Main Subjects : Veterinary Parasitology

Major helminth parasites of Camelus dromedarius in afar pastoral area of Ethiopia

Angesom Hadush Desta

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125524.1046

Camel internal parasites are among important camel health problems which are often affecting camel production and productivity. A cross-sectional study was carried out in camels to study the major helminth parasites in selected districts of Afar regional state of Ethiopia. Coprological examination and key informants interview were done to collect the required data in the study areas. Fecal sample was collected from a total of 384 camels and about 76.04% (292) were found to harbor at least one helminth parasite. According to the flotation and sedimentation techniques, Trichostrongyle egg (71.6%) was found with higher prevalence followed by coccidia (69.9%). In the mixed infestation, occurrence of two parasites together (31.9%) was with higher prevalence and occurrence of five parasites together (4.4%) was the lowest one. According to the key informants, the occurrence and transmission of these parasites is higher in the study areas due to aggregation of camels in the cross-border salt trade and mixing of camel herds at watering and feeding points. Furthermore, there was no adequate seasonal and programmed treatment due to drug shortage. Therefore, collaborative parasitic control and prevention measure and public education on modern camel husbandry should be delivered.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153846

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153847

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of dogs in rural areas of the north east of Algeria

F. Matallah; W. Khelaifia; S. Lamari; S. Matallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153829

Canine faeces are an important source of pathogens for the pet population, for dog owners and for the community in general. A total of 100 faecal samples taken from dogs, were examined for helminth eggs. 80 % of dogs examined are parasitized. Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum were the most commonly observed parasites. T. canis was observed with a prevalence of 68 % in the El Kala region, while in the region of Guelma, A. caninum were predominant with a rate of 71%. Dipylidium caninum and Trichuris were present but with low proportions especially in the region of Guelma. The climatic conditions seem to play a role in the excretion of helminth eggs, while the age plays a primordial role in particular for T. canis as well as for A. caninum. The absence of conscience of the owners of dogs and the lack of participation of the veterinarian role increase the risk of the parasitism of these animals and consequently for the public health in particular our children in the Northeast of Algeria.

Rearing and measurements of Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae (Diptera: Oestridae) from slaughtered sheep heads in Mosul abattoir -Iraq

A.B.J. Alani; E.R. Al- kennany; N.H. Al-ubeidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153789

Oestrus ovis larvae 142 were collected from the 133 heads of sheep slaughtered at the Mosul abattoir in Nineveh governorate during March-May 2014. In This study, the weight and dimensions Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae were measured and there was a significant difference between larvae of Oestrus ovis. Forty five of the third larval stage were rearing and them pupated until emergence of the adult stage. Sixteen larvae were emerged to adult (35.6%). (4.4%) larvae did not pupariation and 60% were not reached to adult. The puparation period taking (24-30 hours) and the pupal stage taking (23-28) days the average longevity of adult flies was 10 days. This study is regarded as the first one showing that all flies were similar in their external shape and so all were belonging to Oestrus ovis causing myiasis in sheep.

Prevalence and molecular studies on Echinococcus equinus isolated from necropsied donkeys

A.Y. Desouky; N.M. Helmy; Sh.S. Sorour; M.M. Amer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 101-106
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145605

In the present study, forty donkeys of different ages and sexes at Giza Zoo, Egypt were investigated between October 2015 and September 2016 for the presence of hydatidosis disease. Hydatid cysts were detected in the livers of 10% of the examined donkeys and these cysts had a fertility rate 100%. Female donkeys were infected with cysts more than males and all infected donkeys were old aged with no cases of infection were detected in young or adult donkeys. Using molecular tools, the DNA extracted from cysts that had been isolated was subjected to PCR amplification, using synthesized oligonucleotide primers, and these were constructed to target the 299 bp within the (ND2) gene, which is considered to be specific for the Echinococcus equinus genotype. The sequenced PCR products showed homology to E.equinus (G4 or horse strain genotype). These results can be used in future to pursue the epidemiological status of the causative strain of hydatidosis in equines at the study area.

Prevalence of Anaplasma ovis infection in Angora goats of Duhok province, Kurdistan region-Iraq

I.A. Naqid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145599

Acute Anaplasma ovis infections can cause severe clinical symptoms and might lead to significant economic losses in small ruminant flocks. However, little information has been provided related the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Angora goats. The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis serologically (cELISA) and microscopically (Giemsa stained blood smears) among Angora goats from Duhok districts of the northern part of Iraq. A total of 92 blood samples were randomly collected from three localities of Duhok city; Zakho, Batel and Sumil during the study period from April to October 2009. The infection rate of A. ovis was 38.04% by Giemsa stained blood smear and 66.3% by cELISA. The prevalence of A. ovis in female goats was higher than that in males, but statistically not significant difference (P>0.05) by using both methods. The prevalence was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in goats more than three years old than in younger ones. The highest prevalence of A. ovis was found in Zakho, whereas the lowest was reported in Sumail. Results of hematological parameters indicated microcytic hypochromic type of anemia.It is concluded that A. ovis can infected Angora goats in district Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq and this might be due to high distribution of the disease and its transmitters which were lead to substantial effect followed by high mortalities

Microscopic study for prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in cattle in Mosul city

A.F. Altaee; E.G. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 57-66
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145579

The current study included examination of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in 300 blood smears stained with 5% of Giemsa stain which collected from cattle in Mosul city from both sexes with different ages, the total percentage of infection with Babesia spp was 42.33% and the percentage of B. bovis and B. bigemina 30.66% and 24.33%. The blood smears which stained with Giemsa stain contain 0.5% Triton X-100 appeared cleaner and easily recognized the blood cells and parasites. High percentage of infection was appeared with single infection with B. bovis was 42.51% followed by mixed infection with B. bovis and B. bigemina and infection with B. bigemina only was 29.92% and 27.55%. The results of this study showed no significant differences in the percentage of infection between males and females of cattle and different groups of ages at the significant level p<0.05.

Mini Review: Current tick control strategies in Pakistan are possible environmental risks

A. Iqbal; M. Usman; M. Abubakar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145601

Ticks infestation is the major problem of cattle and buffalo of Pakistan. Tick acts as vectors of many viral, protozoal and bacterial diseases and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is one of the most lethal in that list. During the last sixteen years, many sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in Pakistan has been reported with 24 percent case fatalities. In Punjab and Sind provinces mass tick control campaigns have been started to control the tick’s population and spread of zoonotic diseases through tick’s. In these tick control campaigns deltamethrin and ivermectin are used extensively. We highlighted that how extensive use of deltamethrin and ivermectin can adversely affect the environment and possible alternative methods for tick control. Extensive use of deltamethrin can damage the kidneys of insect eating birds and disturb the life cycle of many aquatic organisms if deltamethrin solution is mixed with water of streams. Widespread ivermectin use in domestic animals poses some serious threats to dung beetles and other coprophagic insects as almost 60-80 percent of total dose comes in feces without any metabolism in the body of animal. Decrease in dung beetles can result in decreased dung degradation.

Detection the some developmental stages of Babesia spp in hemolymph and midgut of adult females of Boophilus microplus naturally on cattle in Mosul city

E.G. Suleiman; A.F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145600

This study involved the detection of vermicules of Babesia spp in the hemolymph of Boophilus microplus adult females naturally fed on cattle after their remaining a live for 5 to 8 days under laboratory conditions and the detection of some developmental stages (schizonts, rupture of schizonts, small dark collar bodies and migration of vermicules from the hemolymph to different tissues of tick). Both vermicules of B. bovis and B. bigemina were diagnosed. The vermivules of B. bovis appeared as croissant or club-shaped bodies with a broad anterior ending and pointed posterior one and having a central nucleus and a vacuole in the anterior end with a curved or semi curved tail. The vermicules of B. bigemina had a croissant or club –shaped bodies with a lesser width in their anterior end than in B. bovis with no vacuole and with a straight tail. The average length of B. bovis was 13.92 ±1.34 µ with a range of 11.8-15.8µ and average width of 3.23±0.44 µ with a range of 2.7-4µ. The average length of B. bigemina was 11.39±1.12µ with a range of 9.5-13µ and average width of 2.2±0.51µ with a range of 1.5-3µ. The results of current study revealed that their was a direct and proportional relationship between the parasitemia of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle blood smears and the number of vermicules in the hemolymph of female of Boophilus microplus. No significant differences were noticed between (number and percentage of Boophilus microplus females) infected with vermicules of Babesia spp at different aged cattle.

Determination of Toxoplasma gondii lineages of sheep in Wasit, Iraq

N.N. A'aiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121379

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can cause significant morbidity in human beings and animals. Up to our knowledge no data is known of genetic diversity of T. gondii in sheep in Iraq. This study aim to detect the strains (genotypes) of T. gondii isolates from sheep in Wasit province, east of Iraq. A total of 315 samples (blood 300 and placenta's tissue 15) were collected from aborted ewes, which initially had been examined serologically by LAT, then further tested by RT-PCR through B1 gene amplification to confirm the infection with T. gondii. After that, the positive DNA samples were assayed for genetic characterization depending upon nested PCR- RFLP of SAG2 gene. Out of 315 examined samples, 10 were confirmed positive T. gondii DNA. The genotyping assay of them revealed that 60% (6/10), 30% (3/10) and 10% (1/10) of examined isolates represent the genotypes of II, III and I respectively. The type II appeared as dominant in sheep in Wasit province, Iraq.

Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

M.J.A. Alkhaled; N.N. A'aiz; H.H. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121380

Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1) and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1) more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

Molecular characterization of Blastocystis sp. isolates from human, cattle and sheep by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene

Abdul Aziz Jamel Al-Ani; H. S. Albakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.119164

Blastocystis sp. is an enteric unicellular, anaerobic, protist that could be isolated from humans and many other farm and wild animals, in addition to rodents, reptiles and insects. This study aimed to characterize Blastocystis isolated from fecal samples of human, cattle and sheep using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Pre-determined samples were selected from human, cattle and sheep that showed to be positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU ‑ rRNA) then examined by RFLP analysis using HinfI enzyme to determine the molecular patterns. The results of RFLP analysis revealed the presence of three different patterns of human isolates which were in difference with the other three patterns of cattle isolates. However, sheep isolates showed only one pattern. This study shows that RFLP analysis is a simple and rapid technique that could be used to characterize and differentiate Blastocystis sp. in humans and animals.