Main Subjects : Animal Histology

Morphometrical and Histochemical study of glandular stomach (Proventriculus) in local domestic male ducks (Anase Platyrhchos)

Ghada A. Sultan; Ammar G. Al-Haaik; Adnan A. Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 65-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133451.2233

The present work explores morphometric and histochemical foundations of the wall of proventriculus in adult domestic male ducks. To achieve this study, six healthy adult ducks were purchased from local vendors in Mosul province. All birds were sedated. Their stomachs were removed after being dissected to achieve the gross description and measurements of the proventriculus, including the length and diameter of cranial, middle, and caudal regions of the proventriculus. Small tissue pieces 6-8 mm in length from three regions of proventriculus were processed for histomorphological studies using hematoxylin and Eosin stain, combined PAS-AB pH 2.5, toluidine blue, and Masson's trichrome stains. The finding showed that the proventriculus connects with the esophagus from the cranial side and the muscular stomach from the caudal side. It was a thin elongated oval tubular organ. Histologically, the mucosa of the proventriculus revealed the presence of folds and sulci-like structures covered by simple columnar epithelium. The tunica submucosa consisted of many signs of profound and straightforward sub-mucosal glands supported by connective tissue septa and extended from the basal part of the diverged gland through the lamina propria, which was organized in a conical manner (adenomere). Tunica Muscularis appeared as a double-layer coordinated in the form of inner longitudinal and outer circular ones. Finally, serosa consists of fibrous tissue, vessels, fatty tissue, and nerve plexuses studded by the mesothelial cells. The highest thickness of the four layers of mucosal, submucosal, muscular, and serosal layers in the distal part of ‎the proventriculus. Histochemical PAS staining positively reacted with epithelial tunica mucosa and wall of proventricular glands.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical study of the pancreas on the local dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

Samyan L. Mostafa; Yahya Ahmed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 913-922
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132567.2105

In the current study, ten adult healthy local dogs of both sexes were used to perform histomorphometrical study on their pancreases. The dog pancreas had an inverted V-shape consisting of left and right lobes joined by a body. The pancreas possesses both exocrine and endocrine parts. The exocrine portion was composed of numerous acini and fewer tubules as well as the duct system. The number, total diameter and cellular height of acini were significantly abundant, larger and taller in the right lobe compared those of the body and left lobe. Furthermore, the number and total diameter of large pancreatic islets were significantly abundant and larger in the left lobe despite with those of the body and right lobe. This result leads to consider the right lobe was a target region for enzymatic secretion, while the left lobe has a specific function for hormonal secretion. According to available literature, no such result and thus conclusion had been reported on dog pancreas previously. In all parts of the pancreas and with aldehyde fuchsin stain, only the large pancreatic islets contained α-, β-, δ-cells as well as non-staining cells. Only, the β-cells occurred as single cells between the pancreatic acini or even within the connective tissue septa. These single cells were more numerous in the left lobe, but they were infrequently located in the body and right lobe.

The histologic effects of high doses of botulinum toxin a on the rabbit's salivary gland

Luma I. Khalel; Jawnaa Khalid Mammdoh; Abdullah A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1111-1117
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133149.2184

The exact mechanism of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on submandibular salivary gland (SMG) regarding its function and histology remains unclear. The goal of this work is to clarify the histological effects of BTX-A (at high doses) in SMG in rabbits after one week. Thirty adult male rabbits were used in this study and they arranged as group 1 includes rabbits which received any treatment and kept for one week duration. Group 2 includes rabbits which received 8 units of BTX-A. Group 3 includes rabbits which received 16 units of BTX-A. Animals were euthanized with ether after one week. Specimens of SMG from all rabbits were taken to perform a routine histological preparation and examination. Sections of rabbits of group 2 and group 3 showed evidence of edema that is surrounding striated ducts, congested blood vessels, and even necrosis of both serous and mucous acini. Some sections exhibited features of degeneration of mucous acini. Hemorrhage was noticed in some sections. Injection of either 8 or 16 units of BTX-A induces several alterations in the submandibular glands’ histology.

Histomorphological and carbohydrate histochemical study of the pancreas in native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos)

Saffanah K. Mahmood; Naziha S. Ahmed; Ghada A. Sultan; Mowaffak J. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1103-1110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133156.2183

In the current study, the histomorphological and histochemical characteristics of the pancreas in native ducks are examined with a particular emphasis on the structure of pancreatic acini and Langerhans islets (LI). Five adult male native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) are examined from the local market of Mosul. All samples are processed routinely for histological and histochemical analyses. Hematoxylin & Eosin, PAS-AB (pH 2.5), Toluidine blue, and Masson's Trichrome stains are used. The morphological examination reveals that male ducks’ pancreas is made up of three major lobes (dorsal, ventral, and third lobes). The pancreas is a small, semi-wide structure with a pale to white pinkish tone located between the duodenum branches. The findings show that the pancreas is enveloped in a thin layer of loose connective tissue capsule and mesothelial; septa extend from the capsule into parenchyma dividing it into many lobules. The study concludes that the pancreatic lobules are composed of a large area of exocrine acini and a small amount of LI, with an exocrine component consisting of round or oval acini with zymogen granules. The endocrine component is represented by three distinct LI types and lacks defined boundaries. Alpha islets are formed of alpha cells (ACs) and a few delta cells (DCs); beta islets are composed of peripherally located beta cells (BCs) and a few (DCs); and mixed islets are composed of alpha, beta, and delta cells. The present study sheds light on the morphological, histological, and histochemical characteristics of the indigenous duck pancreas. However, future research should focus on the pancreas of other bird species as well.

The histological and histochemical features of the esophagus in local breed dogs (Canis familiaris)

Mohammed S. Dawood; Dhyaa A. Abood; Aseel Y. Hameza

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1069-1074
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133034.2164

A total of eight samples of the esophagus of local breed dogs are used to investigate the histochemical features of the esophagus. The specimens are processed according to paraffin embedding technique protocols and the tissue sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and masons trichrome combined with Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS. The esophagus folds the mucosa which is covered by keratinized to non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium which contains numerous excretory common ducts of esophageal glands. The epithelial thickness of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts of the esophagus are 221.95±3.41µm, 212.46±5.38 µm, and 173.15±4.09 µm respectively. The lamina propria of the cervical part of the esophagus lacks the muscularis mucosa, while the muscular mucosa in the thoracic part of the smooth muscles appears as scattered interrupted bundles. The esophageal glands are a type of compound tubular mucoserous constructed of the predominated mucous alveoli and little serous acini. When combined with Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS stain, the esophageal glands show strong acidic mucopolysaccharides within the mucous alveoli and light blue color within serous acini that denote weak acidic zymogen granules. Tunica muscularis is striated muscle fibers in cervical and thoracic parts and smooth in the abdominal part of the esophagus. The measured thickness of tunica muscularis of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts are 568.76±6.90 µm, 703.29±7.54µm, and 338.98±7.26 µm respectively.

The macroscopical and microscopical characters of the trachea in different avian species: A comparative study

Asmaa A. Sakr; Shafika A. Elsayed; Sozan A. Ismaeil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 781-789
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132095.2046

This study aimed to explain and compare the anatomical, histological, histochemical and histomorphometrical analyses of the trachea in different species of birds. This study includes 21 healthy birds from geese (Anser anser domesticus), cattle egrets (Bublucus ibis) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), 7 seven from each species. Anatomically, the trachea of the goose (the proximal and distal parts) was the longest of all the studied species, yet it had fewer cartilaginous rings than those of the cattle egret. Also, the tracheal length, beside the tracheal muscle in geese plays an important role in the phonation process. Histologically, the trachea is composed of four distinct tunicae: mucosa, propria submucosa, fibrocartilaginous, and adventitia. The epithelium that lined the trachea was ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium) with simple mucous tubuloalveolar glands in either proximal or distal parts depending on the species. The proximal part is made up of overlapped hyaline cartilaginous rings that partially ossified in geese and cattle egrets but did not ossify in sparrows. In the distal part, the overlapping faded in three investigated species.

The histological effect of the injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on sciatic nerve of rats

Mustafa M. Altaee; Ahmed H. Qassim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 699-707
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131529.1961

The ongoing work aims to compare the effect of extraneural and intraneural injection of therapeutic doses of meloxicam and diclofenac sodium on the sciatic nerve of rats. Six groups of adult albino rats were used with five animals per group. Control group (A), group (B), and group (C) received a single extraneural injection of normal saline (NS) 0.25 ml/kg/rat, meloxicam (M) 0.11 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat and diclofenac sodium (V) 1.1 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat respectively. In contrast, control group (D), group (E), and group (F) received a single intraneural injection of the same doses of normal saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, respectively. Histological evaluation reveals an increased thickening of epineurium, dilatation, congestion of epineurial blood vessels, intrafascicular edema, axonal degeneration, myelin degeneration, and vacuolization in group (C) which was higher than those in the group (B). These changes were also greater in group (F) compared to groups (D) and (E). The histopathological changes of the sciatic nerve were greatest in the case of intraneural injection of saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, which means that the damaging effect of intraneural injection of the drug was greater than the extraneural injection of the same drug. It is concluded that extraneural and intraneural injections of therapeutic doses of meloxicam cause less damage to the sciatic nerve compared to diclofenac sodium. Thus it is considered to be more secure than diclofenac sodium after intramuscular injection. Sciatic nerve injury can occur following intramuscular injection into the gluteal region, particularly if the needle hits the nerve.

New surgical model to induce irreversible liver fibrosis by surgical closure of major duodenal orifice in dogs

Marwan H. Khalil; Ahmed Khalaf Ali; Osamah muwaffag aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 825-831
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132219.2071

This study was conducted to induce and evaluate irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs by surgical closure of the major duodenal orifice. The study was performed on six healthy local adult dogs. Irreversible hepatic fibrosis was surgically induced in all animals by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla using non-absorbable suture material for 60 days. Induced hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by clinical, ultrasonographical examination, laboratory and histopathological methods. The clinical manifestation of the jaundiced dogs showed reduced food intake, pale-yellowish mucus membrane, inflammatory signs of wound site and severe post-operative pain. Biochemically, there was significant increased values of the aspartate aminotransferase ,  alkaline phosphatase , alanine aminotransferase , indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin especially during first two days after surgery followed by a gradual decrease of these values until the end of the but still higher than normal values. Ultrasonographic examinations showed abnormal change in the liver tissue such as increase in both size and wall thickness of the gall bladder and mottled heterogeneous appearance of the liver during the first two weeks following the surgical induction of the hepatic fibrosis and lasted until the end of the study. Histopathological evaluation of liver samples revealed necrosis of hepatocytes and deposition of eosinophilic material, infiltration of inflammatory cells, recent thrombus in the hepatic vein, fatty change. In conclusion, surgical induction of irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs was feasible technique by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla and the results were confirmed by the clinical, ultrasonographical, laboratory and histopathological examination.

Histological effects of the interaction of some food additives on the kidney of pregnant rats

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha; Raghad A. A. Najjar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 633-640
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131181.1926

Many studies are still the subject of food additives to know their positive and negative effects, primarily as they are widely used globally. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the histological effects of sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate on the histological structure of the kidney in pregnant rats. Twenty-four pregnant rats were used to achieve the aim of the study. The rats were classified into four groups, the first being the control group, the second treated with monosodium glutamate at 10 g/kg, the third injected with sodium nitrite at 115 mg/kg, and the fourth for interaction between the two substances and for the same concentrations. The results showed the occurrence of many lesions in the kidneys of experimental groups rats. The second group included interstitial tissue hyperplasia and necrosis of the glomeruli, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, hydropic degeneration of some tubules, and necrosis of some of them. The third group included congestion, hemorrhage in the pulp area, degeneration of some urinary tubules, necrosis, and deformation of the glomerulus. However, degeneration of some tubules and necrosis were seen in the fourth group, such as glomerulus hyperplasia, reduction of Bowman's space, an increase in acidity of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells tubules, hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, and the desquamation of some tubules. The study concluded that these substances have harmful effects on the kidneys in pregnant rats, especially when they are overlapped, so they must be avoided during pregnancy to maintain kidney health.

Evaluation of histological changes induced by prednisolone and cyclophosphamide in some organs of male albino mice

Sahar A AL-Sharqi; Amal K. Chaloob; Ilham A. Al-Saleem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 671-679
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131292.1938

Prednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various diseases. It is known to be used to treat many conditions such as autoimmune diseases and asthma. Cyclophosphamide is a type of nitrogen mustard therapy that works by alkylation of DNA and is used as an immunosuppressant in rheumatoid arthritis and the treatment of many cancers as well. Due to the wide use of these two drugs, the study aimed to evaluate the histological changes in the liver, kidneys, and small intestine of mice. Seventy-five adult mice aged 8-12 weeks were used which were divided into three groups, the first group was orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg prednisolone, the second group was orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and the third group received orally distilled water for 30 days daily. After 24 hours of the last treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the organs (liver, kidney, small intestine) were taken out and placed in 10% formalin solution until histological techniques were performed. The results of the study showed a statically significant difference at P>0.05 of histological changes in the studied organs represented by necrosis, fibrosis, cell degeneration, congestion, and hemorrhage of blood vessels and inflammatory cells when compared with the control group, and that the highest significant difference for these changes was at grade 1 and 2. Our study confirms that these drugs cause histological changes that differed in severity between organs as well as within a single organ when compared to the control group and that cyclophosphamide causes more histological changes than prednisolone.

Comparative anatomical, histometrical, and histochemical study of esophagus between ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and black-shouldered kite (Elanus caeruleus)

Jehan M. Rajab; Sahar A. AL-Sharqi; Sabah A. Abdelrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 737-743
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131742.1998

The present study aimed to investigate the esophagus's anatomical, histometrical, histochemical aspects in the Ring-necked parakeet and Black-shouldered Kite. The esophagus in the parakeet was shorter and narrower than the kite esophagus. The crop was a well‐developed sac shape in the parakeet, while the crop was hardly recognizable in the kite. Histological study shows that the esophagus in both species was composed of four layers arranged from inner to outer (mucosa, submucosa, musculosa, finally serosa). These layers showed variances in the height of the fold, the glands number, and the wall layers’ thickness. The mucosa in the esophagus of the kite consisted of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, while in the parakeet, mucosa consisted of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The esophageal glands were compound tubuloalveolar in the parakeet, while in the kite, there were simple alveolar glands. The folds in the kite were longest and contained more esophageal glands, while the parakeet glands were more prominent and had fewer numbers within the submucosa. The submucosa layer in the parakeet was thicker than that of the kite. The histochemical results showed a positive reaction of esophageal glands with Alcian blue (PH 2.5), while reacting negatively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stains due to the acidic mucopolysaccharides secretions nature.

Histological and histochemical observations of the prostate gland at resting and stimulating status in adult local Dog (Canis familiaris)

Mohammed I. Hammodi; Luay O. Hamza

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 605-610
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131095.1915

The present investigation was done to clarify the histological and histochemical characteristics of the well-developed prostate gland in the adult local dogs (Canis familiaris). The tissue specimens were taken from the prostate gland, the samples were processed by routine histological techniques and stained. Histologically, the body of the prostate in resting was characterized by abundant amounts of fibrous tissue with little glandular lobes that were surrounded by a very thick fibromuscular capsule. Each lobe was composed of numerous variable size lobules that contained several alveoli lined by simple cuboidal cells. While in stimulating status, the gland is characterized by much amount of glandular tissue, thin fibro muscular capsule and thin interlobar connective tissue. The disseminated part of the prostate gland was composed of little scattered small size glandular lobules within the subepithelial cavernous tissue of the urethra about (1-2) cm post body of prostate. Histochemical, the stimulating prostate showed marked intense magenta colour which referred to the presence of both acidic and neutral glycoprotein secretory products when stained with Combine Alcian blue (2.5 pH) + PAS stain. In conclusion, this study showed the differences between the prostate glands in the resting and stimulating status in local breed dogs.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical postnatal development of cornea in indigenous rabbits

Omar Y. Younis Altaay; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 291-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130031.1722

The present study aims to clarify corneal development via analyzing of the histomorphologic and some histochemical parameters in local rabbits. Samples were collected from 25 Rabbits divided into five different age groups at 1, 10, 15, 30, and 40 postnatal day (PND), then the samples sectioned, processed, and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson’s trichrome stain. Some sections were further stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and toluidine blue (TB) stain for histochemical evaluation. Measurements of corneal layers performed for morphometric comparison among age groups. The finding revealed thickening of corneal epithelium, stroma, and corneal endothelium progressively with age and decrease of corneal layer’s cellular density concurrently with alteration of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium cell’s type. The histochemical finding revealed late appearance of bowman’s and Descemet’s membranes after eyelid opening which responded strongly to PAS technique while stroma became metachromatic strongly responded to toluidine blue stain. In conclusion, cornea showed highly active histological development and cellular differentiation before and after eyelid opening.

Histopathological changes on the pregnant rat's lung induced by sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 419-424
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130464.1824

Food additives and preservatives are widely used globally, which, despite their many benefits, have great harm if they are used without health restrictions or control, as they cause many health problems and tissue lesions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the histopathological effects on the lung of pregnant rats of two types of these substances: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Twenty-four pregnant rats used for this study, and they were divided into four groups equally. The control group was dosed with distilled water from the sixth day to the fifteenth day of pregnancy. The second was dosed with MSG at a 12g /kg concentration for the same period in the first group. The third injected with a concentration of 120 mg/kg of NaNO2 for the same period. The fourth was dosed with MSG and NaNO2 together, with the same concentrations and the above period. The results showed that the second group''s lungs showed many histopathological changes, including strong infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of bronchioles and alveolar septa, and emphysema of some alveoli. In the third group, changes included hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, hemorrhage in the alveoli, desquamation and necrosis in bronchioles, peri-bronchial fibrosis, blood vessel congestion. The fourth group showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis in multiple lung areas, emphysema, fibrosis in some alveoli, and hypoplasia of the muscle fibers around the blood vessels. The study concluded that MSG and NaNO2 caused much tissue damage in the lungs of pregnant rats.

Histopathological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the liver of Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica

Nazhan M. Ahmed; Ameer M. M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 349-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130223.1771

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have multiple beneficial uses, as they are used in many medical, industrial, economic, and other fields. Despite these many benefits, it is not without harm to humans and animals if used without control. Therefore, the present study aimed to discover the histopathological effects of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the liver of Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. The study included three groups, the first group, the control group, which were dosed with distilled water for four continuous days, and the second and third experimental groups, which were dosed with Titanium dioxide nanoparticles at a concentration of 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively. Four, fourteen, thirty and sixty days after the experiment began, the birds were sacrificed. The results showed the emergence of many histological lesions in the liver of birds of the two experimental groups, to varying degrees, in the four periods, among the most prominent tissue lesions that appeared in the second experimental group, the emergence of necrosis, hemorrhage, vacuolation, congestion, ballooning swelling, in addition to infiltration of inflammatory cells. While in the third experimental group, histopathological lesions appeared similar to second group, in addition to sinuses dilatation, Kupffer cells hypertrophy, hepatocyte enlargement, and necrosis of the walls of blood vessels and bile ducts. The study concluded that direct exposure to Titanium dioxide nanoparticles leads to damage to the liver tissue of these birds, which may affect its function and thus endanger its life.

Effect of mobile frequencies exposure on histology of retina and cornea in pregnant albino mice

Rawah N. Alshammary; Zeena D. Mohammed Zaki; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 245-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129839.1701

In the current study, the potential effects of the Nokia mobile device were studied with frequency 900-1800 Mhz on the eyes of pregnant and non-pregnant female Swiss mice. The mice were divided into three groups: The first group is a control group consisting of five mice, the second group consists of 10 mice and the third group consists of 10 pregnant mice. Female mice of the second and third groups were exposed for a 3 hour / day and for a 30 days to a mobile device. After the end of 30 days, mice were euthanized and tissue samples were taken from the eyes of pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Microscopic examination showed, that there are significant effects on the cornea and retina of the eye, especially in pregnant females, which supports the current studies conducted on the effect of mobile phones on the eyes represented by vascularization where some sections showed newly formed blood vessels in stroma layer just beneath bowman's membrane and retina degeneration. This study concluded that the exposure to the mobile radiation led to serious histological changes in the tissues of eye which may lead to blindness.

Histological changes of CA and DG regions of hippocampus of rats’ brain after exposure to Acetaminophen in postnatal period

Saif M. Albo Hussin; Luma I. Khalel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129569.1664

Authors reported that exposure to acetaminophen postnatally may be linked to increasing the risk of ASD. However, the reports on its effects on the brain are scanty, and the knowledge concerning their safety is little as there is a traditional left out of the clinical trials by users. The present work tried to elucidate the histological effects of acetaminophen on the hippocampus of neonate male rats after early postnatal exposure. The pups were categorized into2 groups, the control group, and the acetaminophen treated group. The acetaminophen treated animals were injected subcutaneously with acetaminophen of 60 mg/Kg/day from postnatal day (PND) 7 to PND 14, while the control group treated with normal saline with a similar approach. The histopathologic assessment revealed a diminishing in the pyramidal cells layer thickness of Cornue Ammonis. Some areas are devoid of cells with the appearance of Ghost like cells indicating features of neural cell death, degenerated neurons in the pyramidal layer are noticed. Features of nuclear clumping of pyramidal cell layer were shown. Moreover, several changes including vacuolations in the granular layer of DG with disorganization in DG. Neuronal processes presented with clumping. Apoptosis in the granular cells layer and hilus of a section of DG with the appearance of many astrocytes and microglial cells. Exposures to clinically relevant doses of acetaminophen in the postnatal period were shown to affect the histology of rat hippocampal regions, and a balanced risk assessment based on the best professional judgment must be prioritized.

Protective effect of Urtica dioica in liver and kidney damages induce by ethylene glycol in rabbits: A histopathological study

Muataz A. Al-Akash; Haitham A. Rajab; Ibtisam N. Al-Assaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 167-170
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129606.1666

Urtica dioica is used in the many countries as seasoning and as an herbal medicine (antioxidant). In this study, adult male locale rabbit was separated into five groups, Group 1 considered as control, Group 2 to 5 animals were treated with 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) in water to induce renal and liver damage till 30th day. The group 3 to 5 animals were feed extract of the plant of U. dioica at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight from day 15 to the day 30. The extracts were administered twice daily orally. Liver histopathological changes characterized by vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, congestion and dilatation of central vein and sinusoids. Renal histopathological changes characterized by deposition of oxalates, blood vessels congestion infiltration of inflammatory cells and change in renal glomeruli in GE treated groups. While histopathological changes in the animals group treated with U. dioica extract and ethylene glycol showed an increase improvement of the histological features of liver tissue, were limited dilatation of renal tubules with less deposition of oxalates, as well as slight infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue. Finally, as a conclusion we noticed that U. dioica extracts had the ameliorative effect of ethylene glycol-induced hepatic and renal histopathological.

Histopathological changes in kidney and pancreas induced by energy drinks in adult male rats

Ahmed H. Qassim; Maha A. Alsammak; Ashraf A. Ayoob

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 111-116
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129435.1647

The study aims to assess the impact of various doses of red bull on kidney and pancreas of male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were assigned to three groups (10 animals/ group). Control group (1) received standard diet and water, group 2 and group 3 received daily oral doses of 10 ml/kg/rat and 20 ml/kg/rat of the energy drink (red bull) respectively for 30 days. Under light microscope no tissue changes were seen in kidney and pancreas of control group. In group 2 red bull causes vacuolar degeneration as well as coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, vascular congestion in the glomeruli and in the interstitial space of the kidney, in addition to atrophy of the glomeruli, as regard to pancreas it causes vascular congestion of the islets of Langerhans, increase in the size of the islets, besides, necrosis of Langerhans cells. In group 3 red bull leads to more atrophic glomeruli, massive coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, marked vascular dilatation and congestion in the interstitial space and degenerative changes of the renal tubular epithelium, whereas the pancreatic tissue revealed reduction in the size of the islets of Langerhans, vacuolation and degeneration of their cells, necrosis of other islets with mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and degenerative changes of pancreatic acini. It is concluded that administration of red bull to rats for 30 days will affect the histological structure of kidney as well as pancreas and this effect is a dose dependent.

Standard techniques for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue: A Pathologist’s perspective

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Asseel M. Rahawi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 127-135
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131918.2023

Histopathology considered as an essential keystone to understanding diseases on a cellular level, without examining affected tissues and cells; will lack the accurate diagnosis. The most common protocol that used worldwide for histopathology is termed as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded techniques; this protocol is the oldest protocol and still used, this technique not invented once, but it is started with a simple process of tissue fixation then undergo several successful steps as it's known today. This protocol depends on formalin to induce tissue fixation and preservation simultaneously, followed by a series of steps to facilitate infiltration of hot paraffin wax in the cells to adjust the density of tissue similar to that of paraffin wax to support tissue during sectioning process at few micrometers of thickness. Many protocols have been invented and modified subsequently to increase the accuracy of tissue processing and facilitate their study under light microscopy. Additionally, the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples can be considered the most durable process till now. In this review, we are trying to view all fundamental aspects of classical tissue processing that was depended since 1850s, starting from tissue examination, sampling, accessory, labelling, fixation, dehydration, clearance, infiltration, and embedding with hot paraffin wax. Additionally, explain the routine sectioning and staining with classical Hari’s hematoxylin and alcoholic eosin staining protocol. 

Pathological study of the relation between the incidences of claws lesions and carpo-digital joint capsule lesions in front limbs of sheep slaughtered in Mosul

Karam H. Al-Mallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 693-697
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127788.1530

For detecting a possible relation between claws lesions and the lesions of carpo-digital joint capsule, the nearest joint to the claws, with an importance in diagnosing the exact cause of lameness in sheep resulting to be brought for casualty slaughter. For that goal 128 front limb were collected from slaughtered sheep at Mosul abattoir for period from 5-25/2/2013, the gross examination was made for observing the claws lesions and the synovial capsule were harvested, preserved and prepared for histopathologic examination, then examined microscopically with recording lesions. the correlation coefficient values were estimated between claws affection and joint capsular lesions at the same limb. Results demonstrated affection of 83 limbs with claws lesions as foot rot and erosions at incidence ratio 64.84%. The histopathological examination revealed a chronic type of changes including Fibroplasia in both synovium and tunica densa at incidences 8.59% and 6.25% respectively, Foci of hyperplastic synovial lining at 4.68% of samples, adipose tissue marbleizing synovium at 7.03% of the examined sections. Mild degree of chronic synovitis was observed within 10.93% of total samples, connective tissue metaplasia was evident at 3.9% of sections at tunica densa layer, the arteriolar musculature showed vacuolation at 18.75% of samples. The correlation coefficient value was significantly positive between occurrence of foot rot disease and the incidence of chronic synovitis in carpo-digital joint capsule which can be considered as the most important conclusion in the study. 

Comparative study on the effect of cadmium and hydrocortisone treatment on the brain of rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Karam H. Al-Mallah; Sura S. Aghwan; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 771-775
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128436.1575

This study was dedicated to detecting the effects of cadmium chloride and of cortisone on experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rats through studying brain tissue. Twenty-four adult albino male rats were used, divided into four groups, comprising: untreated control as group 1, group 2: infected with intraperitoneal injection of Toxoplasma gondii 80 tissue cysts per animal, group 3: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride 1.5mg/kg once a week, group 4: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone in a dose 0.5 mg/kg once a week. After 30 days of treatment for all groups, the animals were sacrificed, and the gross and histopathological examinations were performed on the brains of the rats. The results revealed the presence of changes in the infected groups including appearance of toxoplasma tissue cysts in the grey matter, with mild to moderate perineuronal and periaxonal edema. There were further changes observed in infected groups which treated with cadmium chloride including perineuronal satelletosis, perineuronal edema and demyelination in neuronal axons, otherwise the infected groups treated with cortisone did not show any noticeable difference from the group of infection only. It is concluded that cadmium increase the intensity of occurrence of lesions induced by Toxoplasma gondii in the brain tissue of the rats, considering that all noticeable lesions ranged from mild to moderate in severity, and the differences between groups may be related to the nature of the pathogen used. 

Anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in Sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus

Hamid H. Hamid; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 437-442
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126976.1424

The current study conducted to investigate the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in sparrow hawk accipiter nisus. By using an optical microscope and histological stains. Anatomical results showed that the cornea composed of two parts, the peripheral cornea and the central cornea, and there was variation in corneal thickness according to the anatomical region. Histologically, the cornea consists of five layers. The first layer of the central cornea consists of non- keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue composed of four rows of cells. Whereas, Bowman's membrane appeared clear and thicker on the dorsal side than on the ventral side. The corneal stroma consists of collagen fibers arranged in three secondary layers within the stroma. The corneal stroma also distinguished by the presence of fibroblast cells, which randomly distributed among the collagen fibers. The Descemet membrane appeared clear and equal in thickness between the dorsal and ventral sides. The endothelium tissue appears in the form simple squamous epithelia. The histological structure of the cornea root seemed similar to its formation in the central cornea. Still, it characterized by the presence of pigment cells spread in the stromal corneal root. Among the distinct results that appeared in this study is the presence of blood vessels spreading in the root of the cornea. The study concluded that the anatomical and histological structure of the cornea in this bird distinguished by some specialties that contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the function of the cornea in this bird.

Histopathological assessment of nano n-acetyl cysteine effect on postoperative adhesion in rats

shadman shahzamani; Alireza Jahandideh; Gholamreza Abedi; Abolfazl Akbarzadeh; saeeid hesaraki; pouya parsaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 589-597
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126857.1400

Abdominal adhesion is one of the main and important post-surgical problems and, according to available literature, the probability of their occurrence after surgery is higher than 50%. The present study intended to estimate the effect of Nano n-acetylcysteine on macroscopic and microscopic features post-surgical adhesions in an animal model. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats, 200-220 gr, were randomly divided into five equal groups and underwent intramuscular anesthesia by injection of ketamine 10% at 50 mg/kg and injection of xylazine 2% at 5 mg/ kg. The treatments included three Nano-NAC groups at different dosages 50, 75 and 150 mg/kg, an NAC group, and a control group. On days 14 and 28 post-surgery, the abdomens of all rats were re-opened for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of adhesions. Based on the results of macroscopic evaluation, the group receiving Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest and the control group the highest mean adhesion scores on days14 and 28 post-operations. Histopathological evaluation also revealed that the group treated with Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest level of inflammation and fibrosis score among the five groups on days 14 and 28 post-operation. Considering the results obtained in our experimental model and the increasing use of nanotechnology in the manufacture of biomedical drugs, it seems that use of Nano-NAC at low doses 50 and 75mg/kg after laparotomy can significantly reduce adhesions.

Comparative histological and histochemical study of the ileum in two different birds

Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 479-487
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127046.1447

This study aimed to know the comparative histological structure and histochemistry of the Ileum in two birds that are the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and the Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) using histological stains and histochemical techniques. The results showed that the Ileum wall in the two birds is composed of the histological layers that make up the rest of the gut wall, with many differences between them. The villi appeared in Turkey in various shapes, longer and more numerous than in the Cockatiel. The villi lined with a simple epithelial tissue in the two birds, containing the goblet cells. Lieberkuhkn''s crypts under the villi appeared in the two birds and had spherical secretory, and some secretory units contained the enteroendocrine cells. The Muscularis Externa appeared distinctively in Turkey than in the Cockatiel, and it was of three sublayers while in the Cockatiel from two sublayers. Histochemical results showed medium to a strong positive response to the epithelial tissue to AB pH 1, AB pH 2.5, PAS techniques while a weak positive in the intestinal glands to these techniques, with varying degrees between the two birds. While the response was positive for BP technique in the epithelial tissue and negative in the glands, as well as the same response appeared for the SB technique. The current study concluded that the Ileum structure in the two birds is identical with histological and histochemical differences that are appropriate to the nature of each bird''s food.

Does Baclofen induce changes in testicular histology and seminal fluid analysis in rat?

Luma I. Al-Allaf; Omar N. Sultan; Basma S. Saad-Allah; Wahda M. Al-Nuaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 387-396
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126894.1411

Baclofen has a central acting effect, so clinicians have been utilized it chiefly for treating the spasticity of spinal origin. Nowadays, off-labeling use of baclofen with high doses is frequently increased. Despite of the extensive research studies on the effectiveness of baclofen, the reports on its histological effects on testes and on sperm parameters we insufficient. This work aims to assess the histological influences of baclofen on rats' testes and on several sperm characteristics after administration for 8 weeks. Twenty-two male rats at age of peripuberty (8weks) that were categorized into two groups. Group I (control group) includes 10 rats which were gavaged with 1 ml/day of distilled water daily. Group II (baclofen's group) includes 12 rats which were received baclofen 14.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks via gavage. At the end of the designed work, euthenization was done and the testes were excised from each rat, the epididymis samples were obtained and prepared for examination under light microscope. This study revealed that rats that were administered with 14.5mg/kg/day of baclofen for 8 weeks showed changes in the sperms parameters with several testicular histological alterations in their sections in comparison with those of controls. The percentage of the live sperms of rats (baclofen's group was lower than that of control group). Features of sloughing inside seminiferous tubules' lumen are frequently seen among these sections with mild decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules. Evidence of decreased Johnsen's scores (spermatogenic index -SI) was noticed in some sections, and decreasing of the frequency of seminiferous tubules that possess spermatozoa was obviously noticed. Moreover, disorganization of seminiferous tubules is shown in these sections. In addition, sections of rats of baclofen group revealed features of necrosis of seminiferous tubules, presence of degenerated spermatogenic layer, features of apoptosis, and presence of gaps in the seminiferous epithelium of degenerated tubules. Different alterations of sertoli cells as vacuolation, and detachment sertoli cells are noticed in sections of rats that were administered with baclofen. The chronic administration of rats with 14.5 mg/kg with baclofen induced effects on sperm parameters and testicular histology. however, the testicular histological alterations were more obvious. Further works are needed to clarify mechanism that stands behind these effects.

The effect of CO-Q10 on the testicular histological changes in rats induced by imatinib

Luma K. Al-Allaf; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126587.1347

The safety zone of imatinib, and specifically its relevancy to organ toxicity, has been discussed dialectically in current years. Oxidative stress may be one of the causes of imatinib -mediated toxicity. This study aimed to examine the possible role of co-enzyme Q10 in ameliorating the adverse effect of imatinib on the testicular histology of male albino rats -if it is present. Twenty-eight male Albino rats were used randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: Group 1 includes 40-45 days aged rats (n=8) which were gavage a dose of 200 mg/kg/day/30 days of imatinib mesylate. Group 2 includes age matched control rats which were administered with distilled water(n=4). Group 3 includes eight rats were received Q10, 50mg/kg, alone, Q10-sorb capsule of 50 mg given with the same schedule. Group 4. Includes eight rats were co administrated orally with 50 mg/kg of Q10+200 mg/kg of imatinib (once/day/30days). Euthanizing of animals with ether 24 hours after the final dose was done. Testes of rats from each experimental group were obtained. The tissues processed and stained by routine histological method. Histological sections of testes's rats treated with 200mg/Kg of imatinib revealed different testicular lesions compared to those of control group (P<0.05). Six 6(75%) of these sections revealed degenerated tubules, detached Sertoli cells, and apoptosis. These histological sections also showed thick tunica albuginea, seminiferous tubules with thick basement membrane. sometimes only a few of Sertoli cells were appeared in histological sections of imatinib treated rats. Mean Johnsen’s scores in these sections was 5.1±0.1 (P˂0.001). Features of retained spermatid were also noticed in some sections. There was significant reduction in both seminiferous tubular diameter and the epithelial height of histological sections of group 2(P˂0.001) with mean of 140.2±3.2µm and 14.8±1.1 µm respectively. Moreover, the number of Sertoli cells/ seminiferous tubule were significantly increased (P˂0.001), with mean of 27.4±0.2 and Leydig cell number is also significantly raised with mean of 7.5±0.5. In conclusion, treatment of peripubertal rats with imatinib induced several testicular alterations (including Sertoli cells) in comparison to control rats indicated that this drug is a gonadotoxic agent as it affects the quality and quantity of spermatogenesis. An Ameliorating effect of co-enzyme Q10 co-administration on imatinib-induced testicular toxicity was concluded.

Development of the wing bones in quail’s embryo; Coturnix japonica

Hadia K. Zorab; Kamal A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126438.1324

Quail is an essential model in avian research because of economic importance in poultry industries around the world. Furthermore, its use in the experimental embryology research field. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the onset of chondrification and ossification of the wing bones also to summarize the main histological sequences related to the formation of the humerus in Japanese quail. Six embryos were taken every 24 hrs from 3-16 days of incubation. Three embryos were prepared and stained with Alcian blue and Alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. The other three embryos have been processed for histological examination. The Macroscopical findings showed that the humerus, radius, ulna, coracoid, scapula, third, and fourth metacarpals were chondrified on 5th day. However, first signs of ossification were observed in the humerus, radius, and ulna on 8th day. While the minor digit remained none ossified at prehatching. The microscopical stages of developing humerus associated with the limb bud, apical ectodermal ridge formation, and chondrocyte differentiation on 3rd, 4th, and 5th day, respectively. The cartilage template of the humerus was established on 6th day. The diaphysis and epiphyses of the humerus were formed on 7th and 8th day, correspondingly. The periosteal-bone collar was formed on 8th day, and vascularization of chondroepiphysis has occurred on 9th day. There was a difference in the timing of chondrification and ossification in the forelimb skeleton and humerus developed by the endochondral mechanism. The obtained results should be considered in teratological and molecular studies in skeletogenesis.

Histological and antimicrobial effects of tramadol infiltration on incisional oral mucosal wound healing in rabbits

F.A. Al-Mashhadane; E.A. Mustafa; G.A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 335-340
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162996

The present study compared effects of tramadol with lidocaine on healing processes of incisional intraoral mucosal wounds in rabbits and to study the antimicrobial effect of tramadol. For this purpose, fifteen apparently healthy male rabbits of 5-6 months old were used. They were classified into three groups, first group treated with 0.5 ml distilled water infiltration as control (n=5), second group treated with 0.5 ml tramadol infiltration in dose of 100 mg/2 ml (n=5), and third group treated with 0.5 ml of 2% vasoconstrictor-free lidocaine infiltration, then an incision was done to the buccal mucosa of all animals and they slaughtered on day 10 and their wounds were evaluated by histopathologic for presence of edema, vascularity, and inflammatory cells. For antimicrobial effect, swabs from tramadol group were taken from sites of wounds before incision and other swabs were taken after surgical incision on the first day, third day and seventh day, then the colony forming units (CFU)/ml of microorganisms were counted. The present study found that the infiltration with tramadol in dose of 100mg/2ml result in new epithelialization and wound healing occurred faster than infiltration with lidocaine 2% group also this study found that tramadol has significant decrease in the means of colony forming units of oral microorganisms. This study demonstrated that tramadol accelerated stages of buccal wound healing faster than lidocaine in rabbits.