Main Subjects : Animal Anatomy

Histochemical study of proventriculus in pre-hatch and post-hatch days in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus)

Siraj M. Al-Kafagy; Ali K. Al-Jebori; Yahia Y. Alseady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 161-166
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135832.2529

The present study was designed to investigate the histochemical developmental changes of the proventriculus at pre-hatching and post-hatching in the northern bobwhite quail at periods 11- and 15-days pre-hatching in addition to 14- and 21-days post-hatching. The proventriculus composed of four tunics is tunica mucosa, tunica sub-mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The tunica mucosa was lined with simple columnar epithelium and the height of epithelium increases with the age also the thickness of the mucosa, the tunica submucosa filled with proventricular glands at 14- and 21-day post-hatch and the gland was height in diameters while in 11- and 15-day pre-hatch the gland less in diameter and the sub mucosa does not fill with the gland. Tunica muscularis was thicker in post-hatch than in pre-hatch, 11- and 15- day pre-hatch composed of a thin inner circular layer and thick outer longitudinal layer but in 14- and 21-day post-hatch the tunica muscularis was composed of a thin inner and outer circular layer and thick middle longitudinal layer. The mucosa and proventriculus glands give a positive reaction for Alcian blue stain and a weak to moderate reaction for periodic acid Schiff stain at pre-hatch, while at post-hatch the mucosa gives a positive reaction for Alcian blue stain and a negative reaction for periodic acid Schiff stain and the proventricular glands give a positive reaction for Alcian blue and periodic acid Schiff stains.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical study of the pancreas on the local dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

Samyan L. Mostafa; Yahya Ahmed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 913-922
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132567.2105

In the current study, ten adult healthy local dogs of both sexes were used to perform histomorphometrical study on their pancreases. The dog pancreas had an inverted V-shape consisting of left and right lobes joined by a body. The pancreas possesses both exocrine and endocrine parts. The exocrine portion was composed of numerous acini and fewer tubules as well as the duct system. The number, total diameter and cellular height of acini were significantly abundant, larger and taller in the right lobe compared those of the body and left lobe. Furthermore, the number and total diameter of large pancreatic islets were significantly abundant and larger in the left lobe despite with those of the body and right lobe. This result leads to consider the right lobe was a target region for enzymatic secretion, while the left lobe has a specific function for hormonal secretion. According to available literature, no such result and thus conclusion had been reported on dog pancreas previously. In all parts of the pancreas and with aldehyde fuchsin stain, only the large pancreatic islets contained α-, β-, δ-cells as well as non-staining cells. Only, the β-cells occurred as single cells between the pancreatic acini or even within the connective tissue septa. These single cells were more numerous in the left lobe, but they were infrequently located in the body and right lobe.

Comparative morphological and morphometrically study of the adrenal gland in adult males' squirrel (Sciurus anomalous) and hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

ِAbdulrazzaq B. Kadhim; Iman M. Khaleel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 725-730
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131618.1983

Given the physiological significance and the need for further physiological and morphological knowledge of the adrenal glands, the objectives of the current study were to compare morphometric data between the right and left adrenals of male squirrels and hamsters. The study was conducted on five squirrel males and five hamster males. The glands in both animals were removed and fixed in neutral formalin solution. It was found that the squirrel contains two brown-colored right and left adrenal glands connected anteriorly and medially to each cranial pole of the kidney, and the right adrenal gland had a longitudinal shape, while the left gland had an oval shape. Hamsters had two pairs of brown adrenal glands located anteriorly attached to each kidney's cranial pole. The right adrenal gland was round in shape, while the left was oval. The statistical results showed a significant difference between the left and right suitable adrenal glands in both animals, as well as a significant difference between the squirrel gland and the hamster gland, where it was found that the right and left squirrel glands are larger more significant, heavier, longer and thicker than the adrenal gland in hamsters after the following measures were adopted: weight, length, thickness, width, and size. 

Radiographic and ultrasonic study of pelvic bones in awassi ewes and local she goat and relationship with age of sexual puberty

Ahmad A. Alhanosh; Adnan A. Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 627-632
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131175.1925

Thegoal of this study is to find out the age of sexual puberty in Awassi sheep and native black she goats by examining pelvic bone development which is obtained from measuring the transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvic bone in the two species using portable X-ray machines American addition, the length and width of the ovaries were measured with an ultrasound rectal probe. To achieve the goal of this study, six Awassi sheep and the same number of local goats were used. Radiographs were taken of each animal in the ventro-dorsal position, then the mean and standard error of each measurement in the two species were extracted. The rectal probe of the ultrasound machine was also used by inserting it into the rectum, taking vertical and transverse ovarian measurements, and then extracting the mean of each measurement along with the standard error. The mean transverse and vertical diameter measurements at the first instances of sexual puberty in Awassi sheep were 7.70±0.09 cm and 10.61±0.03 cm, respectively, and the mean ovarian length and width were 1.20±0 .08, 0.80±0.06 cm respectively. While the average distance to the transverse pelvic inlet and the pelvic inlet vertically in local black goats at age of sexual maturity were 7.15±0.06 cm and 10.55±0.10 cm, respectively, and the average length and width of the ovary was 1.66±0.03, 1.24±0.02 cm respectively. The results in both species showed that the age of sexual maturity is earlier in Awassi sheep than in local black goats. 

Osteocranium Anatomy of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) from Cultured Pond in Aceh, Indonesia

Ilham Zulfahmi; Yusrizal Yusrizal; Andi Iqbal Burhanuddin; Yeni Dhamayanti; Epa Paujiah; Kizar Ahmed Sumon; Dina Nath Pandit; Firman M Nur

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 549-554
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130884.1888

To date, information related the skeletal morphology of fish in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, we firstly described the morphology of the cranium of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected from aquaculture pond in Aceh Province, Indonesia. In the present study, research methodology included the preparation of cranium, photographing, editing images and identifying the terminology of cranium. The cranium was prepared physically and chemically. Each part of the cranium was documented using a Canon EOS 700D camera and edited using Adobe Photoshop CS6. The cranium nomenclature was determined by comparing the similarity of the shape and location of each part of the fish cranium that has been studied previously. The cranium of African catfish was divided into two major parts, namely neurocranium (ossa neurocranii) and splanchnocranium (ossa splanchnocranii). Neurocranium had four regions belonging to etmoidal, orbital, otic and occipital, while splanchnocranium had five regions belonging to maxillaris, mandibularis, arcus mandibularis, arcus hyoideus, and apparatus operculare. The African catfish had a strong and thick neurocranium structure. However, orbital, arcus hyoideus and apparatus operculare regions were not well developed. The results of this study could be used as a basic for further research, especially in the field of taxonomy and phylogeny of fish.

Anatomical study of arterial blood supply of the brain in local breed rabbit

Adnan A. Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 89-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129231.1636

Current work aims to investigate the brain blood supply of the local rabbit, where 14 rabbits of both sexes were used with weights ranging from 3-3.5 kg. This study revealed that the rabbit's brain is supplied by the vertebral and internal carotid artery (ICA). The union of the vertebral arteries creates the basilar artery that runs on the ventral surface of the pons and medulla oblongata, forming at its end the posterior communicating arteries (PCA), as well as at the path of the basilar artery from which the following arteries are formed, which are the anterior cerebellar arteries, pons arteries, 1st posterior cerebellar artery, 2nd posterior cerebellar artery, and the medullary arteries. The ICA enters the cranium through the foramen lacerum, forming the anterior carotid network, from which an artery exits anteriorly, called the intracranial part of the ICA, and caudally exits the (PCA). The following arteries are created from the intracranial part of the ICA, which is the accessory anterior communicating artery that connects with the posterior communicating artery and the posterior cerebral artery (PCEA) forming the closed circle of Willis, the middle cerebral artery is also created anteriorly and laterally to distributed on the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain, as well as the anterior cerebral artery which directed forward to gives the marginal artery which represents the first terminal branch of the anterior cerebral artery, and at the marginal artery going toward the olfactory tract and then to the olfactory bulb from which the internal ethmoidal artery is created. The anterior communicating artery originates from the anterior cerebral artery and it is a small artery communicating the left and right anterior cerebral arteries with each other, and the posterior cerebral artery originates from the PCA, as well as the anterior cerebellar arteries arising from the PCA and accessory posterior communicating artery (APCA) and the anterior part of basilar artery, to supply the hemispheres of the cerebellum and the cerebellar vermis.

A histological study on the effect of imatinib on the rats' testis after early postnatal exposure

luma khalel; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 85-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126342.1303

The safety region of imatinib, and markedly its role in testicular toxicity has been studied in a controversial manner in current years. This study was designed to address the repercussion of administration of groups of pups with imatinib mesylate (at neonatal or infantile periods) using histological analysis of their testes in several end points and in adulthood. Intact pups (albino-male) exposed to 200 mg/kg of oral imatinib once daily at neonatal and early infantile period on PND 1 to PND10 (for ten days). All experiments performed with age and weight matched control which administered with Distilled water. Pups were into categorized into 4 subgroups, according to the ages of euthanasia: 15 days postpartum (PND); 40days postpartum; 70 days postpartum and 140 days postpartum. The histological analysis was conducted in blind fashion after staining with (Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Ten randomly selected testicular sections from each rat were analyzed qualitatively and quantitavely. In addition, Johnsen' scores were used to analyze the effect of drug on spermatogenesis. Data were recorded and value is considered as significant when it P

Functional morphology of the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel (Epixerus ebii)

Chikera S. Ibe; Adanna Elezue; Ekele Ikpegbu; Uchenna Callistus Nlebedum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 417-425
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126047.1216

The study was initiated to contribute to the meager knowledge of the anatomy of the African palm squirrel. Skin of the trunk and paw pads was the subject of interest. Basic gross and histological techniques were employed. The dorsal fur was grey with golden brown free endings, while the ventral fur was greyish white. The fur covered the entire trunk, extended through the dorsal surface of the distal carpal joint to the dorsal surface of the digits. Five digital pads, three inter-digital pads and two metacarpal pads were observed on the forefoot. There was no observable digital pad on the hind foot; four inter-digital and two metacarpal pads were observed. Surface grooves were evident in the cornified layer of the trunk skin, but not in the paw pad skin. The mean thickness of the cornified layer of the epidermis of the palmar pad was 75.54±3.45 μm, while the entire epidermis was 102.32±4.23 μm thick. The non-cornified layer of the trunk skin was made of only three distinct layers, as the stratum lucidum was not evident. Conversely, the stratum lucidum was evident in the paw pad skin. Dermal papillae observed in the paw pad skin were more numerous and progressed deeper into the non-cornified epidermis than those observed in the trunk skin. There were more melanocytes in the dorsal than in the ventral trunk skin. The study concluded that the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel enable its adaptation to arboreal habitat.

Histological and ultrastructural studies of the pancreas of native rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Y.A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 371-378
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163082

The pancreas of male adult native rabbit was studied by using light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The pancreas possessed both exocrine and endocrine portions. Exocrine portion included both acinar and ductal cells. The acinar cells were pyramidal in shaped which formed the lining epithelia of secretory units (acini). The apical cytoplasm of acinar cells contained unequal size and variable electron opacity of zymogen granules, while the basal part occupied by well-developed rough endoplasm reticulum (rER). Short microvilli projected from the free surfaces of both acinar and ductal cells. The lateral cell membranes of adjacent acinar and ductal cells adhere apically by junctional complex, which was composed of zonulae occludens and zonulae adherens. There was notable interdigitating between the lateral cell membranes of neighboring ductal cells that were located beneath the junctional complex. The oval or irregular pancreatic islets consisted of β, α and δ endocrine cells. Both β- and α-cells could be demonstrated by using LM and TEM, whereas δ-cells visualized with TEM only. The cytoplasm of β-cells contained purple granules and α-cells showed yellowish granules in their cytoplasm when stained with aldehyde fuchsine method. At ultrastructure level, the cytoplasmic granules of β-cells were identified by homogenous electron dense core with clear hallo zone, the numerous granules of α-cells had very electron dense granules and δ-cells contained few granules similar to those of α-cells.β- or α-cells inserted as a single cell and in a partial manner between the ductal cells of some ducts.

Histological and morphometrical study of the effect of season on layers and glands of skin in local Awassi sheep (Ovis ovis)

ahmed nazar abdujawaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163090

The study aimed to investigate the effect of season on the skin and cutaneous glands in local Awassi breed of sheep (Ovis ovis). The study was done on five healthy adult rams of Awassi breed in winter and summer at five anatomical regions (armpit, back, scrotum, ventral surface of fatty tail and dorsal surface of the fatty tail). The study explained that season had no significant effect on the histological structure of the sheep's skin, while there was a significant variation in the histological measurements of most structures of skin such as skin layers, sweat and sebaceous glands where the thickness of the corneal layer of the skin varied between the winter and summer seasons ,it was thicker in the winter than in the summer for most of the studied areas, the variation was higher and more significantly at scrotum , where the epidermis was thicker in winter than in summer for most of the few wool areas that included in the study, while in the dense wool areas the epidermis was thicker in summer than in winter. The study also showed that the season has a significant effect on the size of the sweat glands. The size of the sweat glands in the summer appeared to be greater than in the winter and for all areas of study, but the area of the scrotum and the skin of the ventral surface of fatty tail showed the opposite. the season had an effect on the depth of the sweat glands in the dermis. With the exception of the scrotum and the ventral surface of the fatty tail, the sweat glands were deeper in the summer than in the winter for the rest of the study areas. The lining of the sweat glands units was affected by the change of season. In the summer, the height of the cells of the sweat units was increased and for all regions of the study to reached 16.43 micrometers in the scrotum area for the summer while decreased in winter to reached 10.70 micrometers. So, we can say that the sweat glands of the study areas faced the warm climate not only by the increase in the size of the glands and their proximity to the surface in the summer but also by increased functional activity. The sebaceous glands in the area of the ventral surface of the fatty tail had a large difference between the winter and summer followed by the rest of the areas, either the armpit areas and the dorsal surface of the fatty tail did not show any significant difference between the two seasons. Finally, we found the season has been shown to play a significant role in influencing the histological measurements of skin and skin glands.

Structural study of uterine tubes of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) at different postnatal periods

Faeq Jabar Al-Saffar; Massarat Almayahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 277-288
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162911

This study was designed to investigate the histomorphological changes in the uterine tubes of the local rabbits during three different periods of ages that were kitten, immature and mature stages of life. For such study, twenty-four female rabbits were used. Procedure of routine histological technique was performed to prepare histological sections by using general and special histochemical stains. Gross findings revealed the presence of bilateral uterine tubes which comprised thick short coiled preampulla, thin long ampulla and the isthmus which was shortest and straight region joined to the uterus. Microscopically three regions were identified according to the differences in their histological characteristic features. Data revealed that the wall of uterine tubes in kittens was not fully developed, whereas in immature does, global histological and histochemical changes were identified compared to kittens while mature does indicated critical role of the post weaning period on the development of the animals. Changes were specially recognized by histochemical procedure which showed strong positive reactions especially isthmus which obviously reacted with PAS, Ab, combined PAS-AB. In conclusion, current data showed unique differences of the uterine tubes in the local rabbits compared to other mammals especially those of rodentia species.

A gross anatomical and histological study of pancreas in adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Ammar Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 175-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162960

Fifteen Kestrel were used in this study regardless to their sex. The results study showed that the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) lies under the right side of the peritoneal cavity, and situated between the descending part and ascending part of the duodenum and has pale pinkish to white pinkish colored and consisted of 3 lobes dorsal (lobus pancreatic dorsalis), middle (middle pancreatic lobus) and ventral (lobus pancreatis ventralis) with well-developed interlobar connections made it difficult to distinguish between the 3 lobes. Histologically the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was covered by very thin layer of connective tissue with mesothelial cells, Connective tissue septa extended from capsule into parenchyma of pancreas dividing it in to many lobules. These septa were very thin and some of them carried blood vessels distributed all over the pancreas. The exocrine portion was constituted from serous acini with pyramidal shaped cells which had dark rounded nucleus in the middle part of the cell. Acidophilic granules found in the apices of cells. Centro acinar cells found as one or two nuclei in the center of the pancreatic acini. The endocrine portion (islets of Langerhans) was formed from clusters of endocrine cells in shape of oval or rounded pale structures with different sizes. The small one has mean diameter of 40.02±0.9 µm while the large one has diameter of 126.3±3.8 µm. Few endocrine cells were seen distributed as single cells among the pancreatic acini.

Morphometrical and histochemical foundation of pancreas and ductal system in white-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis)

Salim Salih Ali Al-Khakani; Isam Mohammed Jaber Zabiba; Kadthem Al-zubaidi; Ekhlas Al-alwany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 99-104
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125521.1043

The present study was designed to find the macroscopic, microscopic and histocamical properties in pancreas of white-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis) and ductal system, ten healthy adult birds were transferred to the veterinary anatomy laboratory in Al-Qasim green university. Macroscopic study revealed that the pancreas was white in color, formed from two lobes, the ventral lobe navicular in shape while the dorsal lobe was very thin like triangular in appearance but longer than the ventral lobe. The two lobes were not occupy the space between the descending and ascending limbs of duodenum, the mean weight of birds and whole pancreas was (27.6±3.04), (0.07±0.022) gm respectively, the mean weight of dorsal and ventral lobes was (0.034±0.005), (0.036±0.0054) gm respectively and the mean length of dorsal and ventral lobe was (1.3±0.05), (0.88±0.03) cm respectively. The pancreas was a small organs in white-eared bulbul. The result of microscopic study that the pancreas in white-eared bulbul similar to other birds and covered by a thin C.T capsule with mesothelium cells. The pancreas parenchyma was consisted of exocrine and endocrine portions, the Langerhans island appeared in dorsal lobe in all histological sections which composed of different shapes and sizes. The intercalated ducts of ductal system lined by simple to low cuboidal cells then the epithelia changed to simple cuboidal in interlobular duct and become columnar in larger ducts. The main excretory ducts composed of three histological layers mucosa, muscularis and adventitia.

Biometry of genital organs in Iraqi female buffalo

Dhyea J. Khammas; Hnee E. Al-Saffar; Ali F. Alwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37421

Ninety-three of grossly normal buffalo genital tracts were under taken in this study. The mean length, width, thickness, and weight of the ovary devoicing functional Corpus Luteum (CL) were 2.39±0.77 cm, 1.55±0.46 cm, 1.19±0.31 cm and 3.12±2.11 gm, respectively, and 2.139±0.65 cm, 1.23±0.3 cm and 3.14±1.86 gm, for the left one respectively. The mean length, width, thickness and weight of right ovary containing functional CL were 2.61±0.52 cm, 1.59±0.45 cm, 1.53±0.24 cm and 4.79±1.59 gm respectively, and 2.88±0.60 cm, 2.34±0.38 cm, 1.48±0.15 cm and 5.54±1.23 gm for the left one respectively. The mean diameter of the largest six follicles located on the right ovary was 1.42±0.19 cm, and 1.41±0.1 cm of six follicles on left ovary. The mean length of prominent part of the 15 functional CL found on the right ovary was 0.57±0.17 cm and it was 0.57±0.21 cm on the left one, while the mean length and weight of those 15 functional CL of the right ovary were 1.151±0.18 cm and 1.31±0.52 gm, and on the left ovary they were 1.73±0.93 cm and 1.7±0.57 gm. The mean length, diameter and number of caruncles of the right uterine horns were 23.76±8.14 cm, 2.12±0.6 cm and 84.63±13.62 respectively, and they were 23.34±7.96 cm, 2.10±0.58 cm and 84.12±13.27 of the left horns respectively. The mean length and numbers of uterine body caruncles were 1.37±0.75 cm and 6.27±1.92 the mean length, diameter and number of annular rings of cervix were 5.33±0.96 cm, 2.58±0.64 cm and 4.7±0.61, respectively.