Main Subjects : RNA Viruses

Seroprevelance of schmallenberg virus infection as emerging disease in cattle in Iraq

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 495-499
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127071.1454

Schmallenberg virus is an emergent disease which infect cattle, sheep and goats which cause loss of condition, diarrhea, and abortion in pregnant animals, so this study was conducted to detect the antibodies in imported calves by using cELISA, so 400 blood samples was collected calves in different ages and healthy status in a period between October 2018 to September 2019 in Nineveh province, the investigation of specific antibodies was done by competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay, the results showed that the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus in imported calves was 21% (84 positive from 400 samples), high prevalence of infection in the animals more than 6 months to 1 year old 11.5% when compare with animals less than 6 months of age 9.5%, high incidence of infection in animals suffer from various clinical signs 17% and the healthy apparent animals recorded low prevalence of infection 4%, samples which collected in spring months recorded high prevalence of infection 7.5% while the lowest prevalence of infection with the virus recorded in winter months 2%, with significant variance in spring and summer months compared with other seasons, in conclusion this study was conducted that schmallenberg virus is newly emerge in Iraq and this study is firstly recorded this virus in cattle in Iraq.

Epidemiological and molecular study of Rotavirus infection among human and animal in Karbala and Basrah provinces

Faten K. Aldawmy; Hazim T. Thwiny; Hassan M. Abo Almaali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 403-410
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126997.1428

This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of rotaviruses in Karbala and Basrah provinces, the genetic reassortment of human and animal rotavirus strains and the novel strains. Rotaviruses were detected by Immunochromatography Test (ICT) then the positive samples were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using specific primers to VP7 gene, this gene is responsible for VP7 antigen which is responsible for stimulation the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. The VP7 gene was implemented in rotavirus vaccine of Iraqi immunization program. The RT PCR results showed that 56.3% (27/48) of samples positive in children under five years of age in Karbala province while Basrah province revealed 58.5% (31/53) positive samples in children whereas samples taken from calves revealed 43.1% (22/51) and 45.5% (25/55) positive samples in Karbala and Basrah provinces respectively. The sequencing of human and animal samples revealed that there was genetic reassortment between human and animal strains while in comparing with international strains there was closely related with Indian and Pakistani human strains. Necessarily for further bioinformatics studies are needed to study the genetic alterations with viral proteins analysis of rotavirus.