Main Subjects : Animal Pharmacology

Are promising mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine abolish COVID-19 activity? A review study

Yaareb J Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Fanar A. Isihaq; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127049.1449

To explore the benefits of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), (which is an antimalarial agent that has shown effective pharmacological properties in different malarial conditions and immunological disorders, particularity in chloroquine-sensitive malaria), in the treatment and prevention of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because HCQ was recently advocated to minimize the pathogenicity of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to shed the light on a possible mechanism by which HCQ can defeat the COVID-19, a disease characterized by the WHO as a pandemic. Literatures from Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were cast-off to search the literature data. The keywords used are antimalarial agent, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2 and Zinc sulfate.The review summarizes the benefits of using HCQ against COVID-19 through exploiting the ability of this antimalarial agent in ameliorating the body immunity, inhibiting and/or delaying the viral glycosylation by increasing the pH inside the host cell and also via suppressing the viral transcription and replication through the formation of a complex structure after binding with zinc. We concluded thatthese interfering properties of HCQ support human immunity to fight against the progression of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the therapeutic efficiency of HCQ against the COVID-19 can be enhanced by the concurrent administration of zinc sulfate.

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of theaflavin in healthy and experimentally induced liver damage rabbits

Sarhan Rashid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 235-242
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162962

This current work aimed to study the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin in healthy and hepatotoxic rabbits for comparison. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly raised (P<0.05) after administration of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) Carbone tetrachloride (CCL4) subcutaneously. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated following administration of theaflavin intravenously and orally at 30 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively to both healthy animals and those with damaged liver. Theaflavin concentration in blood measured by HLPC at various time intervals. Pharmacokinetic results showed that theaflavin concentration when given orally reached its maximum concentration after 5 hours in healthy rabbits. While in hepatotoxic group, theaflavin concentration achieved the highest level in blood after three hours. Theaflavin bioavailability in hepatotoxic animals was significantly high and almost double its bioavailability in healthy animals. Results revealed that the area under curve (AUC) value in rabbits with damaged liver was significantly greater than in healthy group (P<0.05). t ½ of theaflavin after intravenous administration was 6.3±0.82 hour in damaged liver group which is significantly higher than that in healthy group (P<0.05). Theaflavin mean concentration in hepatotoxic group required more than 3 hours to decline to 352±19.4 ng/ml when compared to its concentration in healthy group which is required only 45 minutes to decrease to 310± 9.5 ng/ml. In conclusion liver has critical impact on the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin especially bioavailability and biotransformation and this research recorded reasonably large differences between healthy and liver damaged groups regarding theaflavin pharmacokinetic parameters which may result in negative influences on its biological efficacy when used in the treatment of various diseases.

Protective effect of Silymarin against kidney injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in male rats

Measer Abdullah Ahmed; Hussien Mohammad Tayawi; Mohammed Khalil Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 127-130
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125529.1051

The herbal drugs have a protective effect for kidney function against chemical toxicity. 24 male rats divided into 4 groups and treated as following, control group administrated orally with 1ml/kg. B.W physiological solution (0.9%), One dose Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) 3 ml/kg. B.W, Silymarin 150 mg/kg. B.W and Silymarin150 mg/kg. B.W with CCl4 3 ml/kg. B.W for 30 days. Oxidative stress resulted by CCl4 caused increasing in Creatinine, Urea, total protein, Albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreasing in Glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum and congestion, degeneration and desquamation in kidney tissue. We concluded that Silymarin showed protective effect via increasing GSH, decreasing creatinine, Urea, total protein and MDA levels in serum and protect kidney tissue in rats.

Effect of bee venom on rat glucocorticoid receptor beta: a therapeutically model of rheumatoid arthritis

A. Al-Hassnawi; R. Mahdi; H. AL-Rubaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 127-133
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153838

This study aim to use bee venom as alternative medicine for treatment of rats induced with rheumatoid arthritis. Forty rats used for this purpose which divided into four groups, three groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis and one group considered as control group that subdivided into control negative and control positive (rheumatoid group). All the groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis injected with bee venom with different doses (high 40 μg/kg and low dose 10 μg/kg) and different times (after 5 days and after two weeks from CFA injection and along with CFA injection). Glucocorticoid receptor beta used as a biomarker which suggested function as negative regulator determine glucocorticoid sensitivity in target tissues and as an endogenous inhibitor for glucocorticoid action. The high and low dose showed significantly decrease in GCRβ as compared with control group and non-significant between rheumatoid and both along CFA and after 5 days of CFA injection. The pretreatment high and low dose revealed significant decrease in GCRβ compared with Rheumatoid group and non- significant as compared with control group in low dose bee venom treatment. Also, depending on hand paw edema assessment, a weak evidence about anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom has shown. From our data we concluded that bee venom prevents GCRβ elevation especially in pre-treatment group this may result assess to anti-inflammatory effect but the safety of this toxin still needed for another study. Clinically no evidence about the treated effect of bee venom on rheumatoid arthritis in rat.

Survey study: The antibacterial drugs used for treatment of the animals in the teaching veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province

Y.J. Mousa; E.R. Mohammad; S.S. Ramadhan; M.M. Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126718

The aim of this survey is to collect data relating to antibacterial drugs used to treat different animals in the veterinary teaching hospital in the province of Kirkuk, which is taking place for the first time at the province level for the purpose of knowing the types of drugs most commonly used and the outcome whether these drugs used are optimal. Data were collected from the veterinary teaching hospital in Kirkuk province for 6 consecutive months and for the period between 1/7/2016 and until 1/1/2017 period included both the summer and autumn and winter seasons. The results show that the most commonly used drugs were Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline-Colistin compound by 26, 57 and 36% in cattle, sheep-goats and Poultry, respectively. While the least commonly used drugs were Tylosin, Gentamicin and Gentamicin-Tylosin compound by 10, 5 and 4% in cattle, sheep-goats and poultry, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this survey, we recommend the use of Penicillin-Streptomycin compound because it has a synergistic effect against most of the resistant bacteria and not to increase usage of Oxytetracycline because of its side effects and lack of effectiveness in recent times due to the abundance of resistant germs. Also, using antibacterial drugs, we would like to note the need for optimal scientific use of these drugs and to give attention to the period in which it takes the medicine to withdraw from the animal body before milking animals or slaughtering it, so that the bacterial resistance does not develop against these drugs in the future.

Sequential changes of serum and liver subcellular oxidants and antioxidant concentrations in silymarin treated male rats

J.A.A. Al-Sa'aidi; H.J. Shoabith

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116862

The present study aimed to investigate the role of silymarin as an antioxidant and/or it activity in induction of the endogenous antioxidants in intact adult male rats. Seventy males were randomly devided into control and  silymarin treated groups (35 each), and were drenched with drinking water and silymarin suspension (200 mg/ kg b.w) daily for 40 days. Each group was allocated to 5 equal subgroups; sacrificed before treatment (0 day), and after 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of treatment. At the end of each period, males were anaesthesized, dissected and blood samples were obtained for assessment of MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. liver samples (1 g) have been removed and homogenized for assessment of liver subcellular MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. At the end of each periods, serum and liver subcellular MAD concentrations showed no significant changes between groups, whereas SOD, CAT, and GSH concentrations significantly increased at 10, 20, 30, and 40 day periods in silymarin treated males compared with control. It can be concluded that silymarin antioxidant activity is of pharmacological value not only as an antioxidant by itself but also as an inducer of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants even in normal intact male.