Main Subjects : Meat Hygiene

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from broiler carcasses in Mosul city

Omar H. Sheet; Saba A. Hussein; Aamer Y. Al-Chalaby

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 489-493
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127052.1451

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is deemed as one of the main pathogens in human and animals. S. aureus can produce various toxins that usually implicated in food poisoning. S. aureus could possess the mecA gene, which is the principle cause of β-lactam antibiotics resistance, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Broiler’s meat is worthy food for humans, but it may expose to contamination with MRSA during the poultry processes in the slaughterhouse. The current study aimed to assessment the spread of S. aureus and MRSA in the broiler carcasses via detection the nuc and mecA gene and their resistance to different antibiotics. Fifty skin swabs were taken from the broilers carcasses, during their processing in poultry slaughterhouses that scattered in various districts in the Nineveh Governorate during the period between January to April 2020. The results showed that S. aureus was recovered in broiler’s skin swabs at a percentage of 66% (33/50) which confirmed by nuc gene, while MRSA isolates constitute 40% (20/50) of all S. aureus isolates, and distinguished as MRSA by their possessing mecA gene. All MRSA isolates were resistant to Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Methicillin, and Ampicillin/Cloxacillin antibiotics. The present study stressed on the reduction as much as any possible source of broiler carcasses contamination with S. aureus including MRSA during and post poultry processing, through applying high levels of hygienic conditions in all poultry processing premises to attain high standards of sustainability and public health standards.

Detection of multiple presence of antibiotic residues in slaughtered sheep at Duhok abattoir, Iraq

Shireen A. Yousif; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 49-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126259.1276

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and/or multi-presence of tetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, and gentamicin residues in slaughtered sheep carcasses at Duhok abattoir using ELISA technique. Eighty-eight samples were collected from different sites of twenty-two sheep carcasses. These samples included Longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney. The samples were prepared, homogenized, extracted and assayed according to ELISA kit instructions. The results revealed that all 22 carcasses were contained at least one type of tested antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic residues were found in 17(77.27%) of examined carcasses. The study indicated that local ovine meat sold in Duhok province generally contained residues of antibiotics. Animals slaughtered might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.

The impact of storage duration and conditions on the formation of biogenic amines and microbial content in poultry meat

Shamail Abdulaali Saewa; Zaid Khalaf Khidhir; mustafa hamza Al Bayati

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126584.1346

 This research was conducted to estimate the safety of breast and thigh meat (Ross 308) stored in refrigeration and freezing for different periods (0, 3 and 6) and (0, 15 and 30) days, respectively (total samples 12). High pH found in the 6th day of refrigeration storage for thigh meat; 6.414, while low recorded in the 6th day for breast meat; 5.757. High pH was found in the freezing storage period 0 day for chicken breast meat; 6.168, and low pH was found in breast meat in the 30th day of freezing storage; 5.826. The 6th day of refrigeration storage gave the highest TPC for thigh meat; 111.33×106 cfu/ gm. Also, the 15th day of freezing storage recorded significant increase in TPC for breast and thigh meat; 244×105 cfu/ gm and 274×105 cfu/ gm respectively. Significant differences were noted for histamine, cadaverine and spermidine during storage periods, high levels recorded in the 6th day of storage for breast meat; 0.395, 0.078 and 0.643 mg/ kg respectively. Significant differences were noted between the mean levels of biogenic amines for breast samples during all storage periods. High levels of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine and spermidine were recorded in the 15h day of storage; 2.654, 0.358, 1.589, 0.124 and 2.652 mg/ kg respectively. In thigh meat, significant differences were recorded for levels of biogenic amines during the freezing storage periods except putrescine. Histamine did not exceed the legal limit set by the US FDA; 50 mg/ kg in all samples.

Detection of the origin of animal species in kebab meat using mitochondrial DNA based -polymerase chain reaction (mtDNA-PCR)

Khulod Ibraheem Hassan; Bana Azad Mohamed Ali; Naska Abdulkadir Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 39-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125516.1038

Adulteration and incorrect labeling of meat products became a matter of great concerns of religious, economical, legal and medical aspects. Among meat products, kebab is considered one of the most favorable in Iraq, which makes it prone to adulteration. This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of kebab by detecting the origin of animal species meat in it; using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose kebab was prepared as per the standardized processing schedule using pure mutton and beef meat in ratio 80:20 and chicken meat in five ratios ;70:20:10, 65:20:15, 60:20:20,55:20:25 and 50:20:30, respectively. DNA was extracted successfully from pure species meat and from all mixed kebab above, then PCR was carried out using species-specific primers, to amplify mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The results revealed specific amplified fragments with 133, 300 and 585 bp for pure chicken, beef and sheep, respectively, and in the mixed grilled samples, the detection limit of chicken was 10%, indicating that the cooking (grinding) and addition of non-meat ingredients showed no effect on the detection of meat species. The results of this study proved mtDNA-PCR to be effective and reliable for detecting the origin of animal species meat . This method of detection could be applied in quality control laboratories for detect adulteration in different kinds of traditional grilled kebab in Iraqi restaurants.

Effect of ground flaxseed on the carcass characteristics of Karadi male lambs

Chowman A. Omar; Awat N. Yousif; Muhammad K. Arif; Hemn G. Zahir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125517.1039

To investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Ground Flaxseed (GF) on performance and carcass characteristics of Karadi male lambs. Flaxseed was used in feeding period that lasted for 90 days using twelve ram Karadi lambs, at 6 months old, which divided into 3 equal groups (4 rams/group). The lambs were randomly allocated into three treatments to receive either control ration (no Ground flaxseed), or ration containing 4% Ground Flaxseed (T1), or diet containing 8% Ground Flaxseed (T2). All the lambs were received an equal daily allowance of concentrate ration (3% of the body weight). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks), all the lambs were slaughtered. They were weighed immediately before slaughter to provide slaughter body weight (SBW). Immediately after skinning, evisceration was carried out and the carcass components were weighted. Then several quantity characteristics for carcasses were studied, which include: hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage, thickness of subcutaneous fat, rib eye area, partition and cutting of Carcass. Data were analyzed using XL Stat. The results showed that GF has no significant effect on live body weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage %, it also has no significant differences on some carcass cuts for example: leg, shoulder, loin, rack, fore shank and neck. On the other hand, GF supplementation caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in Sub-fat thickness which was 3.695 ± 0.629 and 2.375 ± 0.191in T1 and T2 respectively in comparison to control group 5.015 ± 0.049 mm. Rib eye area increased significantly (P<0.05) in T1 and T2 treatments (12.035±0.205 and 14.145 ± 0.955 respectively) compared to control (10.005 ±1.039 cm2). Some of the carcass cuts, Breast and Flank, decreased significantly (P<0.05) in T2 compared to T1 and Control. In conclusion, GF supplementation significantly decrease breast and flank cuts, while rib eye area significantly increased. However, the decrease in fat thickness may be reflecting the decrease in fat percentages in the carcass that indicates the effect of GF in improvement of carcass traits.

Application of species-specific polymerase chain reaction technique depending on cytochrome b gene for beef authentication

E.A. Younis; R.A. Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 193-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168695

The study was conducted on imported beef meat (Indian, Brazilian and Australian), and spacement of minced beef meat (Al-jnobi, Al-sharabi) and Al-frezian collected from local grocery stores for beef authentication to differentiate them from others meats in order to protect consumer economically through applying Species-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction technique using n cytochrome b gene. Results of this study indicated that Species-specific PCR technique was very sensitive and highly specific for the identification of the meat type, also it was found that the designed primer on mitochondrial cyt b gene of beef proved practically proved to be applied on local and imported types of meat of different breeds, since gives the same molecular weight 365 bp in all the same bands. From five minced beef samples, one sample was pure beef, other one contained no beef at all, while the remaining three samples were mixed meat of beef, buffalo, goat and mutton.

Effect of Stymulan Cattle® feed additive on production and carcass traits in calves

A. k. Nasser; N. M. Abdullah; N. Y. Abou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 289-294
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168739

The feeding trial was conducted on twelve (14-18 month old) Sharabi calves of 184 kg mean body weight. The calves were randomly divided into three groups of equal number. The first group was fed a standard concentrate ration containing 16.3% crude protein and 2.8 Mcal/kg, the second and the third groups were fed the same ration supplemented with 0. 25 and 0.5 kg/ton for the 2nd and 3rd rations additives (stymulan cattle), respectively. The rations were given on base of 3% of the calves live body weight for 130 days and Wheat straw was offered ad libitum. Total feed intake and body gain were recorded. A digestibility trial was carried out on two calves from each group at the end of the feeding period. Body weights, slaughter and carcass characters were studied. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in daily body weight gain. The calves fed control and second rations were heavier than those fed third ration. However, calves of the 2nd group should better feed conversion and dry matter digestion index than calves of the 1st and 3rd groups. There were no significant differences in carcass traits and its meat dissection for the three groups. Also, the results referred approximately 10% of the total feeding in the cost to produce one kg live body weight or carcass weight. This decrease was in the 2nd group compared to other groups. It can be concluded that the supplementation of 0.25 kg/ton of stymulan cattle could improve the fattening growth of sharabi calves as well as improving the dry matter digestibility which in turn lower the feed cost. Which is in accordance with acclamation of the feed additive manufacturer.