Main Subjects : Animal Immunology and Vaccination

Potency Syzygium cumini L as adjuvant therapy on mice model malaria

L. Maslachah; R. Sugihartuti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 73-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153801

The objective of the study was to prove the potential extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf and stem bark as an adjuvant to malaria modelling mice. Antimalarial effects were assessed by the percentage of parasitemia, growth inhibition, 50% dose level (ED50), Parasite Clearance Time (PCT), Recrudescence Time (RT) of Plasmodium berghei. Male albino Swiss mice infected with 1x105 P. berghei parasite in 0.2 ml intraperitoneally. Treatment with chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight, chloroquine combination 25 mg/kg body weight with leaf and stem bark extract of Syzygium cumini L dose 600 mg / kg body weight for 4 days and 24 hours after infection, and then its activity as antimalarial and adjuvant therapy were observed. The results showed that the extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf combined with chloroquine gives highly significant result in inhibiting the growth of parasites than the chloroquine alone and the extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf combined with chloroquine gives the Parasite Clearance Time faster and Recrudescence Time (RT) longer than the other treatment.

Synthetic immunostimulatory glycans interference with host cell apoptosis upon of Toxoplasma gondii infection, in vitro

S.H. Eassa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126709

Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan infection of humans and animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii, and it’s continuous public health and food safety issue. The tachyzoites (Tg) of T. gondii are the most important stage, as they come in direct contact with immune cells such as a macrophage. Tg can modulate and prevent apoptosis of immune cells while promoting survival of the pathogen. Infections caused by Tg can be eradicated if immune cells could stimulate apoptosis and kill pathogens upon exposure. Apoptosis is characterized by the release of mediators, namely Caspases (Cas). New means are required for inducing apoptosis and enhance immunity in the infected host cell to control toxoplasmosis. The present study investigated whether Synthetic Immuno-stimulatory Glycans (SIGs) influence Cas and Nitric oxide (NO) release and led to Tg damage. Galβ1-3Gal-PAA-fluor (SIG1), Fucα1-4GlcNAcβ-PAA-fluor (SIG2) and GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcα-PAA-fluor (SIG3) constituted samples studied principally. Murine macrophage had been exposed to the Tg then the SIGs effects on Cas and NO production were determined after 20 hours of pathogen phagocytosis. Here we report that the SIGs had potent in vitro activity against T. gondii; SIG2 was more effective than SIG1 and SIG3, representative by SIG2 treated infected macrophages can induced infected macrophages to release Cas1, 3, and 9. Maximum production of NO by infected macrophages was noticed following the expoxure to all SIGs. Therefore the present study provided the method for the selection of SIGs ligands bearing immunostimulatory factor and apoptotic stimuli properties.