Main Subjects : Veterinary Parasitology


Estimation of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in sheep infested with Taenia hydatigena cysts in Sulaymaniyah province/Iraq

Aram A. Mohammed; Mohammed A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125543.1065

This study was carried out in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq to estimate the concentration of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in the serum of sheep infected with the metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena. The present study included the measurement of some biochemical parameters as total protein, albumin and globulin and evaluation of trace elements as zinc, copper and iron using automatic analyzer and spectrophotometer respectively. For this purpose, up to 40 serum samples from sheep infected with T. hydatigena cysts and 10 serum samples from non-infected group had been used. The findings of the current study showed significant elevated levels in both total protein and globulin compared to non-infected group, where the total protein and globulin levels were 8.04 ± 0.275 g/dl and 5.90 ± 0.321 g/dl respectively, compared to the non-infected group 6.686 ± 0.409 g/dl and 4.124 ± 0.479 g/dl respectively. While, the mean serum albumin in infected sheep was significantly decreased 2.14 ± 0.224 g/dl compared to non-infected one 2.562 ± 0.152 g/dl. About the results of trace elements, the serum Cu was significantly increased in infected group 1.42 ± 0.466 mg/L compared to non-infected one 0.90 ± 0.171 mg/L, while the mean serum Zn concentration was significantly decreased in infected group 0.37 ± 0.230 mg/L compared to non-infected group 0.70 ± 0.108 mg/L. Although, the mean serum Fe of infected sheep 1.42 ± 0.388 mg/L was slightly lower than non-infected one 1.26 ± 0.490 mg/L, statistically there was no significant difference between them. It was concluded that T. hydatigena cysts had significant effects on serum total protein, globulin, Zn and Cu.

Study on the blood protozoa in geese

Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125499.1028

This study included the investigation of blood parasites in 150 geese. The results showed a high infection rate of 70.7%. The infection rate in the geese with small ages was higher compared to the large ages with 84.2 and 47.3% respectively, with no significant difference in infection rate between males and females. The highest infection rate of the parasite is Aegyptianella sp. 26.4% followed by Haemoproteus sp., Plasmodium sp., Leucocytozoon sp. and Trypanosoma sp. with infection rates of 19.8, 18.9, 14.2 and 2.8% respectively, as well as micro larvae of Microfilariae sp. with an infection rate of 17.9%, the two-type infection was the highest, with 45.3%. Microscopic examination of stained blood samples during laboratory experiments showed microscopic developments of the ookinete, which appeared within five hours after blood exposed to air and the ookinete measurement rate was 19.5 × 2 microns.

Uses of direct and indirect immuno-fluorescent techniques for demonstration of nematodes infection in sheep in Nineveh government

Enas S. Hussein; Sura S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 17-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125482.1027

 This study was conducted for comparison between two different modern methods for the diagnosis of the nematode worms' infection in sheep we used acridine orange fluorochrome and specific staining kit in fecal samples. We examined 50 sheep fecal samples; the total infection rate was about 96% when was used lectin - fluorescein kit while the total infection rate was 74% when we used acridine orange fluorochrome technique. In conclusion of this study indicated that lectin - fluorescein kit is more effective than acridine orange fluorochrome in the diagnosis of nematode worms' eggs. Also, we conclude from this study the importance of using fluorescence - lectin kit technique in the diagnosis of nematodes eggs because they are distinguished by their speed, efficiency and accuracy, as they compare with the fecal culture technique to cultivate the larvae from eggs in order to diagnosed the type of nematodes eggs, the lectin - fluorescein kit technique is the first in Iraq.

Microscopic identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq

Rashaa Ateaa; Mansour Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 251-258
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162882

Babesia is one of hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by arthropod vectors which responsible for causing of Babesiosis disease in bovine worldwide. The present study was designed for microscopic identification, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq. The study performed in three months of summer season (August into September 2017) and animals ages and sex were included in this study. The direct microscopic prevalence results were show highest prevalence of haemoprotozoa prevalence at Babesia sp. 45.74%. The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to animal sex, were show in male 43.48% and female was 52%, with non-significant differences. The Prevalence of Babesia sp. related to age were show 12.50%, 92.86% and 30% in young, adult and old age respectively with significant differences (P<0.05). The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to month of study were show. 28.57%, 62.50% and 42.86 in August, September and October respectively and with non-significant differences. Molecular study results were based on PCR and DNA sequencing method by phylogenetic tree analysis (MEGA 6.0) and NCBI-BLAST Homology Sequence Identity to differentiation Babesia species typing. The Babesia species prevalence results were show identified two Babesia species, high prevalence of Babesia bovis (38.30%) were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bovis (HQ264126.1) with homology sequence identity 97-100% and Babesia bigemina 7.45% were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bigemina (KU206291.1) with homology sequence identity 95-99%, then 43 Babesia species includes (B. bovis and B. bigemina) were submitted into NCBI-Genbank and provided accession numbers (MH503811-MH503853). In conclusion, this study concluded that Phylogenetic tree and homology sequences identity was show accurate in differentiation of Babesia species, and these species can be isolated at from local water buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city, of Iraq.

The serological diagnosis of canine Leishmaniasis by using ELISA in Nineveh province

Wasan Amjad Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163194

This study was to investigate the specific antibodies of Leishmania using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to detect the specific antibodies of the Leishmania donovani complex (L.infatum, L.chagasi, L. donovani) in 80 dogs of both types (domestic and stray dogs) of different ages and both sexes in the Nineveh Province for the period from February 2017 to October 2018. Some animals suffered from the appearance of skin ulcers in the face and quarters and diarrhea, vomiting, Paw pad fissures, the other animals did not show any clinical finding. The results showed that the total infection rate was 55%, the highest percentage of dogs with skin lesions 80.9% with significant differences with other groups, the stray dog's groups recorded high infective rate when compared with domestic dog group 62.96 and 38.4% respectively with significant differences.

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA test using anti- T. canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs compared to PCR

Noor Jarad; A.K. Abbas; N.N. Aἀiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 367-370
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163081

Toxocara (T.) canis is a nematode parasite of canines; belong to the Ascarididae family, which accidentally infected humans. Puppies expel the eggs with the feces from the fourth week of the life cycle. This study is the first study in Iraq for detection seroprevalence in stray dogs and extended from January to September 2017. Our study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. canis infection in stray dogs from different areas in the Al-Diwaniya province, Iraqto detection of specific IgG antibodies to T. canis compared to Conventional PCR technique with the effect of the risk factor. One hundred of the blood sample and one hundred of a faecal sample of same dogs after shooting were studied usingindirect ELISA test and PCR. The result revealed that 71% of the dogs had a seropositive result for this parasite by ELISA test. Dog age is an important factor and affects seroprevalence, were shown that positive rate in adult dogs was more 83.05% than the young dogs 53.65%, while no significant between dogs according to sex. PCR technique showed 58% of dogs were positive forinternal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal RNA. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test was 79 and 40% respectively.

Prevalence of nematodes infestation in Clarias gariepinus from El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, Egypt

Sh.S. Sorour; A.H. Hamouda

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162963

A total number of 400 Clarias gaiepinus were collected alive from several and various locations at El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, to investigate the prevailing nematodes that infect this fish species from the two locations. Nearly all the examined fish were positive for one or more nematodes; four spp. of two families were identified from Clarias gaiepinus at El-Burullus Lake: Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. (recovered from the gall bladder for the first time) and Terranova spp. larvae (recorded for the first time in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate representing new locality record), one nematode from Clarias gaiepinus at Lake Nasser: 3rd stage  larvae (L3) of Contraceacum spp. (has zoonotic importance). The prevalence of Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. and Terranova spp. larva were 37.5%, 44%, 0.5% and 10% respectively, meanwhile the prevalence of L3 larvae of Contraceacum spp. were 100%. This study was planned to compare between the nematodes infecting Clarias gaiepinus from the two lakes evaluating clinical signs, postmortem examinations, parasitological examinations, seasonal prevalence and histopathological investigations of infected fish with different nematodes infestation. Clarias  gaiepinus must be eviscerated as soon as possible after catching to prevent 3rd stage larvae of Contraceacum spp. in the abdominal cavity from liberating from their sheaths and attacking the fish musculature (the edible part in the fish) as well as,prevent Terranova spp. larvae in the gills from attacking another parts of the fish and thus prevent the transmission of the nematodes of zoonotic importance to the consumers.

Detection of ectoparasites in different birds

Manal Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 37-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162896

The study was conducted to detect the ectoparasites infestation in chickens, Domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica and turkeys in different areas of Mosul city by survey examining of 80 birds of chickens, 85 birds of pigeons and 50 birds of turkeys, of both sexes. Results show the infestation rates with ectoparasites in chickens, pigeons and turkeys, were 41.3%,37.6% and 36% respectively. Results show that the chickens were infested with three types of ectoparasites, two species of lice are Menacanthus stramineus, Gniocotes gallinae and soft ticks Argas persicus the infestation rates were 63.6%, 24.2% and 36.4% respectively. The highest infestation rate with lice in chicken was 70% in Spring season and the lowest rate 5% in Summer season while the infestation rates in Autumn and Winter were convergent, there was 44.4% and 45.5% respectively. The results show that the pigeons were infested with two types of ectoparasites, one species of lice is Columbicola columbae and soft ticks is Argas persicus, the rates were 87.5%,18.8% respectively. The infestations were individual and double. In turkeys the results record one lice species Goniocotes gallinae, the infestation rates were 36%. The male and female were infested with rates 27.3% and 42.9% respectively.

Prevalence of Parascaris equorum in native horses in West Bank Palestine

R. Othman; I. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 433-436
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163192

A total number of 435 fecal samples from native horses, aged between 6 months to 10 years of both sexes, were collected from eight cities at West Bank, Palestine during January 2015 to January 2017. The Mc Master egg counting and sedimentation methods were used for the detection of Parascaris equorum eggs in the collected samples. The overall prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum was found to be 15.6% (68 out of 435), and this rate varied significantly depending on the city. The highest prevalence rate was in Jericho 41.1% followed by Hebron 26.3%, Jenin 19.4%, Qalqilya 19.4%, Tulkarm 12.2%, Nablus 11.8% and Ramallah 5.3%. The results revealed also that there was no significant difference in the prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum between male 15% and female 16.5% as well as between young 17.6% and adult 10.9% horses.

Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in Baghdad province, Iraq

H.H. Alseady; M.H. Kawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 389-394
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163084

The objective of this study was to record the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium and to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in different parts of Baghdad province. A total number of 100 fecal samples from different age groups were collected. Conventional method using modified Ziehl-Neelsen for staining fecal smears and molecular techniques for detection the prevalence and determines the species of Cryptosporidium that cause infection. The overall prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium was 21% (21/100) by conventional method; nested PCR was done that targeting 18S rRNA gene on the same samples in which Cryptosporidium DNA identified in 38 samples (38%). Four species of Cryptosporidium in cattle were detected for the first time in Baghdad province: C. parvum (6/10), C. andersoni (2/10), C. bovis (1/10) and C. ryanae (1/10). The determination and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle was very important to avoid the infection to other animals and handlers and for applying control programs.

Detection on ectoparasites on small ruminants and their impact on the tanning industry in Sulaimani province

Bahzad Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 303-309
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162995

The study was carried out through the clinical examination on the skins of sheep and goats to identify the quality and processed in the tanneries. Parasitic skin diseases caused by ectoparasites such as mange mites, lice, and ticks are among these threats resulting in a serious economic loss to the tanning industry and the country as a whole. Out of 38066 sheep and 9889 goats examined in Sulaimani slaughterhouse in spring season 2017, shows statistically significant P<0.05 between sheep and goats prevalence; 9.35% and 7.43% respectively with one or more ectoparasites. Three different of ectoparasites were infested in both sheep and goats namely; hard tick, lice and mite. Five species of hard tick (Ixodidae) were identified in sheep and goats as follows; Boophilus spp 3.68% and 14.16%, Rhipicephalus sanguineous 12.47% and 28.63%, Rhipicephalus turanicus 7.50% and 15.96%, Hyalomma a. anatolicum 11.90% and 31.30%, Hyalomma marginatum 9.26% and 9.95%) respectively. Two species of lice were identified in sheep namely, Damalinia ovis 17.74% and Linognathus stenopsis 13.63%, and D. caprae 10.97% and L. stenopsis 6.22% on goats. Highly infested were identified with mite on sheep include Psarcoptic scabiei 13.83% and Psoroptic ovies 9.98%, while only one species founded in this study in goats namely, Psarcoptic scabiei 22.79%. The overall number of skins refused to tanning industry 164 (4.61%) in sheep and 116 (15.78%) in goat. The difference in the prevalence of skin disease infestation between refused skin in both sheep and goats were statistically significant in ruminants (P<0.05). This paper deals with major skin defects in occurrence by ectoparasites sheep and goats in Sulaimani province.

Major helminth parasites of Camelus dromedarius in afar pastoral area of Ethiopia

Angesom Hadush Desta

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125524.1046

Camel internal parasites are among important camel health problems which are often affecting camel production and productivity. A cross-sectional study was carried out in camels to study the major helminth parasites in selected districts of Afar regional state of Ethiopia. Coprological examination and key informants interview were done to collect the required data in the study areas. Fecal sample was collected from a total of 384 camels and about 76.04% (292) were found to harbor at least one helminth parasite. According to the flotation and sedimentation techniques, Trichostrongyle egg (71.6%) was found with higher prevalence followed by coccidia (69.9%). In the mixed infestation, occurrence of two parasites together (31.9%) was with higher prevalence and occurrence of five parasites together (4.4%) was the lowest one. According to the key informants, the occurrence and transmission of these parasites is higher in the study areas due to aggregation of camels in the cross-border salt trade and mixing of camel herds at watering and feeding points. Furthermore, there was no adequate seasonal and programmed treatment due to drug shortage. Therefore, collaborative parasitic control and prevention measure and public education on modern camel husbandry should be delivered.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153846

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153847

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Rearing and measurements of Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae (Diptera: Oestridae) from slaughtered sheep heads in Mosul abattoir -Iraq

A.B.J. Alani; E.R. Al- kennany; N.H. Al-ubeidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153789

Oestrus ovis larvae 142 were collected from the 133 heads of sheep slaughtered at the Mosul abattoir in Nineveh governorate during March-May 2014. In This study, the weight and dimensions Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae were measured and there was a significant difference between larvae of Oestrus ovis. Forty five of the third larval stage were rearing and them pupated until emergence of the adult stage. Sixteen larvae were emerged to adult (35.6%). (4.4%) larvae did not pupariation and 60% were not reached to adult. The puparation period taking (24-30 hours) and the pupal stage taking (23-28) days the average longevity of adult flies was 10 days. This study is regarded as the first one showing that all flies were similar in their external shape and so all were belonging to Oestrus ovis causing myiasis in sheep.

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of dogs in rural areas of the north east of Algeria

F. Matallah; W. Khelaifia; S. Lamari; S. Matallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153829

Canine faeces are an important source of pathogens for the pet population, for dog owners and for the community in general. A total of 100 faecal samples taken from dogs, were examined for helminth eggs. 80 % of dogs examined are parasitized. Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum were the most commonly observed parasites. T. canis was observed with a prevalence of 68 % in the El Kala region, while in the region of Guelma, A. caninum were predominant with a rate of 71%. Dipylidium caninum and Trichuris were present but with low proportions especially in the region of Guelma. The climatic conditions seem to play a role in the excretion of helminth eggs, while the age plays a primordial role in particular for T. canis as well as for A. caninum. The absence of conscience of the owners of dogs and the lack of participation of the veterinarian role increase the risk of the parasitism of these animals and consequently for the public health in particular our children in the Northeast of Algeria.

Microscopic study for prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in cattle in Mosul city

A.F. Altaee; E.G. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 57-66
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145579

The current study included examination of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in 300 blood smears stained with 5% of Giemsa stain which collected from cattle in Mosul city from both sexes with different ages, the total percentage of infection with Babesia spp was 42.33% and the percentage of B. bovis and B. bigemina 30.66% and 24.33%. The blood smears which stained with Giemsa stain contain 0.5% Triton X-100 appeared cleaner and easily recognized the blood cells and parasites. High percentage of infection was appeared with single infection with B. bovis was 42.51% followed by mixed infection with B. bovis and B. bigemina and infection with B. bigemina only was 29.92% and 27.55%. The results of this study showed no significant differences in the percentage of infection between males and females of cattle and different groups of ages at the significant level p<0.05.

Prevalence of Anaplasma ovis infection in Angora goats of Duhok province, Kurdistan region-Iraq

I.A. Naqid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145599

Acute Anaplasma ovis infections can cause severe clinical symptoms and might lead to significant economic losses in small ruminant flocks. However, little information has been provided related the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Angora goats. The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis serologically (cELISA) and microscopically (Giemsa stained blood smears) among Angora goats from Duhok districts of the northern part of Iraq. A total of 92 blood samples were randomly collected from three localities of Duhok city; Zakho, Batel and Sumil during the study period from April to October 2009. The infection rate of A. ovis was 38.04% by Giemsa stained blood smear and 66.3% by cELISA. The prevalence of A. ovis in female goats was higher than that in males, but statistically not significant difference (P>0.05) by using both methods. The prevalence was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in goats more than three years old than in younger ones. The highest prevalence of A. ovis was found in Zakho, whereas the lowest was reported in Sumail. Results of hematological parameters indicated microcytic hypochromic type of anemia.It is concluded that A. ovis can infected Angora goats in district Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq and this might be due to high distribution of the disease and its transmitters which were lead to substantial effect followed by high mortalities

Prevalence and molecular studies on Echinococcus equinus isolated from necropsied donkeys

A.Y. Desouky; N.M. Helmy; Sh.S. Sorour; M.M. Amer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 101-106
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145605

In the present study, forty donkeys of different ages and sexes at Giza Zoo, Egypt were investigated between October 2015 and September 2016 for the presence of hydatidosis disease. Hydatid cysts were detected in the livers of 10% of the examined donkeys and these cysts had a fertility rate 100%. Female donkeys were infected with cysts more than males and all infected donkeys were old aged with no cases of infection were detected in young or adult donkeys. Using molecular tools, the DNA extracted from cysts that had been isolated was subjected to PCR amplification, using synthesized oligonucleotide primers, and these were constructed to target the 299 bp within the (ND2) gene, which is considered to be specific for the Echinococcus equinus genotype. The sequenced PCR products showed homology to E.equinus (G4 or horse strain genotype). These results can be used in future to pursue the epidemiological status of the causative strain of hydatidosis in equines at the study area.

Detection the some developmental stages of Babesia spp in hemolymph and midgut of adult females of Boophilus microplus naturally on cattle in Mosul city

E.G. Suleiman; A.F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145600

This study involved the detection of vermicules of Babesia spp in the hemolymph of Boophilus microplus adult females naturally fed on cattle after their remaining a live for 5 to 8 days under laboratory conditions and the detection of some developmental stages (schizonts, rupture of schizonts, small dark collar bodies and migration of vermicules from the hemolymph to different tissues of tick). Both vermicules of B. bovis and B. bigemina were diagnosed. The vermivules of B. bovis appeared as croissant or club-shaped bodies with a broad anterior ending and pointed posterior one and having a central nucleus and a vacuole in the anterior end with a curved or semi curved tail. The vermicules of B. bigemina had a croissant or club –shaped bodies with a lesser width in their anterior end than in B. bovis with no vacuole and with a straight tail. The average length of B. bovis was 13.92 ±1.34 µ with a range of 11.8-15.8µ and average width of 3.23±0.44 µ with a range of 2.7-4µ. The average length of B. bigemina was 11.39±1.12µ with a range of 9.5-13µ and average width of 2.2±0.51µ with a range of 1.5-3µ. The results of current study revealed that their was a direct and proportional relationship between the parasitemia of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle blood smears and the number of vermicules in the hemolymph of female of Boophilus microplus. No significant differences were noticed between (number and percentage of Boophilus microplus females) infected with vermicules of Babesia spp at different aged cattle.

Mini Review: Current tick control strategies in Pakistan are possible environmental risks

A. Iqbal; M. Usman; M. Abubakar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145601

Ticks infestation is the major problem of cattle and buffalo of Pakistan. Tick acts as vectors of many viral, protozoal and bacterial diseases and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is one of the most lethal in that list. During the last sixteen years, many sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in Pakistan has been reported with 24 percent case fatalities. In Punjab and Sind provinces mass tick control campaigns have been started to control the tick’s population and spread of zoonotic diseases through tick’s. In these tick control campaigns deltamethrin and ivermectin are used extensively. We highlighted that how extensive use of deltamethrin and ivermectin can adversely affect the environment and possible alternative methods for tick control. Extensive use of deltamethrin can damage the kidneys of insect eating birds and disturb the life cycle of many aquatic organisms if deltamethrin solution is mixed with water of streams. Widespread ivermectin use in domestic animals poses some serious threats to dung beetles and other coprophagic insects as almost 60-80 percent of total dose comes in feces without any metabolism in the body of animal. Decrease in dung beetles can result in decreased dung degradation.

Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

M.J.A. Alkhaled; N.N. A'aiz; H.H. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121380

Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1) and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1) more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

Determination of Toxoplasma gondii lineages of sheep in Wasit, Iraq

N.N. A'aiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121379

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can cause significant morbidity in human beings and animals. Up to our knowledge no data is known of genetic diversity of T. gondii in sheep in Iraq. This study aim to detect the strains (genotypes) of T. gondii isolates from sheep in Wasit province, east of Iraq. A total of 315 samples (blood 300 and placenta's tissue 15) were collected from aborted ewes, which initially had been examined serologically by LAT, then further tested by RT-PCR through B1 gene amplification to confirm the infection with T. gondii. After that, the positive DNA samples were assayed for genetic characterization depending upon nested PCR- RFLP of SAG2 gene. Out of 315 examined samples, 10 were confirmed positive T. gondii DNA. The genotyping assay of them revealed that 60% (6/10), 30% (3/10) and 10% (1/10) of examined isolates represent the genotypes of II, III and I respectively. The type II appeared as dominant in sheep in Wasit province, Iraq.

Molecular characterization of Blastocystis sp. isolates from human, cattle and sheep by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene

Abdul Aziz Jamel Al-Ani; H. S. Albakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.119164

Blastocystis sp. is an enteric unicellular, anaerobic, protist that could be isolated from humans and many other farm and wild animals, in addition to rodents, reptiles and insects. This study aimed to characterize Blastocystis isolated from fecal samples of human, cattle and sheep using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Pre-determined samples were selected from human, cattle and sheep that showed to be positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU ‑ rRNA) then examined by RFLP analysis using HinfI enzyme to determine the molecular patterns. The results of RFLP analysis revealed the presence of three different patterns of human isolates which were in difference with the other three patterns of cattle isolates. However, sheep isolates showed only one pattern. This study shows that RFLP analysis is a simple and rapid technique that could be used to characterize and differentiate Blastocystis sp. in humans and animals.

The first unequivocal report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116859

The aim of present study was to report spontaneous Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) infection in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) infection in cattle in Mosul city - Iraq. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 142 rabbits and 115 cattle during the period from June, 2012 to June, 2013. Thin smears were prepared from the fecal samples and stained with different fecal stains, as well as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Infected rabbits were necropsied and pathology of the infection was described. The result showed that microsporidiosis was detected in 41 (26.9%) rabbits and in 12 (10.4%) cattle. E. cuniculi spores were identified in 31 out of the 41 rabbits (73.2%) and E. intestinalis in 7 out of the 12 cattle (58.3%). Infected rabbits showed vasculitis, granulomatous encephalitis, chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholangitis, vasculitis and non – suppurative pneumonia, infiltration of mononuclear cells in most layers of the intestines, and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the liver, kidneys and lungs. This study considered the first one that report microsporidiosis (E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis) in Mosul city - Iraq.