Main Subjects : Meat Hygiene


Multidrug-resistant and clonal dispersion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from ready-to-eat meat products in Duhok province, Iraq

Zanan M. Taha; Sherzad I. Mustafa; Chyayi J. Ahmed; Farhad B. Mikaeel; Mustafa M. Ali; Ahmad I. Khudr; Salih Z. Ali; Mohammad L. Haji

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 275-282
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133902.2321

This research evaluated the effluent proportion of E. coli and ETEC in RTE meat products, characterized the isolated strains' clonal relatedness, and determined their antibiotic resistance. 130 RTE products were gathered from various restaurants and street fast food vendors in Duhok and Zakho Province. The Isolates of E. coli identified by culture methods were confirmed as ETEC by multiplex PCR of the identified virulence genes. ERIC-PCR was applied to establish the clonal relationships between strains. The disk diffusion method performed the susceptibility of antibiotics on the isolated ETEC. Out of 130 examined samples, 39 (30%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (12.3%) ETEC were detected. Pan-fried burgers were revealed to be the most frequent contaminated sample type, with both E. coli and ETEC 50% and 23.3%, respectively (P≤0.05). A high clonal dispersion (12 genotypes) was observed among the isolated ETEC strains. A strong genetic linkage was discovered between a few isolates retrieved from the same sample type and within the strains from the same geographic source area. A high antibiotic resistance rate was observed with total resistance to Amoxicillin/clavulanate, Clarithromycin, Doxycycline, Erythromycin, and Clindamycin. Isolates from burger samples showed a higher resistance rate when compared with the other sample types (P≤0.05). Multi-drug resistance was noticed in all ETEC isolates. RTE meat products sold in our area have a high rate of clonally heterogeneous carrying multi-drug resistant ETEC and may constitute a significant public health risk.

Food safety and sanitation practices survey in very small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States

Omar A. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133219.2191

To determine food safety and sanitation practices and compare small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States, we conducted two web-based surveys using a similar questionnaire and data collection methods. Among the 80 halal slaughterhouses included in this study, 56.25% (45 out of 80) participated, while 63.75% (51 out of 80) participated in the non-halal slaughterhouse survey. This study showed no significant differences between halal and non-halal slaughterhouses regarding food safety and sanitation, food safety technologies, and microbiological testing practices. All halal and non-halal slaughterhouses conducted generic E. coli (100%) for beef carcasses. The most common interventions used in halal slaughterhouses were a combination of treatments (cold water + hot water (180 °F) + organic acid) 31.1%. In contrast, the most common interventions used in non-halal slaughterhouses were only hot water (180 °F) (33.5%). The findings of this study can be used to describe food safety and sanitation practices in the halal meat industries and find areas for improvement.

The molecular identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from meat and meat products

Yousra A. Abdlla; Raad A. Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133244.2192

The present study aims to diagnose diarrheagenic E. coli in meat and meat products by the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using the uidA gene to confirm the existence of the bacterial isolates as E. coli. The multiplex PCR technique is adopted to detect the virulence genes of these bacteria using two groups of primers for detecting the gene (stx1, stx2, aggR, esth, eae, invE, daaC, estp, elt, and bfpA). This study applies these primers to 100 E. coli strains isolated from 782 samples of meat and meat products (fresh, minced, burger, pastirma, and chicken) from February to November 2020. The results of the present study show that all E. coli isolates are positive to have the uidA gene (147 bp). The study also detects 95/782 (12.15%) pathogenic species related to virulence genes by using multiplex PCR. The highest percentage of pathotype is ETEC, 46.32%, and the lowest is the DAEC type 1.05%. In addition, the other pathotypes are 20.05, 14.74, 6.32, 6.32, and 5.26% of STEC, EHEC, aEPEC, EAEC, and EIEC, respectively. The high contamination rate with DEC reported in this study is associated with the poor hygiene conditions of slaughtering and meat storage in shops and markets, resulting in health risks to consumers. 

Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of Escherichia coli Isolated from veal meats and butchers’ shops in Mosul city, Iraq

Shaker M. Othman; Omar H. Sheet; Raad Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 225-260
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133819.2306

 Foodborne pathogens bacteria can cause various diseases and death worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most crucial microorganism transmitted through meat and its products. Pathogenic E. coli is one of the major groups that can produce the Stx1 and Stx2 toxins. The present study aims to isolate and identify the E. coli bacteria using the classical methods, and to detect the specific-species uidA gene, and Stx1 and Stx2 genes using the PCR assay. Five hundred four samples were collected randomly from meats and different parts of a butcher shops from various regions of the right and the left sides of Mosul city. The results found that the prevalence rate of E. coli in this study was 27.4% (138/504). Additionally, the prevalence rate of E. coli was higher in meat, 41.7% (35/84). At the same time, the prevalence rate of E. coli was lower in hook 16.7% (14/84). Additionally, the prevalence rate of E. coli in meats and butcher shops on the right and left sides of Mosul city was 31.9% (65/204) and 24.3% (73/300), respectively. Furthermore, all E. coli isolates possessed the specific species uidA gene. 30/138 (21.7%) of E. coli isolates possess the Stx1 gene, while 17/138 (12.3%) of E. coli isolates have the Stx2 gene. Finally, most E. coli isolates possessed the Stx1 and Stx2 genes 91/138 (66%). 

Application of pomegranate pomace as a natural antibacterial and antioxidant preservative in beef

Noor S. Hadab; Mohammed M. Dakheel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 211-216
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135929.2544

Although various meat and meat products may include various foodborne pathogens, meat is still an excellent source of nutrients compared to other foods. Due to bioactive materials, numerous plants and their extracts, including pomegranate, have been reported to possess antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Sixty fresh beef samples, bought from the local stores Karkh/ Baghdad, were properly divided into three similar groups; each group included 20 samples. The first group served as a control group, and it was soaked in distilled water. The second group was soaked in a 20g/L treatment dose of pomegranate pomace solution and was referred to as the treated group (T1). The third group was administered as 40g/L pomegranate pomace solution(T2). The results showed that the pomegranate pomace solution (T1 and T2) exhibited antimicrobial activity on the total bacterial count, lipid oxidation, and pH values. The current findings demonstrated that beef immersed into both concentrations of pomegranate pomace was more resistant to elevation in bacterial counting plus lower levels of peroxidation, measured using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances plus fewer pH values compared to the control, as it was preserved for more days. The pomegranate pomace solutions might be utilized as natural preservatives of meat products, even at low concentrations.

Detection of some virulence genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from meat at Mosul city

Ibrahim M. Tahr jawher; Muntaha G. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 101-105
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135755.2512

Meat is a rich source of protein for humans. Pseudomonas is one of the meat spoilage microorganisms, as it is highly pathogenic and affects the health of consumers and meat handlers. The current study detected the presence of some virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from meat in Mosul city, including ToxA, ExoS, OprL, and PlcH virulence genes in 21 isolates of P. aeruginosa using PCR. Results revealed the presence of ToxA, OprL, and PlcH genes at 57.14%, 38.09%, and 71.42%, respectively, while all the isolates of P. aeruginosa were negative for the presence of the ExoS gene. The prevalence of ToxA and PLcH genes was higher in beef meat compared to mutton and chicken meat, while the OprL gene was not detected in mutton. These results indicated that some strains of P. aeruginosa are pathogenic to meat handlers and consumers; following food safety practices must be applied in the meat production chain to prevent meat contamination with pathogenic bacteria.

Molecular Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat at Mosul city retails using PCR technique

Ibrahim M. Jawher; Muntaha G. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1083-1087
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133086.2173

Pseudomonas has been recognized as a unique meat spoiling organism. The proliferation of these spoilage organisms might influence the organoleptic meat quality. Therefore, the current investigation is being carried out to detect pseudomonas associated with meat displayed in Mosul city retails. A total of 150 meat samples of beef, mutton and chicken meat (50 of each) were collected. Molecular identification of pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat is performed by targeting the16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene. Fifty-three isolates of pseudomonas species were obtained from all types of meat (35.33%), including 23 (46 %) for beef meat,11 (22%) for mutton and 19 (38%) for chicken meat. Enumeration of pseudomonas species in beef and mutton were 1.47*104, 1.92*104 CFU/g, respectively, while counts were 21.3*104 CFU/g in chicken meat. Polymerase chain reaction results revealed the presence of 16SrRNA gene in all tested isolates 53/53 (100%). pseudomonas aeruginosawas isolated at (39.62%) from meat samples according to the detection of the rpoB gene.In conclusion, the prevalence of pseudomonas in meat at Mosul city retails negatively impacted meat quality and consumer confidence. Also, the PCR approach aids the rapid detection of pseudomonas as spoilage organisms in meat to reduce financial loss.Therefore, hygienic measurements should be applied to reduce meat spoilage and conserve consumer health during meat production and preservation.

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from broiler carcasses in Mosul city

Omar H. Sheet; Saba A. Hussein; Aamer Y. Al-Chalaby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 489-493
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127052.1451

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is deemed as one of the main pathogens in human and animals. S. aureus can produce various toxins that usually implicated in food poisoning. S. aureus could possess the mecA gene, which is the principle cause of β-lactam antibiotics resistance, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Broiler’s meat is worthy food for humans, but it may expose to contamination with MRSA during the poultry processes in the slaughterhouse. The current study aimed to assessment the spread of S. aureus and MRSA in the broiler carcasses via detection the nuc and mecA gene and their resistance to different antibiotics. Fifty skin swabs were taken from the broilers carcasses, during their processing in poultry slaughterhouses that scattered in various districts in the Nineveh Governorate during the period between January to April 2020. The results showed that S. aureus was recovered in broiler’s skin swabs at a percentage of 66% (33/50) which confirmed by nuc gene, while MRSA isolates constitute 40% (20/50) of all S. aureus isolates, and distinguished as MRSA by their possessing mecA gene. All MRSA isolates were resistant to Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Methicillin, and Ampicillin/Cloxacillin antibiotics. The present study stressed on the reduction as much as any possible source of broiler carcasses contamination with S. aureus including MRSA during and post poultry processing, through applying high levels of hygienic conditions in all poultry processing premises to attain high standards of sustainability and public health standards.

Detection of multiple presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep at Duhok abattoir, Iraq

Shireen A. Yousif; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multi-presence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses at Duhok abattoir using ELISA technique. Eighty-eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty-two sheep carcasses. These samples included Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney. The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

The impact of storage duration and conditions on the formation of biogenic amines and microbial content in poultry meat

Shamail Abdulaali Saewa; Zaid Khalaf Khidhir; mustafa hamza Al Bayati

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126584.1346

 This research was conducted to estimate the safety of breast and thigh meat (Ross 308) stored in refrigeration and freezing for different periods (0, 3 and 6) and (0, 15 and 30) days, respectively (total samples 12). High pH found in the 6th day of refrigeration storage for thigh meat; 6.414, while low recorded in the 6th day for breast meat; 5.757. High pH was found in the freezing storage period 0 day for chicken breast meat; 6.168, and low pH was found in breast meat in the 30th day of freezing storage; 5.826. The 6th day of refrigeration storage gave the highest TPC for thigh meat; 111.33×106 cfu/ gm. Also, the 15th day of freezing storage recorded significant increase in TPC for breast and thigh meat; 244×105 cfu/ gm and 274×105 cfu/ gm respectively. Significant differences were noted for histamine, cadaverine and spermidine during storage periods, high levels recorded in the 6th day of storage for breast meat; 0.395, 0.078 and 0.643 mg/ kg respectively. Significant differences were noted between the mean levels of biogenic amines for breast samples during all storage periods. High levels of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine and spermidine were recorded in the 15h day of storage; 2.654, 0.358, 1.589, 0.124 and 2.652 mg/ kg respectively. In thigh meat, significant differences were recorded for levels of biogenic amines during the freezing storage periods except putrescine. Histamine did not exceed the legal limit set by the US FDA; 50 mg/ kg in all samples.

Detection of the origin of animal species in kebab meat using mitochondrial DNA based -polymerase chain reaction (mtDNA-PCR)

Khulod Ibraheem Hassan; Bana Azad Mohamed Ali; Naska Abdulkadir Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 39-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125516.1038

Adulteration and incorrect labeling of meat products became a matter of great concerns of religious, economical, legal and medical aspects. Among meat products, kebab is considered one of the most favorable in Iraq, which makes it prone to adulteration. This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of kebab by detecting the origin of animal species meat in it; using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose kebab was prepared as per the standardized processing schedule using pure mutton and beef meat in ratio 80:20 and chicken meat in five ratios ;70:20:10, 65:20:15, 60:20:20,55:20:25 and 50:20:30, respectively. DNA was extracted successfully from pure species meat and from all mixed kebab above, then PCR was carried out using species-specific primers, to amplify mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The results revealed specific amplified fragments with 133, 300 and 585 bp for pure chicken, beef and sheep, respectively, and in the mixed grilled samples, the detection limit of chicken was 10%, indicating that the cooking (grinding) and addition of non-meat ingredients showed no effect on the detection of meat species. The results of this study proved mtDNA-PCR to be effective and reliable for detecting the origin of animal species meat . This method of detection could be applied in quality control laboratories for detect adulteration in different kinds of traditional grilled kebab in Iraqi restaurants.

Effect of ground flaxseed on the carcass characteristics of Karadi male lambs

Chowman A. Omar; Awat N. Yousif; Muhammad K. Arif; Hemn G. Zahir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125517.1039

To investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Ground Flaxseed (GF) on performance and carcass characteristics of Karadi male lambs. Flaxseed was used in feeding period that lasted for 90 days using twelve ram Karadi lambs, at 6 months old, which divided into 3 equal groups (4 rams/group). The lambs were randomly allocated into three treatments to receive either control ration (no Ground flaxseed), or ration containing 4% Ground Flaxseed (T1), or diet containing 8% Ground Flaxseed (T2). All the lambs were received an equal daily allowance of concentrate ration (3% of the body weight). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks), all the lambs were slaughtered. They were weighed immediately before slaughter to provide slaughter body weight (SBW). Immediately after skinning, evisceration was carried out and the carcass components were weighted. Then several quantity characteristics for carcasses were studied, which include: hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage, thickness of subcutaneous fat, rib eye area, partition and cutting of Carcass. Data were analyzed using XL Stat. The results showed that GF has no significant effect on live body weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage %, it also has no significant differences on some carcass cuts for example: leg, shoulder, loin, rack, fore shank and neck. On the other hand, GF supplementation caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in Sub-fat thickness which was 3.695 ± 0.629 and 2.375 ± 0.191in T1 and T2 respectively in comparison to control group 5.015 ± 0.049 mm. Rib eye area increased significantly (P<0.05) in T1 and T2 treatments (12.035±0.205 and 14.145 ± 0.955 respectively) compared to control (10.005 ±1.039 cm2). Some of the carcass cuts, Breast and Flank, decreased significantly (P<0.05) in T2 compared to T1 and Control. In conclusion, GF supplementation significantly decrease breast and flank cuts, while rib eye area significantly increased. However, the decrease in fat thickness may be reflecting the decrease in fat percentages in the carcass that indicates the effect of GF in improvement of carcass traits.

Effect of Stymulan Cattle® feed additive on production and carcass traits in calves

A. k. Nasser; N. M. Abdullah; N. Y. Abou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 289-294
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168739

The feeding trial was conducted on twelve (14-18 month old) Sharabi calves of 184 kg mean body weight. The calves were randomly divided into three groups of equal number. The first group was fed a standard concentrate ration containing 16.3% crude protein and 2.8 Mcal/kg, the second and the third groups were fed the same ration supplemented with 0. 25 and 0.5 kg/ton for the 2nd and 3rd rations additives (stymulan cattle), respectively. The rations were given on base of 3% of the calves live body weight for 130 days and Wheat straw was offered ad libitum. Total feed intake and body gain were recorded. A digestibility trial was carried out on two calves from each group at the end of the feeding period. Body weights, slaughter and carcass characters were studied. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in daily body weight gain. The calves fed control and second rations were heavier than those fed third ration. However, calves of the 2nd group should better feed conversion and dry matter digestion index than calves of the 1st and 3rd groups. There were no significant differences in carcass traits and its meat dissection for the three groups. Also, the results referred approximately 10% of the total feeding in the cost to produce one kg live body weight or carcass weight. This decrease was in the 2nd group compared to other groups. It can be concluded that the supplementation of 0.25 kg/ton of stymulan cattle could improve the fattening growth of sharabi calves as well as improving the dry matter digestibility which in turn lower the feed cost. Which is in accordance with acclamation of the feed additive manufacturer.

Application of species-specific polymerase chain reaction technique depending on cytochrome b gene for beef authentication

E.A. Younis; R.A. Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 193-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168695

The study was conducted on imported beef meat (Indian, Brazilian and Australian), and spacement of minced beef meat (Al-jnobi, Al-sharabi) and Al-frezian collected from local grocery stores for beef authentication to differentiate them from others meats in order to protect consumer economically through applying Species-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction technique using n cytochrome b gene. Results of this study indicated that Species-specific PCR technique was very sensitive and highly specific for the identification of the meat type, also it was found that the designed primer on mitochondrial cyt b gene of beef proved practically proved to be applied on local and imported types of meat of different breeds, since gives the same molecular weight 365 bp in all the same bands. From five minced beef samples, one sample was pure beef, other one contained no beef at all, while the remaining three samples were mixed meat of beef, buffalo, goat and mutton.