Main Subjects : Veterinary Virology

Molecular Investigation of Feline Calicivirus In Cats in the City of Mosul

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131706.1993

The study included 200 cats of different ages, genders, types of breeding, source, vaccination programs, as well as health status. They were examined clinically and traditionally and recorded clinical signs appearing on them, and swabs were collected from the conjunctiva of the eye and the pharyngeal area. for the purpose of investigating of viral nucleic acid from collected swabs then extracting RNA from the swabs and then converting it to a cDNA molecule, and then detecting the open reading template gene 2 through the use of the primer for this within the polymerase chain reaction technique that was applied., the Molecular method was found that the highest rate of infection in oropharyngeal swabs compared with conjugtival swabs and it was found in highest percentage of infection in the age group less than 6 months, and the rate of infection decreased with age.. and in cats indoors management as well as imported ones. While vaccinated cats recorded the highest rate of infection with the feline calicivirus,.in conclusion feline calicivirus affected the cats in Mosul, Iraq..

A review analysis of global Bluetongue virus-related research articles from 2000 to 2020

Ibrahim M. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 341-347
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130222.1770

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus, causes bluetongue (BT) disease of ruminants responsible for mortality and trade limitation. The objective of this study was to provide a descriptive review analysis of global research activity for the period 2000 to 2020. The number of articles, temporal evolution, geographical distribution, countries, funding agencies, authors, research theme, and the source was analyzed and presented in visualization maps. Search query resulted in 3878 documents from 5681 authors, and 2017 articles were analyzed. The annual number of publications showed a steep increase from 2005 to 2020 related to attention to BT as an exotic disease in Europe, as well as the interest in vector over-distribution due to climate change. Most of the studies were performed in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The top active countries in article production were the United Kingdom and the United States. A considerable international collaboration network of the UK with the USA and European countries was observed. However, the collaboration was weak with Asian and African countries. The major research themes are genomic viral studies, the role of Culicoides as a vector, serological and molecular epidemiology, and vaccination. In conclusion, an increase in scientific production and international collaboration was noticed during the last two decades. However, international collaboration needs more attention to African, and South American countries. The current study provides useful references for the policymaker, academics, animal health professionals, and funding agencies to follow the past and except the future BTV themes. 

Exploration of local isolate of highly pathogenic avian influenza clade as vaccine candidate to prevent mass outbreak in East Java

Suwarno Suwarno; Nanik Sianita Widjaja; Jola Rahmahani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127331.1498

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 is a major problem in poultry industry in many countries. It became endemic disease in Indonesia since 2003. Recently, research revealed that current circulate HPAI in Indonesia has switched from clades 2.1 to To eradicate this disease, methods such as stamping out and quarantine seem not suitable applied since poultry industry is one of main sector in agricultural commodity in some areas such as Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java. It provides large of job opportunity for native people from rural to city areas. To prevent the morbidity of this disease, vaccination use local seed is primarily needed. This research was conducted to explore local isolate of HPAI clade as vaccine candidate. Samples were obtained from some areas in East Java where outbreak occurred. Molecular characteristic according to Neuraminidase (N) gene was conducted. Samples has close relativity to circulating virus was used as seed vaccine then processed into killed vaccine production. It was challenged to observe the protectivity on poultry. The effectivity of the vaccine was measured through Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. The result of study showed that isolate DOD_3_2013 has close relativity to circulating virus thus it used as vaccine candidate. Challenged test showed that this vaccine candidate induced higher antibody titer compared to control. The average of antibody titer was 8.2 (log2) with the protection level 100%. It is concluded that this isolate could be used as vaccine candidate to eradicate HPAI clade around East Java. 

Detection of Maedi-visna virus in sheep in Nineveh province

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi; Dhiyaa A. Mossa; Mozahim Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129075.1622

This is a primary study in detecting a specific antibody of the Maedi-visna virus (MVV) in blood samples and viral antigen in nasal swabs from sheep. Two hundred and forty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from sheep of different ages and health statuses in Nineveh province, Iraq. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay was used to detect specific antibodies against MVV specific proteins gp135 and p25, Whereas Agar gel immune diffusion (AGID) was used to detect antigens from nasal swabs using specific antibodies against gp135 proteins of MVV. Serological results using ELISA showed the total prevalence of MMV 22.9% and the highest prevalence of infection in sheep less than one-year-old 36.5% when compared with older animals 8.4%. Animals that suffering from respiratory problems had a higher prevalence of infection 25.7% compared with healthy animals 6.9%. AGID showed an identical reaction between Maedi-visna viruses and specific rabbit antisera with a total infection rate of 12.9%. The highest prevalence of infection was 22.4% recorded in animals less than one-year-old, the lowest percentage of infection in animals more than two years of age was 1.4%. Animals suffering from respiratory signs also showed high prevalence of infection 13.8%, while the lowest percentage of infection were recorded in healthy animals 4.6%. It has been concluded that the high prevalence of infection rate in sheep less than one-year-old and the animals which suffered from respiratory problems had higher prevalence according to ELISA and AGID testes.

Genotyping of avian infectious bronchitis virus in broiler farms in Duhok province, north of Iraq

Renas H. Isa; Jassim M. Abdo; Yousif M. AL-Barzinji

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 171-175
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129635.1670

Infectious bronchitis disease is becoming the most challenging disease in broiler fields in Iraq. This disease leads to massive economic loss every round of production. Three vaccine strains H120, Ma5, and 4/91 are used to combat the disease during the production period while outbreaks occur continuously. This study aimed to investigates the prevalence and circulation of Mass and 4/91 IBV strains in the broiler fields in Duhok province which is the first record in the area. Positive samples were obtained from suspected flocks to this disease during 2018-2020. A specific region of S1 was amplified using specific pairs of primers. Genotyping was performed by nested PCR using specified primers for detecting both Mass and 4/91 strains. In the results, all of the positive flocks were infected with nephropathogenic strain 793/B or 4/91. Two of the positive flocks had an infection with both Mass and 4/91. These results indicate that more than one strain circulates in the area as well as shows the weakness of vaccines used in broiler fields. 

Seroprevelance of schmallenberg virus infection as emerging disease in cattle in Iraq

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 495-499
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127071.1454

Schmallenberg virus is an emergent disease which infect cattle, sheep and goats which cause loss of condition, diarrhea, and abortion in pregnant animals, so this study was conducted to detect the antibodies in imported calves by using cELISA, so 400 blood samples was collected calves in different ages and healthy status in a period between October 2018 to September 2019 in Nineveh province, the investigation of specific antibodies was done by competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay, the results showed that the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus in imported calves was 21% (84 positive from 400 samples), high prevalence of infection in the animals more than 6 months to 1 year old 11.5% when compare with animals less than 6 months of age 9.5%, high incidence of infection in animals suffer from various clinical signs 17% and the healthy apparent animals recorded low prevalence of infection 4%, samples which collected in spring months recorded high prevalence of infection 7.5% while the lowest prevalence of infection with the virus recorded in winter months 2%, with significant variance in spring and summer months compared with other seasons, in conclusion this study was conducted that schmallenberg virus is newly emerge in Iraq and this study is firstly recorded this virus in cattle in Iraq.

Molecular and serological typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes currently circulating in Egypt

Maryam M. ِbd El-Rhman; Sayed A. Salem; Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid; Diea J. Abo El-Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 581-588
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127327.1495

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease affects all cloven- hoofed animals. The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiological situation of FMD in Egypt during 2017 and 2018, based on antigenic and genetic characterizations of FMD virus (FMDV). Thirty oral epithelia were collected from vaccinated animals (14 native cattle and 16 water buffaloes) showed clinical signs of FMD in four Egyptian governorates having outbreaks. In all collected samples the antigen detection was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the genetic characterization was done by using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were constructed for genetic characterization. The obtained results of FMDV antigen detection ELISA indicated that 50% of the examined samples were positive for FMDV and serotyped as serotype O 40%, serotype SAT2 33% and serotype A 27% respectively. RT-PCR confirmed the results of FMDV antigen detection by ELISA. Six amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for viral protein 1 (VP1) of FMD. Results demonstrated that genotype O was related to East Africa-3 (EA-3) topotype with 12.7% difference from vaccine strain O-IRN-8-2005-Pan-Asia-2. Furthermore, genotype A clustered into Asia topotype with 6% difference from vaccine strain A-IRN-1-2005. Meanwhile genotype SAT2 in 2018 was related to VII topotype but it was in close relation with strains isolated from Libya in 2012 with 94.3% amino acid identity that differ from the previously circulated SAT2 since 2012 and recorded recently in Egypt. The presented results confirmed the circulation of a new topotype of serotype SAT2.

Epidemiological and molecular study of Rotavirus infection among human and animal in Karbala and Basrah provinces

Faten K. Aldawmy; Hazim T. Thwiny; Hassan M. Abo Almaali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 403-410
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126997.1428

This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of rotaviruses in Karbala and Basrah provinces, the genetic reassortment of human and animal rotavirus strains and the novel strains. Rotaviruses were detected by Immunochromatography Test (ICT) then the positive samples were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using specific primers to VP7 gene, this gene is responsible for VP7 antigen which is responsible for stimulation the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies. The VP7 gene was implemented in rotavirus vaccine of Iraqi immunization program. The RT PCR results showed that 56.3% (27/48) of samples positive in children under five years of age in Karbala province while Basrah province revealed 58.5% (31/53) positive samples in children whereas samples taken from calves revealed 43.1% (22/51) and 45.5% (25/55) positive samples in Karbala and Basrah provinces respectively. The sequencing of human and animal samples revealed that there was genetic reassortment between human and animal strains while in comparing with international strains there was closely related with Indian and Pakistani human strains. Necessarily for further bioinformatics studies are needed to study the genetic alterations with viral proteins analysis of rotavirus.

Isolation and identification of Circovirus in pigeon

Safwan Yousif Al-Baroodi; Mozahim yasen Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 207-210
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126706.1364

The purpose of this study is first trial to detect of pigeon circovirus, so 1sr group include 100 cloacal swabs were collected 55 healthy and 45 ill pigeons, 36 yearlings and 64 adults, the 2nd group included organs was liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius from 41 young pigeons 10-30 days old and bursa of Fabricius, liver, spleen from 28 dead in shell pigeon embryo in the 3rd group. DNA extracted from this samples and detection of virus DNA was attempt using polymerase chain reaction, after DNA amplification, the final products of the amplicon with 331 bp was cleared by using electrophoresis using agarose gel at concentration 2%. Results of viral DNA amplification were positive, which revealed as band in 331 bp the results showed that ill yearling pigeons recording high infectivity rate 66.7% compare with healthy yearling pigeons and adult once, the bursa of Fabricius samples of dead yearling pigeons recorded high prevalence 36.58% when compare with liver and spleen samples, DNA of pigeon circovirus high detected 60.71% in bursa of Fabricius of dead in shell pigeon conclusion pigeon circovirus affected the racing pigeon in Mosul, Iraq.

Development of in-house Taqman qPCR assay to detect equine herpesvirus-2 in Al-Qadisiyah city

Mohammed H. Al-Saadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 365-371
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126076.1229

EHV-2 is distributed in horses globally. It is clustered within gamma-herpesvirus subfamily and percavirus genus. EHV-2 infection has two phases: latent and lytic. In the later, EHV-2 mainly associated with respiratory and genital symptoms. However, in the quiescent phase of infection, EHV-2 stay dormant in the host till viral reactivation. Our previous study has showed that EHV-2 can be harboured by equine tendons, suggesting that leukocytes possibly carrying EHV-2 for the systemic dissemination. So far, numerous PCR protocols have been performed targeting the gB gene. However, this gene is heterogenic. Therefore, there is a need to develop a quantitative diagnostic approach to detect the quiescent EHV-2 strains. To do this, Taqman qPCR assay was developed to quantify the virus. This was performed by targeting a highly conserved gene known as DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene using constructed plasmid as a standard curve calibrator. The obtained results showed an infection frequency of 33% in which the EHV-2 load reached 6647 copies/100 ng DNA whereas the minimum load revealed as 2 copies/100 ng DNA. The median quantification was found as 141 copies/ 100 ng DNA. Establishment of a credited qPCR assay to quantify EHV-2 could be helpful in the control of the disease.

Isolation and detection of reovirus from arthritis in chickens

Safwan Yousif Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125580.1093

In this study 70 samples were collected from 14-26 weeks old egg laying hens. Clinical signs of infected chickens characterized by lameness, swelling in hock joint. Samples include blood for preparation of serum also hock joints and tendon for virus isolation. Hyperimmune sera was prepared by injection of broiler chickens four times with vaccine strain Reo 1133R 0.2 ml subcutaneously in the neck. Samples were processed and prepared for virus isolation by using 6 days old embryonated chicken egg which was inoculated in yolk sac four passages. Lesions in egg embryo was recorded for each passage then the isolates were diagnosed by using neutralization test using convalescent and hyperimmune sera. Clinical signs of infected birds characterized by swelling and enlargement and edema of hock joint, postmortem lesions revealed swelling and injury in tendon, ulceration and erosions in cartilage and discoloration in synovial fluid, hemorrhage in the leg and yellow necrotic foci in the liver, the result of virus cultivation in embryonated chicken egg show dwarfism in growth, death of embryo with subcutaneous hemorrhage, initiated in 2nd passage and subsequent passages, this lesion increase in severity with progress of passages and with decrease in death time in hours and increase in titer of virus particles. The virus titer was decreased when neutralized by using neutralization test it gives 22 isolates were positive from 34 isolates.

Prevalence of the bovine adenovirus type 3 by using direct fluorescent antibody technique in calves in Nineveh province

Abdulhakeem A. Sheet; Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 53-57
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125476.1009

A total of 200 samples were collected from the calves for different ages from local and exotic breed by using nasal swabs, to investigate the prevalence of the bovine adenoviruses. The results showed that about 44% of the examined calves gave positive to immunofluorescence test, and the calves aged 6-9 months showed highly significant prevalence compare with other ages. The prevalence of virus infection in the exotic breed was 50.3% compared with local breed 22.2%. The calves with respiratory affections showed a higher prevalence from those which seem to be healthy. The current study concluded that the bovine adenovirus-type 3-virus has an effect on the breeding of calves in Nineveh Governorate.  

Diagnosis of reovirus infection in broiler breeders flocks by using PCR technique in Erbil province

Fanar Isihak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125469.1007

Avian reoviruses can infect birds without any clinical signs of infection, the infection may associate with different manifestations including viral arthritis/tenosynovitis and malabsorption syndrome. The objective of this study was to use advance methods representing by molecular methods (RT-PCR, RT-qPCR) in the diagnosis of ARV infection in broiler breeders' flocks. A 4 flocks of broiler breeders (ROSS breed) 39 weeks age with approximately10% morbidity rate due to Avian Reovirus (ARV). The clinical examination of 16 infected birds revealed unilateral lameness and swelling of hock joint. Blood samples were collected from wing vein of infected birds. Sera were tested for antibodies titer against ARV and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). 5 of 16 positive samples were selected randomly for amplification by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The results showed in postmortem examination of infected birds, unilateral arthritis with visible joint lesions. Antibodies titer measured by ELISA in the sera of birds after 4 and 20 weeks of infection with ARV was positive and high. In RT- PCR1 of 5 samples gave positive reaction for amplification while in RT-qPCR all five samples gave positive results for amplification in comparison with +ve and -ve control.

Diagnosis and histopathological study of avian influenza virus-H5 (AIV-H5) in broiler farms

Fanar A. Isihak; Hana Kh. Ismail; Abed Alwaheed A. Wahid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 101-107
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125646.1120

This study was conducted for diagnosis and description of the pathological changes of AIV-H5 as the causative pathogen in Iraqi broiler farms. The current study was carried out on 84 broiler farms. Infected birds were tested for detection of the AIV infection from the tracheal swabs by rapid chromatographic AIV type A and H5 test kits. In RRT-PCR 8 samples (8 farms) of Trachea were selected to be tested by this assay. Samples of trachea, lung, and spleen from the dead birds with natural AIV-H5 infection were submitted for histopathological examination. seventy-two out of 84 farms tested for AIV-Type A gave positive results, and 58 out of 72 positives for type A-AIV gave a positive result for H5 antigen in a rapid chromatographic strip. The main gross lesions in the trachea of infected birds were severe congestion and hemorrhage. In the RRT-PCR assay, 8 out of 8 samples gave a distinct positive result for this test. The microscopic histopathological examination of infected tracheas showed obvious desquamation of lining epithelium with complete loss of cilia associated with congestion of blood vessels in lamina properia. Infected lungs revealed diffuse alveolar damage and severe multifocal vascular congestion. There was deposition of fibrinous material in the splenic tissue associated with the disappearance of the germinal centers. Thus, we concluded that AIV-H5 infection causes severe pathological and histopathological changes as a result of systemic infection. The RRT-PCR assay was highly sensitive and specific for the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes.

Molecular diagnosis and genetic relationship of foot and mouth disease virus serotype Asia1/Basne/Sul/2015

Jeza Muhamad Abdul aziz; Salih Ahmed Hama; Hawre Kamel Faraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 67-73
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125519.1041

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is the most economically important viral-induced livestock disease worldwide. From April to May of 2015, tongue epithelial tissue samples were collected from 36 cattle in six villages, which share the border with Iran. Samples were screened using RT-PCR to amplify a conserved region in the VP1 gene, and phylogenetic tree analysis was performed based on the VP1 nucleotide sequence results. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence was converted to an amino acid sequence in order to detect similarities between the studied samples and those previously published in GenBank (NCBI). Epidemically, based on the amino acid residues, genetic similarity, and amino acid substitutions, the VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined to be close to a novel group, group VII, with 94% identity. The VP1 amino acid sequence analysis revealed a close relationship to the Asia/BAL/PAK/iso-2/2011 isolate (Accession no. JX435109), with 95.7% identity, which is not significantly different. Analysis of the studied samples revealed that the FMDV serotype Asia1 causing the outbreak in the Basne district belonged to group VII, which was introduced from the Balochistan province of Pakistan through illegal movement of animals from this region.

Phylogenetic tree analysis study of bovine papillomaviruses type 1 based on L1 gene in Al-Qadisiyah governorate, Iraq

Khalefa Ali Mansour; Hassan Hachim Naser; Muthanna Hadi Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 151-155
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125535.1057

Bovine fibropapilloma and papilloma occur in different parts of the skin of animals. Bovine Papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus making benign tumor lesion of together mucosal and cutaneous tissue in cattle. In order to confirm the clinical diagnosis; the study planned to make the molecular detection of BPV (DNA) using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from skin lesions and the phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-eight samples of skin lesions were collected from cattle clinically suspected to be infected with bovine papilloma virus from herds in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate in 2016, the primary clinical diagnosis depended on the morphological appearance and features of the lesion. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) was extracted from skin lesions; the DNA was examined by PCR technique using specific primer to BPV-1 /L gene-1. Twenty-two samples out of 38 (57,9%), which were collected from different regions in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, were positive. The sequences of four positive samples of DNA product amplification of (BPV) type-1, L1 gene confirmed the PCR results. These samples had the DNA presented in four accession numbers KY662042-1, KY662043-1, KY662040-1 and KY662041-1. This study proofed that cutaneous bovine papillomatosis related with BPV-1 infection in the cattle herds has affinity to solid skin rather than other epithelial and mucosal tissue.

First phylogenetic characterization of Pseudocowpox virus from cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province/ Iraq

Salah Mahdi Karim; Khalefa Ali Mansour; Ali Hassan Janabi; Nawras K. M. Al-Nakeeb

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 123-126
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125525.1047

This study was initiated for the first time for identification, using sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, of pseudocowpox PCPV that inhabit dairy cows in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. Scab sampling was performed to obtain specimens from udder and teats of 18 affected cows. Initially, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was followed to target a 408-bp piece of the GM_CSF/IL-2 inhibition factor gene (GIF) that belongs to PCPV. Then, the PCR products were sent out to partial sequencing of the GIF gene. The results of the PCR have indicated the presence of the virus in only 3 out of 18 samples. When the sequences were studied using phylogeny, the results have revealed that one of our PCPV strains has a close matching with some of the world strains such as from New Zealand. While two of the current study strains have clustered together with a strain from Finland. The results of our study confirm the presence of the PCPV in dairy cows that induces milker’s nodules.

Molecular identification of peste des petits ruminants virus in wild goat and domestic small ruminants by real-time -PCR technique in Erbil-Iraq

E.P. Candlan; F.P. Khoran; L. Hana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 51-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126710

In July 2010 outbreak was occurred in wild goat in Barzan, Sherwin mizzen and Mergasur in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. There were over 2700 deaths (both young and adult) during the period of July 2010 to October 2011. Based on the clinical signs and post-mortem findings, the involvement of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was suspected. This was confirmed by Real Time PCR technique using TaqMan®probes for the detection of Peste des petits ruminants. The results of Real-Time PCR for the 9 sample taken from 9 Wild goat there are 6 sample positive and 3 sample negative and 76 sample from domestic ruminants (sheep and goat) 63 samples was negative for PPR. This result confirms the diagnosis domestic ruminants in the region are routinely vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine based on the ‘Nigeria/75/1’ strain of PPRV.

Isolation of bovine herpes virus type-1 (BHV-1) from cattle in Syria

S. Y. AL-Baroodi; A. Kurdi; A. Alomar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 309-320
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168753

In order to isolate Bovine Herpes virus type -1- (BHV-1) from cattle using cell culture (Bovine fetal kidney cell) and diagnosis by neutralization test,  592 swabs (230 Nasal swabs,  102 Vaginal swabs, 230 Ocular swabs, 12 swabs from Balanus and penises, 8 swabs from skin lesion in udder and 10 Anal swabs) were collected from animals suffering from respiratory signs, ocular discharge with congestion in conjugtiva and opacity in the eye, abortion in different stages of pregnancy with vaginal discharge,  inflammation in balanus and penis with discharge in ox older than 2 years,  some cattle suffering from mastitis with chronic skin lesions in udder and teat,  some young calves suffer from bloody diarrhea, and healthy cattle. The result of isolation and diagnosis of virus showed (30.57%) total percentage of infection using cell culture and (21.62%) using neutralization test. The highest percentage of infection was in Jub ramla farm, and the lowest percentage infection was in Dura farm using both methods. The study also showed the high percentage in vaginal swabs (49.01%) in cell culture, and in neutralization test (34.31%), whereas the lowest percentage of infection appeared in swabs from balanus and penises and swabs from skin lesion in udder (25%) in cell culture, while the lowest percentage of infection (25%) appeared in ocular swabs using neutralization test. The study detected the high percentage of infection in young calves (less than 6 months) of both sex by using both methods. The results of propagation of samples in cell culture appear one blind passage except anal swabs (two blind passage), the cytopathic effect (CPE) differ in appearance as the time decrease with progress passage. The CPE manifested by cell swelling shrink and rounded of cells. Cluster appearance and Vacuoles. The CPE variad in passage depending on type of sample, the highest potency was in balanus and penises swabs when compared with other samples.

Immunosuppressive effect of Marek's disease virus in broiler

Mozahim Yasen Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37262

تمت دراسة التأثیر المناعی المثبط للاصابة التجریبیة بفایروس مرض میرک فی فروج اللحم على مستوى المناعة المتکونة عند تلقیح حیوانات التجربة بلقاح مرض نیوکاسل وقد تم الکشف عن مستوى الأضداد المناعیة باستخدام اختبار تثبیط التلازن الدموی، حیث أظهرت نتائج هذا الاختبار انخفاض معیار الأضداد المتکونة ضد مرض نیوکاسل فی المجموعة الأولى المصابة تجریبیاً بفیروس مرض میرک والتی جرى تلقیحها بلقاح نیوکاسل بالمقارنة مع المجموعة الثانیة والتی اعطیت لقاح نیوکاسل فقط دون احداث الاصابة التجریبیة بفیروس مرض میرک، کما استخدم اختبار التحدی للتأکد من مستوى الحمایة التی أحدثها لقاح نیوکاسل حیث تبین أن هذا اللقاح أعطى حمایة بنسبة 50% فی المجموعة الأولى بینما کانت تلک النسبة 90% فی المجموعة الثانیة عند استخدام فیروس مرض نیوکاسل الضاری کجرعة التحدی لکلتا المجموعتین. وهذا یدل على أن الإصابة بفیروس مرض میرک فی الدواجن له تأثیر سلبی على مستوى المناعة التی یحدثها لقاح مرض نیوکاسل فی الدواجن.