Main Subjects : Animal Toxicology


Acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of lambda-cyhalothrin in chicks

Shahaad A. Alrawe; Muna H. ALzubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129674.1678

A Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is classified as a synthetic type II pyrethroids, available in the local market, used to eliminate insects, which is widely used for spraying homes. This study aims to reveal the acute and subacute toxic effects of LTC in chicks as a biological model. The acute (LD50) by up and down method recorded through 24 hrs. The signs and toxicity scores were estimated, the sub-acute toxicity effects of LTC in the open-field activity and tonic immobility test, body-weight and histopathological effects were recorded. The oral LTC LD50 in chicks was 228.5 mg/kg. Oral administration of LTC at doses 57.12, 114.25, and 171.36 mg/kg, which represented 25%, 50%, and 75% of LD50 respectively, caused signs of toxicity such asdepression with wing dropping, feathered by closed eyelids, gasping, and recumbency. LTC causes a significant decrease in chick’s weight, locomotor activity in the open field activity represented by increase latency to move, and decrease the number of lines crossed. The liver and brain show histopathological changes such as congestion, focal infiltration of mononuclear cells, hemorrhage, coagulative necrosis, and vasogenic edema. In the brain, the lesion was represented by shrunken in purkinji, demyelination of axon and hyper atrophy of astrocyte, the lesion was more severe in both organs when exposed to a high concentration and for longer periods. Our results demonstrated that LCT has a moderate toxicity in chicks, and causes behavioral and histological toxic effects, especially with sub-acute toxicity. Therefore, we do not recommend using it, and restricted application in homes and agriculture.

Effect of boric acid on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabbasi; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129497.1653

The aim of this study to explore the therapeutic effect of boric acid on the neurobehavioral (motor activity) level, and histopathologic changes in the brain, liver and kidneys against fluorosis. In this study rose chicks have been used and determined medium lethal sodium fluoride dose at 346.5 mg/kg orally. The chicks divided into four random groups each one consists of 10 chicks. The first group considered to be a control group, the second received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride, the third group received 10 mg/kg of boric acid and the fourth received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride and boric acid at the same previous dosages. After two weeks of daily treatment, neurobehavioral measures were taken, the use of boric acid has a major effect to improve the neurobehavioral measurement and develop complications of ALT, AST, creatinine, Ca, MDA. The results indicate that boric acid may be a therapeutic agent against the fluoride toxicity of the brain, liver and kidney. This result support by histopathological changes which represented by inflammation, congestion of portal vein and dilation of sinusoids in the liver and vacuolation, vasogenic edema and gliosis in the brain and Kidney of showed segmentation of glomeruli, dilation of Bowman’s space, necrosis of epithelial cells renal tubules and hemorrhage of NaF group, while the liver of the NaF with boric acid group showed an improvement the results of histopathological examination of the liver, brain and kidneys compared to the NaF group alone. The results revealed that boric acid has a preventing effects against fluoride after two weeks of treatment with boric acid.

Pathological and biological effects of treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin in rabbits

Assia BOUMEZRAG; Houari HEMIDA; Fadhela Amina BOUMEZRAG; Fadh SMAIL; Sekhou CISSE

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 443-450
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126977.1425

Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide, which is widely used to control a large variety of agricultural pests throughout the world as well as in Algeria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LCT exposure on body weight, hematological and blood biochemical parameters and to evaluate histopathological changes in some organs. Twelve (12) healthy local rabbits with a mean body weight of 1.8 kg were divided into three groups of four each: First group was kept as control (CTRL), second group (LCT 10) and third group (LCT 20) were given oral LCT at 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively three times a week for 25 days. The results showed no significant difference in mean body weight between groups. Blood analysis revealed no significant variation in hemogram between LCT-treated groups and control group. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P˂0.05) in total cholesterol content and glucose in LCT10 and LCT20, respectively. Total protein increased significantly (P˂0.0001) in LCT 20 group. While a very high increase (P˂0.0001) in the activity of asparatate aminotranferase (AST) was recorded in both treated groups, no change was observed in the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). LCT treatment exhibited severe histopathological changes in liver, kidney, lung and brain. It is concluded from the study that LCT produced serious toxic pathological alterations and metabolic dysfunctions in rabbits.

Determination of the lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of lead chloride and its accumulation in different organs of Gambusia affinis fish

Amal A. Al-Kshab; Omamah Q. Yehya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 361-367
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126853.1401

In the present research, mosquito fish Gambusia affinis have been exposed to lead chloride during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in order to evaluate the lead chloride lethal 50 (LC50) concentration and the Its residue in certain organs of fish. Usage of the EPA computer software based on Finney Probit Analysis method has been statistically tested for the data collected LC50 values of G. affinis if 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were found to be 59.4, 55.9, 51.1 and 49. 0 mg/L, respectively. LC50 decreased as mean exposure times. 20 fish were placed in each concentration of four sublethal concentrations 20 and 25 mg/L for two acute periods 24 and 96 hours as well as 10 and 5 mg/l for chronic periods 15 and 30 hours. The testes were carried out as three replications, the accumulation of lead in various fish organs was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The finding revealed that the accumulation of PbCl2 on different organs of G. affinis be time dependent fashion and Pb-content in organs increased significantly time dependent at chronic exposure as compared as acute- exposure.

Evaluation of the heavy metal content in the muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in groundwater in Basrah province, Iraq

Arafat Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126491.1336

The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Cd) in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in groundwater in Khor Al-Zubair, Basrah province (in the south of Iraq) were assessed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. XRF is a powerful technique for element analysis in different environmental samples with many advantages compared with conventional laboratory methods. The mean concentration of the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish (Cr= 11.42, Ni= 2.75, Hg=1.53, Pb= 1.93, and Cd=4.42 mg/ kg dry weight) exceeded the recommended maximum acceptable levels proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), The commission of the European Communities (EC), and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The results suggest that the tested fish muscle tissue was not safe for human consumption and that the groundwater in the Khor al-Zubair area is possibly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly owing to industrial activity.

Anticlastogenic properties of Quercus infectoria galls extract against DMBA induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice in vivo

Sherzad I Amedi; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125930.1188

This study aimed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria galls extract (QIGE) as anticlastogenic. The effect of QIGE was tested in mice (5 groups for each test) treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA), the strong site-specific carcinogenic agent. In this study, the QIGE show no signs of toxicity, a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice caused a great increase in number of chromosomal aberrations, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and reduction in the percentage of mitotic index (MI) (cytogenetic markers). Oral pre-treatment and post-treatment of QIGE for 14 days at dose 2 gm/kg b.w. daily to DMBA-treated animals greatly reduced in number of micronucleus formation, chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosomal break, chromatid breaks, ring chromosome, dicentric chromosome and fragments. Besides, mitotic index frequency increased comparing with the positive control. The data suggest that QIGE has potent anti-clastogenic effect against DMBA-induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of albino male mice and it may have a protective effect against the mutagenicity of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

Toxicological and neurobehavioral effects of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin insecticides in mice

Khaerea A. Mustafa; Banan Kh. Al-Baggou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125738.1144

The aim of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin in mice separately and to study their toxic and neurobehavioral effects. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were determined depending on up and down method. The oral LD50 of chlorpyrifos was 193.05 mg/kg and of deltamethrin was 15.71 mg/kg in mice. The oral administration of chlorpyrifos 155 mg/kg and deltamethrin 12.56 mg/kg represent 80% of LD50 resulted in acute signs of poisoning that manifested by dyspnea, salivation and lacrimation at 100%, piloerection, straub tail, tremors, convulsions and death at 70% for chlorpyrifos and 60% for deltamethrin and writhing reflex at 20% for chlorpyrifos. Oral administration of chlorpyrifos 310 mg/kg and deltamethrin 24 mg/kg increased severity of toxicosis signs as a percentage of piloerection, straub tail, tremors, seizures and death 100%. As well as decrease the onset of tremors, convulsions and death, writhing reflex which appears at 20% for chlorpyrifos and 10% for deltamethrin. After three hours of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin oral administration at doses represent 20% and 10% of LD50 there are significantly hypoactivation in open-field activity, significantly increased in the duration of negative geotaxis performance, significantly decreased in head pocking and swimming scores compared to control group. In conclusion we found that deltamethrin was more toxic than chlorpyrifos this is based on the LD50 value. However, the signs of toxicosis and neurobehavioral effects produced by both toxicants were not differential and could not be associated with the toxic level.

The effect of nicotine per inhalation on the diameter and epithelium thickness of the seminiferous tubules of rats

Yew S. En; Hardany Primarizky; Widjiati Widjiati; Epy Luqman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 209-215
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125725.1141

This study aimed to assess the level of testicular damage by observing the changes in the diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in rats that exposure to nicotine per inhalation. Thirty adult male rats were used and divided into five equal groups and treatment as follows for 20 days; Control group NaCl 0.9%, P1 nicotine 0.5 mg/kg, P2 nicotine 1.0 mg/kg, P3 nicotine 2.0 mg/kg and P4 nicotine 4.0 mg/kg. All groups were given treatment per inhalation for twenty days. At the end of treatment and the rats were sacrificed testes were collected for histopathological preparation. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining and the sections were examined for histopathological changes. There results showed that nicotine administration induced varying degrees of structural damage to the seminiferous tubules, as the decreased in diamater and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules. The diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in four experimental groups reduced compared to the control group. This study proves that nicotine administration does decreases the spermatogenesis of rats by reducing the diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in testes. It also proves that the level of testicular damage is directly proportional to the dosage of nicotine administrated to male rats.