Main Subjects : Animal Hygiene


Detection of the origin of animal species in kebab meat using mitochondrial DNA based -polymerase chain reaction (mtDNA-PCR)

Khulod Ibraheem Hassan; Bana Azad Mohamed Ali; Naska Abdulkadir Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 39-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125516.1038

Adulteration and incorrect labeling of meat products became a matter of great concerns of religious, economical, legal and medical aspects. Among meat products, kebab is considered one of the most favorable in Iraq, which makes it prone to adulteration. This study was carried out to evaluate the quality of kebab by detecting the origin of animal species meat in it; using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose kebab was prepared as per the standardized processing schedule using pure mutton and beef meat in ratio 80:20 and chicken meat in five ratios ;70:20:10, 65:20:15, 60:20:20,55:20:25 and 50:20:30, respectively. DNA was extracted successfully from pure species meat and from all mixed kebab above, then PCR was carried out using species-specific primers, to amplify mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The results revealed specific amplified fragments with 133, 300 and 585 bp for pure chicken, beef and sheep, respectively, and in the mixed grilled samples, the detection limit of chicken was 10%, indicating that the cooking (grinding) and addition of non-meat ingredients showed no effect on the detection of meat species. The results of this study proved mtDNA-PCR to be effective and reliable for detecting the origin of animal species meat . This method of detection could be applied in quality control laboratories for detect adulteration in different kinds of traditional grilled kebab in Iraqi restaurants.

Effect of ground flaxseed on the carcass characteristics of Karadi male lambs

Chowman A. Omar; Awat N. Yousif; Muhammad K. Arif; Hemn G. Zahir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125517.1039

To investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Ground Flaxseed (GF) on performance and carcass characteristics of Karadi male lambs. Flaxseed was used in feeding period that lasted for 90 days using twelve ram Karadi lambs, at 6 months old, which divided into 3 equal groups (4 rams/group). The lambs were randomly allocated into three treatments to receive either control ration (no Ground flaxseed), or ration containing 4% Ground Flaxseed (T1), or diet containing 8% Ground Flaxseed (T2). All the lambs were received an equal daily allowance of concentrate ration (3% of the body weight). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks), all the lambs were slaughtered. They were weighed immediately before slaughter to provide slaughter body weight (SBW). Immediately after skinning, evisceration was carried out and the carcass components were weighted. Then several quantity characteristics for carcasses were studied, which include: hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage, thickness of subcutaneous fat, rib eye area, partition and cutting of Carcass. Data were analyzed using XL Stat. The results showed that GF has no significant effect on live body weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage %, it also has no significant differences on some carcass cuts for example: leg, shoulder, loin, rack, fore shank and neck. On the other hand, GF supplementation caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in Sub-fat thickness which was 3.695 ± 0.629 and 2.375 ± 0.191in T1 and T2 respectively in comparison to control group 5.015 ± 0.049 mm. Rib eye area increased significantly (P<0.05) in T1 and T2 treatments (12.035±0.205 and 14.145 ± 0.955 respectively) compared to control (10.005 ±1.039 cm2). Some of the carcass cuts, Breast and Flank, decreased significantly (P<0.05) in T2 compared to T1 and Control. In conclusion, GF supplementation significantly decrease breast and flank cuts, while rib eye area significantly increased. However, the decrease in fat thickness may be reflecting the decrease in fat percentages in the carcass that indicates the effect of GF in improvement of carcass traits.

Effect of vitamin E and selenium injection on semen quality and some blood parameters of Karadi rams

Mohannad Mahdi Hameed; Abdulnasir Alkhashab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125554.1073

The Objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin E and selenium (Se) injection on semen characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters of Karadi rams. fifteen Karadi Rams with average body weight 63 kg and 3-4 years of age were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (5 rams / group) and the Rams were fed a standard diet equal in energy and protein and treated as follows. First control group, rams were injected with 1 ml normal saline once weekly. The second group, rams were injected with 2 ml (2.5 mg vitamin E plus 50 µg sodium selenite / kg body weight) once weekly. The third group rams were injected with 4 ml (5 mg vitamin E plus 100 µg sodium selenite /kg body weight) twice in week (2ml in one injection.) and the experiment continue for 3 months. Results revealed that treatment with vitamin E plus selenium Se led to a significant improvement (P≤0.05) on semen characteristics also a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in physiological and biochemical blood characters of Karadi Rams.

Effect of body weight of ewes and milk yield in productive performance of lambs, milk yield and components of Awassi sheep

Khaled Sultan; Mohammed Reyad Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125555.1074

In the current study, 32 Awassi ewes 2 -3 years aged were used with their lambs for 12 weeks, to evaluate the effect of Body Weight (BW) and Milk Yield (MY) on Body weight BW, Body Weight Gain (BWG), MY and milk components. After lambing, ewes were weighted directly, then at the 1st week of lambing, ewes were milked for 2 consecutive days, in order to determine the milk yield, Ewes divided randomly to 4 groups depending on their body weights and milk yield, the groups were: 1st group: ewes with high BW and high MY, 2nd group: ewes with high BW and law MY, 3rd group: ewes with low BW and high MY, 4th group: ewes with low BW and low MY. The result showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in BW in heavy ewes (HE) groups at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, the best significant interactions (P≤0.05) were recorded in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd group at 8th weeks. Also, there is a significant increase (P≤0.05) in BWG in the HE at 8th week. The effect of MY was evident in milk production, MY of HW and high milk (HM) increased significantly at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks. Also a significant increase (P≤0.05) in milk fat% in HM ewes at 2nd, 6th and 8th weeks after lambing. On other hand the results revealed a significant increase (p≤0.05) in lactose % in Light Ewes Milk (LE) at 8th week and Low Milk Ewes (LOM) at 4th week, also solid non-fat components % increased significantly in LE at 2nd week and HW ewes. In conclusion, the body weight of the lambs that born from the ewes with (heavy weight and high milk production) were significantly higher than other lambs, also, milk production of these ewes was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than other groups.

Impacts of processing heat treatments on deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk and raw milk from different animals

S.A. Abd Al-Zahra; A.J. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153790

A total of 163 milk samples (200 ml) human breast milk and (500 ml each) of cows, ewes, goats, buffaloes and camels were collected randomly at weekly intervals (10 samples/week) from Baghdad governorate. Among the total milk samples (138) milk samples were examined during two climatic periods from the beginning of September 2016 to the end of the February 2017 were tested for the occurrence of DMT residues by using the HPLC technique. Besides that, some of the selected positive samples were subjected to one of the commercial heat treatments such as 63°C/30 min, 80°C/5 min and 100°C/5 min to evaluate the efficiency of heat exposure on the degradation of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in milk. The results pointed out that milk samples containing the higher fat percentage exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest concentration of deltamethrin and bifenthrin in summer highest than in winter, increased the fat percentages of milk was being associated with an increased level of deltamethrin residues due to the lipophilic nature of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin pesticide. The current results revealed that milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes and cows recorded the highest deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season where their mean levels that exceeded the accepted MRLs of 0.05 ppm to milk samples of goats, camels and breast milk the lowest mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues. There was a seasonal variation of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin concentrations in milk samples for each animal species where all the milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes, cows, goats, camels and breast milk had higher mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season than in winter season. Data illustrated revealed that there was a seasonal variation in the mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk samples for each district village where all the milk samples that were collected from AL-Sader and AL-Karada districts had highest mean levels values in summer than in winter season.

Effect of different levels of selenium on the carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs

A.B. Mahmood; M.K. Arif; S.M. Sadq; A.A. Alhoby; S.A. Abdurahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153792

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of using different levels of selenium (Se, Sodium Selenite) on carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs. Fifteen male lambs (4-5 months old and initial weight 25±0.53 kg) were randomly divided into three groups (5 lambs for each). All groups were fed rations consisted mainly of barley grain, wheat bran, yellow corn and soybean meal. All lambs were Se orally given twice a week, which were put in an empty gelatin capsules. The experimental groups were: control group T1 (0 mg Se /kg BW), low level T2 (0.15 mg Se /kg BW) and high level T3 (0.25 mg Se /kg BW). The results showed no significant effects of the different amount of Se on slaughter weight (SW), empty body weight (EBW), dressing percentages (hot carcass weight on empty body weight (HCW/EBW), cold carcass weight on SW (CCW/SW) and (CCW/EBW), carcass length and rib eye area, all adipose fat tissues, carcass offal weights and the chemical composition of meat. On the other hand, significant (P<0.05) differences were found in hot carcass weight (HCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), dressing percentage of HCW/SW, fat thickness, the loin, rack, flank cuts and fat tail among all treatments. The highest weight of loin, rack, flank and fat tail was found in T3, but the lowest weight was in (T1). The physical dissection of legs for fat% components was reduced in both Se treatments groups compared to the control groups. The heart, kidneys, spleen and testicular weight were increased significantly (P<0.05) by increased levels of Se compared to the T1. While, the T2 showed the higher weight of the spleen, but the lower weight was in T1. In conclusion, the increased amount of Se significantly influenced some carcass traits; (HCW), (CCW), dressing percentage of HCW/SW, some carcass cuts, edible and reduced fat thickness and fat contents of leg dissection.

Isolation, identification and detection of some virulence factors in yeasts from local cheese in Mosul city

I.I. Khalil; S.Y.A. Aldabbagh; A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153802

Fifty samples of local cheese were purchased from Mosul city markets during the period from April 2012 to November 2013 to identify and characterize yeast species in these samples. Fifty-eight yeast isolates were identified and confirmed biochemically. They were Candida albicans (13.8%), Candida krusei (9.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsiloosis (25.8%), Geotrichum candidum (20.6%), Rodotorella spp. (10.3%) and mixed yeasts (12.9%). Virulence factors (Hemolytic, Phospholipase, Aspartylprotinase and Estrase activities) of Candida isolates were determined. All isolates show one or more of these activities except Candida krusei. The presence of Candida isolates in this type of cheese refer to the importance of this genus to the health of consumers was discussed.

Effect of oil palm frond treated with ammonia on some carcass traits and meat chemical composition of Bali bulls - Indonesia

R.A. Muthalib; M. Afdal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153794

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oil palm frond treated with ammonia on the carcass weight (CW), rib eye muscle area (REMA) and some meat chemical composition in Bali bull in order to maximal optimization of this oil palm frond. Sixteen Bali bulls, weighing initially between 120 and 140 kg, were randomly divided in to four groups of four animals each. The bulls were placed individually in wooden pens with cement flooring in an open bull barn. The bulls were each randomly assigned in a 60-day experiment. The four treatments included control diet (P0), diet containing 25%, 50% and 75% of ammonia treated OPF for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th, respectively. Randomized Complete Block Design was followed with four treatments and four block of replications applied in this experiment. The results showed that there were no significantly different effect (P>0.05) at treatment on CW, REMA and the meat chemical included water, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and ash content. The findings reffered that, treatment P2, 50 of ammonia oil palm frond (OPF) tend to increase CW, REMA and the meat chemical content of Bali bulls.

Effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of athletic Iraqi Arabian horses

B.J. Mohamed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 95-100
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145604

It is well known that Iraq has dry hot weather, especially during summer, so horses sports competitions are stopped. The aims of our research were to study the effect of endurance exercise on sweat constituents of Iraqi Arabian horses. The results show that, after trot, the body temperature was 37.600±0.058, the heart rate was 45.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 35.750±0.708. After canter, the body temperature was 38.512±0.058, the heart rate was 76.000±0.819 and the respiration rate was 49.250±0.708. After gallop, the body temperature was 39.512±0.058, the heart rate was 99.875±0.819, and the respiration rate was 60.875±0.708. All mean values were significantly different at P≤0.01. The mean of body weight was 460.5 kg. The total body surface mean was 396.1Cm2. The mean values of albumin, globulin, Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++, Mg++, Fe++, Cu++, and Zn+, in trot were 3.512±0.089, 3.875±0.725, 3.637±0.072, 2.062±0.086, 5.962±0.141, 0.167±0.006, 0.987±0.007, 4.875±0.700, 0.712±0.515, 11.750±0.422 and 0.180±0.002, respectively, while the results in canter were 3.925±0.086, 4.750±0.111, 4.787±0.104, 3.637±0.285, 6.637±0.090, 1.487±0.953, 0.161±0.008, 5.537±0.105, 0.987±0.666, 12.262±0.106 and 0.236±0.007, respectively. In gallop were 5.612±0.107, 6.012±0.158, 6.675±0.144, 5.062±0.138, 7.550±0.090, 2.750±0.122, 0.256±0.009, 6.400±0.070, 1.600±0.845, 12.650±0.073 and 0.276±0.004, respectively. Our results indicate clearly a high loss of essential proteins and minerals during sweating which must be compensated by food additives specially during summer, to prevent many healthy problems so we believe that ratios of these proteins and minerals must be calculated according to many factors like, weather climate, the type of the horse jobs (jump, polo, races, show,…..etc.) and the body weights and ages.

Isolation and identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from broiler in Erbil, Iraq

M.N. Al-Sharook; A.A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126717

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from slaughtered broilers in retail market that sell live chickens in Erbil city, Iraq. Forty-one cloacal fecal samples from broiler caecum were investigated from January to April 2016. ESBLs strains were isolated using MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime 1 mg/l and the isolates were identified phynotypically by biochemical tests, TBX agar and VITEK-2 compact system. A total of 34 Escherichia coli and 4 Proteus mirabilis were analysed for determination of ESBL/AmpC by disc diffusion test using antimicrobial 68DC MAST® ESβL discs group including cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime + ESBL inhibitor, cefpodoxime + AmpC inhibitor and cefpodoxime + ESBL inhibitor + AmpC inhibitor and 67DC MAST® ESβL discs group including cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime + clavulanate, ceftazidime, ceftazidime + clavulanate, cefotaxime and cefotaxime + clavulanate. The phenotypic results showed that in group 68DC discs 23.7% E. coli were resistant to cefpodoxime and in group 67DC discs 73.7% of E. coli and 7.9% of P. mirabilis were resistance to one or more of the cefpodoxime, ceftazidime and ceftazidime. Final results revealed that 78.0% of samples were ESBLs/ AmpC positive. This study is the first examination to determine phenorypically E. coli producing ESBLs/AmpC in broiler chickens in Iraq. Conclusion, the healthy broiler can be a major source of ESBLs/AmpC and the possibility that transmitted to humans through the food chain, direct contact and the surrounding environment raises the concerns about public health and safety of poultry meat and the negative consequences of drug therapy that causes the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Comparative study of the effect of natural planting, hydroponic germination and barley sprout powder as prebiotic in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. blood indices

H.S. Abedalhammed; N.M. Abdulrahman; H.L. Sadik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 7-11
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126704

This study was designed to investigate the effect of different ways of barley germination including natural, barley sprout powder and hydroponic planting in university of Sulaimani/ Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/ Fisheries lab. on some blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. The study was conducted for 56 days and a total of 175 fingerlings common carp with mean initial weight was 34.71±4.59 gm. Seven experimental diets were fed with the control as 0% (T1), Hydroponic Planting 2.5 and 5 gm/ kg diet (T2 and T3), Barley sprout powder BSP (2.5 and 5 gm/kg) (T4 and T5), Natural planting (2.5 and 5 gm/kg) (T6 and T7). According to the results significant differences observed among the treatments when compare with the control in RBC counts, Hb and PCV. In general BSP (5gm/ kg diet) was higher numerically than other treatments, especially when compared with control and hydroponic planting in both levels. No significant differences noticed in both of WBC counts and the counts of each of Monocytes, numerically, Barley sprout powder in both levels were more effects on WBC counts while T2 Hydroponic Planting 2.5gm/ kg diet was higher numerically in monocytes, T6 natural planting in Eosinophils and Basophils without significance. The statistical analysis of the Lymphocyte data showed no significance in Heterophil all the treatments were significantly differ than T7 natural planting 5gm/ kg diet.

Microbiological quality of white local sheep cheese in Mosul city markets

M.H.A. AL-Hamdany; A.A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126712

The soft white cheese is considered one of the most popular locally manufactured cheese in Iraq, a kind of traditional cheese that is mainly produced from sheep milk. It usually becomes available in the markets of Mosul between the months of February and July. To investigate the microbiological quality, 25 samples of white, soft, un-salted fresh locally produced sheep cheese were collected from the market in Mosul. These cheese samples were examined by the quantity method to determine the total viable bacterial counts (TVC) and the total counts of coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. The minimum, maximum and average results of the aforementioned bacterial counts were 1.0x106, 1.4x103, 1.4x102 CFU g-; 2.9x108, 6.0x107, 12.6x105 CFU g- and 18.0x107, 5.8x106, 3.1x105 CFU g-1, respectively. Corresponding to the ‘International Microbiological Reference Criteria’ for cheese, it could be clear from these results that the samples were highly contaminated. Hence, it can be concluded that the sanitary conditions were inadequate either during the milk production and cheese manufacturing process or throughout their distribution in the local market. Therefore, it is recommended to comply with the public health and sanitary measures during the process of local cheese production. In consequence, it is essential to follow the annual screening of local cheese in terms of bacterial counts to determine the degree of contamination and in order to develop a national standard microbiological criteria and quality control for local cheese.

Characterizing physiological status in three breeds of bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region

L.V. Osadchuk; M.A. Kleschev; O.I. Sebezhko; O.S. Korotkevich; N.I. Shishin; T.V. Konovalova; K.N. Narozhnykh; V.L. Petukhov

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 35-42
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126708

Ecological and climatic factors have an impact on the health, productivity and reproduction of the cattle. The goal of this work is the study of physiological status of servicing bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region, by defining the differences between Red-Steppe, Simmental and Black-and-White breeds in spermatogenic, hormonal, biochemical and hematological parameters. Samples of peripheral blood and ejaculates were taken from 48 grown-up servicing bulls (average age 5.6±0.3 years) in autumn period. It was established that Red-Steppe bulls have higher concentrations of nonorganic phosphorus, leucocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in comparison with animals of Simmental breed, and the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit are also higher in comparison with Black-and-White breed. It was noted that bulls of Black-and-White breed have a higher level of cortisol in comparison with the other breeds. The lowest level of serum urea and total protein and increased serum activity of creatine kinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, as well as the heaviest body weight were observed in Simmental breed bulls. The differences between breeds in a wide spectrum of physiological measures reflect not only genetically determined peculiarities of homeostatic mechanism, but also may reflect different ability to adapt to local ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region. Spermatogenic, biochemical and hematological measures in bull sires reared in the Altai region were similar to those in bulls bred in other Russian regions and some other countries. The measures reported could serve as reference values and therefore represent ‘normal’ values of physiological status for these bull sires reared in this ecological and climatic zone, but could be utilized in further studies for comprehensive monitoring of cattle breeding stock in other ecological and climatic zones of the Siberian region of Russia.