Main Subjects : Veterinary Ectoparasite

Clinical and molecular detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in the Iraqi camels

Mohammad H. Al-Hasnawy; Hamed A. Al-Jabory; Lina S. Waheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 923-930
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132573.2106

Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research is conducted to detect S. scabieiin camels in the four provinces of the Middle-Euphrates area: Al-Muthanna, Al-Diwaniyah, Najaf, and Babil, from January 2020 to December 2020. The Molecular technique depending on the conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) is performed for the direct detection of S. scabiei based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene from skin scrape lesion samples. The results reveal that 125 out of 425 samples (29.41%) of the examined camels are infested with S. scabiei. According to the sex of the infested animals, the infestation rate was higher in females than in males, 85 (30.91 %) and 40 (26.67%) respectively. In addition, the 1.5 year age shows the highest number of infestation (83 out of 85) with a percentage of 97.65%, but the percentages are 21 out of 60 (35%) and four out 68 (5.88%) in 2 and 7 years old animals, respectively. The results also record that infested animals found in Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah have the highest number of infestations, with of 36% and 35%, respectively. The findings also demonstrate that the highest infestation percentage is during the winter months (January and February), with of 92.31% and 80%, respectively. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis shows that the local isolates of the Iraqi camels are consistent with the isolates recorded in China.

Clinical management of a severe traumatic cutaneous myiasis at the base of the antler in a fallow deer, Dama dama: A case report

Wan-Nor Fitri; Muhammad Azrolharith; Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Eric Lim; Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi; Annas Salleh; Zulfakarudin Zamri; Azrul Hisham; Aznida Che Ali; Wahid Haron; Falah Baiee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 187-190
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129663.1674

Cutaneous myiasis is the infestation of larvae of flies in the vertebrate. The condition causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry indicating the importance of a systematic approach to clinical management. The incidents of two episodes of severe cutaneous myiasis wound at the base of the antler in a 5-year-old semi-intensively managed male Dama dama deer was described. Physical examination revealed a foul-smelling necrotic wound around the left cornual region measuring 5cm×4cm in radius and 3cm in depth and fly eggs were seen on the surface of the wound. The clinical findings suggest the diagnosis of a severe cutaneous myiasis. The case was managed by wound debridement and flushing with hydrogen peroxide 3% and diluted hibiscrub 0.05%, followed with povidone iodine 2.5%. Topical ointment, Dermapred® and insecticide, Negasunt® were applied topically. Parenteral administration of flunixin meglumine 2.2 mg/kg for 3 days and Oxytetracycline 1 ml/10 k every 72 hours, given twice both through intramuscular route. Supplement injections, Vitavet® and Catosal™ were given to improve the wound healing process. The outcome of the wound improved post-14 days of treatment. Administration of timely combination of antimicrobials, pain management and flies control are leading factors to a good healing process.

An epidemiological and therapeutic study of Sarcoptes scabiei parasite in cows of Anbar province, Iraq

Suad Sh. Shahatha; Inaam M. Ayyed; Mohammed O. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 103-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129420.1646

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in cows in Anbar province, Iraq. The parasite was diagnosed in the laboratory via examining skin scrapings taken from the suspected cows. The results indicated that the infection rate in cows with S. scabiei reached 37.5%, the animals of 3 months - Hammada articulate had a great effect on the parasite, however, the concentration 10 mg/ml leads to the complete disappearance of all parasites and the cure of the infected cows on the 14th day of treatment, which is equal to the drug Abamectin in its effect on the parasites. The current study concluded that cows in the study areas were infected with scabies mites at a high rate, and this calls for finding safe treatment methods by using medicinal herbs and plants because they contain many active compounds that affect the parasite and lead to its mortality, and they are safe strategic alternatives to harmful chemical drugs. This necessitates the establishment of an integrated control approach through treatment with effective plant extracts and to maintain the cleanliness of the animal environment.

Morphological and phylogenetic characterization of Oestrus ovis larvae in sheep: Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq

Nadia S. Alhayali; Mohenned A. Alsaadawi; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 133-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129529.1656

The fly larvae infect the nasal cavities and sinuses (frontal and maxillary) of sheep, goats, and a range of wild ruminants, forming a disease called oestrosis (Nasal myiasis or nasal bot). The disease is one of the significantly diseases for the Iraqi small ruminant industry that causes detrimental economic losses. The current work was carried out to morphologically- and molecularly-characterize O. ovis larvae collected from sheep in a slaughterhouse in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. The study depended on collecting 20 larvae (at different stages) from 20 sheep from 15 October till 17 December 2020. The morphological examination was done using a stereomicroscope and relying on larval characteristic features, including the posterior end, spiracles, and cephalopharyngeal skeleton. The molecular characterization was performed utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial gene sequencing (PGS) methods of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene at 700-bp and 300-bp regions. Morphologically, the first-stage larvae (L1) showed characteristic mouth hooks, while the second-stage larvae (L2) revealed clear terminal stigmas. For the third-stage larvae (L3), the color of body segments and their spines' were the most important features for this larval stage. The PCR showed amplification at both regions 700bp and 300bp, in 8 and 7 isolates, respectively. The PGS revealed 15 different local isolates in genetic level aligned with isolates from Kyrgyzstan, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. This study shows the important strain differences of O. ovis that infect the local sheep in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq.

Genotypic analysis of ticks species infesting cattle in Al-Diwaniyah abattoir

Mansoor J. Ali; Wisam R. Raheem Atiyah; Monyer A. Abdulameir Al-Fatlawi; Saba F. Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 673-677
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127772.1525

Different vectors are considered critical for disease transmission between animals; however, ticks play a significant role in the dissemination of various infectious illnesses of animals and human importance. The current work was carried out to categorize ticks genetically of those isolated from cattle that entered Al-Diwaniyah abattoir. In the present study, 50 tick samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and genetic-based methods of polymerase chain reaction and partial gene sequencing, both utilized the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) gene as a genotyping element. The findings of the microscopic examination showed that the ticks were from Hyalomma spp. Further analysis, the polymerase chain reaction revealed the genus of Hyalomma of the ticks, but when the PGS was performed, one sample of H. detritum, three samples of H. excavatum, and two samples of H. marginatum were identified. When the phylogenetic analyses were conducted, H. detritum showed close genetic similarity to an isolate from Spain EU827695.1. H. excavatum revealed similarity with isolates from India MK863382.1 and Turkey MT230050.1. In contrast, H. marginatum displayed close identity to an isolate from Iran (MG557555.1). In conclusion, these findings may indicate evolutionary links of the locally identified isolates to different world isolates, probably due to the trade-moving of animals.

A study of the incidence of Lucilia sericata fly in ovine in Mosul city

Nadia S. Alhayali; Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 739-743
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128276.1566

The objective of the current study is to examine the incidence of Lucilia sericata larvae in the sheep in Mosul city, Iraq. From a total of 670 sheep examined, 92 sheep of them 13.7% were infested with Lucilia sericata larvae. For the 516 larvae found in the sheep, 146 (28.3%) was detected to be of the first instars larva, 120 (23.3%) was second in stars larva and 250 (48.4) as third instars larva. As the average number of larvae in the infested animals was 5.6. The infestation percentage in males was higher 26.3% compared to the females 4.2%, where there is no significant difference reported concerning with the age. The prevalence of Lucilia sericata larvae was 8.4% in spring, 38.9 % in summer, 2.4% in autumn and 1.5% in winter. The difference in terms of seasons were statistically significant. Sheep in the rural areas had higher infestation rate in comparison to the sheep in urban area. Most lesions occurred in the breech region, flank, leg and inter digital space of a foot. The percentage of adult flies that merged was 73.3% and the pupariation period was 12 to 20 hours, while the incubation and moulting periods were 7 to 10 days. All flies were similar in the external appearance and belonging to Lucilia sericata causing strike disease in sheep.

Aloe vera and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) accelerate healing process in domestic cat (Felis domesticus) suffering from scabies

Tridiganita Solikhah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 699-704
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127884.1539

The objective of this study is to know the formula in making Aloe vera gel cream with VCO to create a scabies medicine and know which treatment gives the fastest healing effect of scabies in domestic cats in Mojokerto. The first step is to extract Aloe vera by infundation method, phytochemical identification test, making Aloe vera cream, testing the washing power of the cream, and testing the effect of Aloe vera gel cream on 32 cats suffering from scabies in Mojokerto, then the skin of cats suffering from scabies scraped and observed under a microscope to observe the ectoparasites that cause scabies in cats. Cats were divided into 4 treatments namely A, B, C, and D. The results of this study indicated skin scrapping on 32 cats scabies in Mojokerto, exist 26 cats that were positive for Notoedres cati, 2 cats positive for Sarcoptes scabieiand 4 cats are negative. Formulas used for the manufacture of creams included stearic acid, triethanolamine, adeps lanae, paraffin liquid, VCO, nipagin, nipasol, aquades, and Aloe vera. The results of the three groups of cream formulas B, C, D caused a significant cure in cats suffering from scabies compared to control group A.

Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum from sheep and goats in Duhok governorate, Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126330.1298

Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat, form Duhok Governorate including: Barwaria, Zakho, Sumeil, Mangeshik, Sersing, Shekhan and Akre, between May and June 2016, between April and June 2017. The result found during this study were six species under two genera of the hard ticks were identified by molecular study and sequencing including: three species were under the genus Hyalomma and three species were under the genus Rhipiciphalus that infect small ruminants in Duhok governorate from these species a new species under the Hylomma genra (Hyalomma asiatium asiaticum) with accession number (MN594484), was first time reported in Duhok governorate. Also phylogenetic tree was constructed depend on the 16S rRNA.

Synergizing the deltamethrin larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus larvae using cinnamaldehyde in Diwaniyah, Iraq

Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Dhafer R. Al-Fetly; Monyer A. Alfatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 317-320
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126026.1212

The current work on mosquito larvae was performed to evaluate the resistance status of larvae to deltamethrin (DM) and to detect if the larvicidal activity (LA) of this chemical could be synergized after exposing the larvae to cinnamaldehyde (CD). Here, 200 Aedes albopictus larvae were employed for the experiment and were divided randomly into 2 groups (100/each group and placed in petri-dishes (PD), 10 larvae/PD), and they are the DM group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l in 99ml of distilled water (DW) was placed to each PD) and the DM+CD group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l and 1ml of 0.9mg/l respectively were placed with 98ml DW in each PD). The experiment was lasted for 24hrs. Larvae were detected to have resistance against DM as 45% to 60% of the larvae were killed by the DM, 40% to 55% resistance rate. However, when evaluating DM activity with the use of CD, the LA was synergized showing mortality in 87% to 92% of the larvae in which a significant increase in the mortality in DM+CD group was noticed more than that in the DM group. Furthermore, RT-qPCR was run to identify the expression status of the P540 monooxygenase gene, Cyp6p15, and found that the gene expression was significantly inhibited in the DM+CD group when comparing that in the DM group that showed overexpression of this gene. This work results provide viable information about the potential activity of the cinnamaldehyde in synergizing the larvicidal activity of deltamethrin.