Main Subjects : Animal Immunology and Vaccination

Follow up the antibodies titer against Newcastle disease virus in broiler breeders using ELISA test

Fanar A. Isihak; Salah M. Hassan; Balqees Z. Shaker; Yasir A. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 295-299
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125931.1189

The study period carried out from 25 April 2018 till 21 May 2019 through the rearing and production period including totally of 24000 birds (20800 females, 3200 males). The number of tested blood samples was 452 divided to 255 samples at the rearing period, 143 samples at the production period and 54 samples of offspring. The results of antibodies titer in the sera of non-vaccinated broiler breeders obtained by ELISA showed the maternal derived antibodies titer for 28 samples at 0-5 week/day of age was 5716±612.7, this titer decreased gradually at 3-1 week/day age till to 1075±234) Then the titer was elevated increasingly after vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines and reach to peak 37512±2049.4 at 20-1 week/day age. Whereas the bimodal graduation of antibodies titer showed at production period till to end of study. The mean of maternally antibodies titer in the tested sera of the offspring chicks 0-1 week/day that hatched from parent flocks at 32, 39 and 48 weeks of age was 9012±872.4, 6591±368.1 and 4831±982.7 respectively. Thus, we concluded the repetitive vaccination of broiler breeders flock with live vaccine as well as inactivated vaccine is very necessary in endemic areas and ELISA is a good serological test for following, checking and monitoring of immune status of poultry flocks periodically.

The inhibitory role of effective microorganisms on the growth of pathogenic bacteria

Mohammad A. Hamad; Saba A. Hussein; Ebtehal N. Mahmmoud; Ammar M. Al-AAlim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 153-158
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125653.1123

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Effective Microorganisms (EM1®) for inhibiting the growth of some pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were used in this study and isolated from pathological conditions. These bacteria were diagnosed in laboratory of microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. The colonies that taken from blood agar were 5-7 and cultured in the nutrient broth and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours. Bacterial growth was calibrated with the second tube of the McFarland tubes 0.5%. Several concentrations of EM product were prepared 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125%. Decimal dilutions were done for each concentration of EM product with bacterial suspension, except control group was done for bacterial suspension with nutrient broth. The bacterial count was done on nutrient agar, milk agar and EMB agar. The results of this study showed that the product of EM1® within concentrations 0.5-1% was highly efficient in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria under study. The bacterial count of both S. aureus and E. coli was 54x107 and 52x107 CFU/ ml respectively at 1% EM1®, and 67x107 and 86x107 CFU/ ml respectively at 0.5%, while the counting of the control group was 42x109 and 67x109 CFU/ ml respectively. This study concluded that EM1® at low concentrations have a clear role in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly S. aureus and E. coli.

Potency Syzygium cumini L as adjuvant therapy on mice model malaria

L. Maslachah; R. Sugihartuti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 73-80
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153801

The objective of the study was to prove the potential extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf and stem bark as an adjuvant to malaria modelling mice. Antimalarial effects were assessed by the percentage of parasitemia, growth inhibition, 50% dose level (ED50), Parasite Clearance Time (PCT), Recrudescence Time (RT) of Plasmodium berghei. Male albino Swiss mice infected with 1x105 P. berghei parasite in 0.2 ml intraperitoneally. Treatment with chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight, chloroquine combination 25 mg/kg body weight with leaf and stem bark extract of Syzygium cumini L dose 600 mg / kg body weight for 4 days and 24 hours after infection, and then its activity as antimalarial and adjuvant therapy were observed. The results showed that the extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf combined with chloroquine gives highly significant result in inhibiting the growth of parasites than the chloroquine alone and the extract of Syzygium cumini L leaf combined with chloroquine gives the Parasite Clearance Time faster and Recrudescence Time (RT) longer than the other treatment.

Synthetic immunostimulatory glycans interference with host cell apoptosis upon of Toxoplasma gondii infection, in vitro

S.H. Eassa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126709

Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan infection of humans and animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii, and it’s continuous public health and food safety issue. The tachyzoites (Tg) of T. gondii are the most important stage, as they come in direct contact with immune cells such as a macrophage. Tg can modulate and prevent apoptosis of immune cells while promoting survival of the pathogen. Infections caused by Tg can be eradicated if immune cells could stimulate apoptosis and kill pathogens upon exposure. Apoptosis is characterized by the release of mediators, namely Caspases (Cas). New means are required for inducing apoptosis and enhance immunity in the infected host cell to control toxoplasmosis. The present study investigated whether Synthetic Immuno-stimulatory Glycans (SIGs) influence Cas and Nitric oxide (NO) release and led to Tg damage. Galβ1-3Gal-PAA-fluor (SIG1), Fucα1-4GlcNAcβ-PAA-fluor (SIG2) and GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcα-PAA-fluor (SIG3) constituted samples studied principally. Murine macrophage had been exposed to the Tg then the SIGs effects on Cas and NO production were determined after 20 hours of pathogen phagocytosis. Here we report that the SIGs had potent in vitro activity against T. gondii; SIG2 was more effective than SIG1 and SIG3, representative by SIG2 treated infected macrophages can induced infected macrophages to release Cas1, 3, and 9. Maximum production of NO by infected macrophages was noticed following the expoxure to all SIGs. Therefore the present study provided the method for the selection of SIGs ligands bearing immunostimulatory factor and apoptotic stimuli properties.