samples/week) from Baghdad governorate. Among the total milk samples (138) milk samples were examined during two climatic periods from the beginning of September 2016 to the end of the February 2017 were tested for the occurrence of DMT residues by using the HPLC technique. Besides that, some of the selected positive samples were subjected to one of the commercial heat treatments such as 63°C/30 min, 80°C/5 min and 100°C/5 min to evaluate the efficiency of heat exposure on the degradation of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in milk. The results pointed out that milk samples containing the higher fat percentage exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest concentration of deltamethrin and bifenthrin in summer highest than in winter, increased the fat percentages of milk was being associated with an increased level of deltamethrin residues due to the lipophilic nature of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin pesticide. The current results revealed that milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes and cows recorded the highest deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season where their mean levels that exceeded the accepted MRLs of 0.05 ppm to milk samples of goats, camels and breast milk the lowest mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues. There was a seasonal variation of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin concentrations in milk samples for each animal species where all the milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes, cows, goats, camels and breast milk had higher mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season than in winter season. Data illustrated revealed that there was a seasonal variation in the mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk samples for each district village where all the milk samples that were collected from AL-Sader and AL-Karada districts had highest mean levels values in summer than in winter season.

Microbiological quality of white local sheep cheese in Mosul city markets

M.H.A. AL-Hamdany; A.A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126712

The soft white cheese is considered one of the most popular locally manufactured cheese in Iraq, a kind of traditional cheese that is mainly produced from sheep milk. It usually becomes available in the markets of Mosul between the months of February and July. To investigate the microbiological quality, 25 samples of white, soft, un-salted fresh locally produced sheep cheese were collected from the market in Mosul. These cheese samples were examined by the quantity method to determine the total viable bacterial counts (TVC) and the total counts of coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. The minimum, maximum and average results of the aforementioned bacterial counts were 1.0x106, 1.4x103, 1.4x102 CFU g-; 2.9x108, 6.0x107, 12.6x105 CFU g- and 18.0x107, 5.8x106, 3.1x105 CFU g-1, respectively. Corresponding to the ‘International Microbiological Reference Criteria’ for cheese, it could be clear from these results that the samples were highly contaminated. Hence, it can be concluded that the sanitary conditions were inadequate either during the milk production and cheese manufacturing process or throughout their distribution in the local market. Therefore, it is recommended to comply with the public health and sanitary measures during the process of local cheese production. In consequence, it is essential to follow the annual screening of local cheese in terms of bacterial counts to determine the degree of contamination and in order to develop a national standard microbiological criteria and quality control for local cheese.

Using ELISA technique for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in thick cream

S.D. AL-Sawaf; O.A. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166882

This study involved a disclosure of Aflatoxin M1 in 50 samples of thick cream (Gaymer), 30 were manufactured from raw buffalo milk and 20 were collected from local markets of different regions in Mosul city, by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The results revealed that 90% of the manufactured thick cream were positive to residual AFM1, with a mean value of 16.164 ng/Kg. Only 3.3% of the manufactured thick cream samples had a concentration values above the permissible limits. Within the same subject, local thick cream samples showed a higher AFM1 level than the manufactured samples with a mean of 29.158 ng/Kg and 15% of local thick cream samples had higher AFM1 than the permissible limits according to European Commission. (i.e 50 ng /Kg).