Main Subjects : Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology

Estragole: A review of its pharmacology, effect on animal health and performance, toxicology, and market regulatory issues

Mohamad Y. Mahendra; Rayudika A. Purba; Tri B. Dadi; Herinda Pertiwi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135092.2445

Estragole is a volatile terpenoid molecule found in various plants or components, frequently in very high concentrations. It has been demonstrated to increase animal health and output performance effectively. Estragole has been shown to possess antioxidant properties both in vitro and in vivo. These properties include the ability to raise GSH and GPx levels, as well as the ability to suppress toxic materials and maintain cellular redox status, MDA activity, and MPO activity. In addition, it produces anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via the production/release of cytokines, substance P, bradykinin, histamine, serotonin, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO), and it induces a substantial leukocyte migration. Further, Estragole gives protection against bacteria and viruses. The objective of this review was to briefly discuss the natural sources of Estragole, its chemistry, its extraction, its bioavailability, absorption, distribution, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and its biomedical effects in vivo or in vitro are discussed in this review. The market for Estragole, as well as its regulatory framework also explained in this study.

Flurbiprofen: Determination of safety profile, analgesic effect, and interaction with lipoic acid in murine

Naktal M. Alberifki; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2023.136615.2599

 our study aimed study aimed to detect and investigate the safety profile of flurbiprofen and evaluate the analgesic effects of the tail immersion and writhing tests, as well as its interaction with lipoic acid as an analgesic for visceral pain in mice. The up-and-down manner described by Dixon was utilized to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) and the median analgesic dose (ED50), the safety criteria were calculated, mathematical equations were applied, and the interaction between flurbiprofen and alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated using the writhing test. The LD50 of oral flurbiprofen was 1147.4 mg/kg, and the ED50 of oral flurbiprofen was 8.6 mg/kg using the tail immersion test. The therapeutic index was 133, and the standard safety margin was 35%. The highest analgesia time was one h after dosing, which faded after 24 h. Administration of flurbiprofen 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg had an analgesic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Flurbiprofen relieved visceral pain when dosed at 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, with analgesic efficacies of 53, 56, and 65%, respectively. The simultaneous administration of flurbiprofen and alpha-lipoic acid had a synergistic analgesic effect on visceral pain. From our results, we conclude that flurbiprofen has a wide range of safety and is an effective analgesic for peripheral and visceral pain. The synergistic effect between flurbiprofen and alpha-lipoic acid may have clinical benefits, including reducing the dose of flurbiprofen when used together.

Effects of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in chicks

Rafal L. Abdulah; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 83-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133592.2260

The aim was to determine the impact of oxidative stress (OS), induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on the ketorolac plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics in the chicks. A significant decrease was observed in the total antioxidant status (TAS) measured on day 7th, 10th, and 14th of chicks age by 39, 29, and 41%, respectively compared to the control (H2O) group. By measuring the analgesic median effective dose (ED50), ketorolac’s analgesia amplified 16% in the stressed (H2O2) group. Ketorolac concentration in plasma was investigated at measured multiple times at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after the administration (14 mg/kg, IM) to 110.38, 181.46, 66.24, 13.08, 10.11, and 4.12 µg/ml at the H2O group and significantly elevated in all times measured except 0.25 and 24 h after ketorolac administration by 24, 38, 54, 199, 93, and 59 % to be 136.45, 250.88, 102.03, 39.13, 19.55, and 6.55 µg/ml in the H2O2 group, respectively. The values of AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞, Cmax, and Kel in the stressed chickens that were administered ketorolac were elevated by 59, 19, 38, and 43%, respectively, whereas other parameters like MRT, t1/2β, Vss, and Cl were reduced by 25, 30, 56, and 37% respectively compared to H2O group. The results showed that the H2O2-inducedOS amplified the analgesic action of ketorolac in a chick model, besides its modification of the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac. 

Neurobehavioral toxicity of copper sulfate accompanied by oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in chicks' brain

Shahad I. Alnuaimi; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 53-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133416.2224

The aim is to investigate the sub-acute neurotoxic effects of copper sulfate in chicks on motor and neurobehavioral activity and its relation to oxidative stress and histopathological changes in chick brain tissue. Thirty chicks were employed in this experiment, randomly separated into 5 groups of 6 chicks. They were given the following concentration 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% of LD50. Each of the chicks is put through the following behavioral tests response to tonic immobility test, righting reflex, testing the motor activity of the chicks inside the open field box. Orally LD50 was 772 mg/kg, Recording an inhibition in the animal's movement in the open field and an increase in the chicks' dormancy duration. The effects are directly proportional to the increase in the chicks' dose. Copper sulfate in 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% of the LD50 showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration, while 15% of LD50 recorded a significant decrease in glutathione and cholinesterase activity. All doses substantially decreased total antioxidant capacity in brain and liver tissue. Chick brain of copper sulfate 15% of LD50 shows in the cortex of cerebrum severe gliosis, satellitosis, perivascular and periaxonal edema, necrosis (karyorrhexis) of neuron, and apoptosis. The rest of the concentrations had histopathological alterations proportionate to the rise in the given dose. We concluded from this work that high concentrations of copper sulfate in the brain generated oxidative stress and histopathological alterations, which influenced chicks' neurobehavior and motor activity in the open environment. 

The pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and its interaction with dexamethasone in chicks

Sahar K. Abdulhamid; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 137-142
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133338.2209

The present study aims to investigate the influence of dexamethasone administration on the pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and its plasma concentration as well as its pharmacological interaction in a chick model. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50s) of phenylbutazone and dexamethasone are separately evaluated as 5.60 and 0.63 mg/kg, IP, and their ED50s are estimated and reduced to 1.76 and 0.19 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The type of pharmacological interaction between phenylbutazone and dexamethasone is synergistic as determined by the isobolographic analysis. The phenylbutazone administration at 11.20 mg/kg, IP has plasma concentrations of 39.83, 66.17, 48.00, 35.30, 26.50 and 13.33 µg/ml in the estimated times of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, respectively. These concentrations are increased to 57.00, 384.17, 210.67, 138.67, 65.50 and 50.10 µg/ml as dexamethasone 1.26 mg/kg, IP is given by 43, 426, 339, 293, 147 and 276%. Phenylbutazone pharmacokinetics are increased and result in an elevation in an area under the curve (AUC0-∞) 196%, area under the moment curve (AUMC0-∞) 140%, elimination rate constant (Kel) 50%, and maximum concentration (Cmax) 426%. However, other parameters are reduced to include half-life (t1/2β) 33%, mean residence time (MRT) 18%, steady state of the volume of distribution (Vss) 78%, and clearance (Cl) 60%. The overall findings reveal a synergism as a type of pharmacological interaction between phenylbutazone and dexamethasone. In addition, a change in phenylbutazone pharmacokinetics and its plasma concentration which improves phenylbutazone therapeutic efficiency in the chick model is noticed.

Simultaneous determination of pethidine pharmacokinetics in rats: The impact of tramadol coadministration

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Zainab T. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 261-267
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133824.2307

The rats model has never thoroughly investigated the influence of tramadol on plasma pethidine concentration besides pethidine pharmacokinetics. Individually, analgesic ED50s for pethidine and tramadol are estimated as 3.55 and 24.21 mg/kg, i.p. Subsequently, their measures decreased to 1.65 and 11.27 mg/kg, i.p., when both were given in combination at 1:1 from ED50s. Tramadol and pethidine have a form of synergistic analgesic interaction, which is therefore classified as a pharmacodynamic interaction. Pethidine (7.1mg/kg, i.p.) reveals the plasma concentration of 369.00, 493.33, 373.33, 305.33, 306.33 and 247.67 µg/ml that was measured over distinctive times of 0.25,0.5,1,2,4, and 24 hours. At the same time, the concentration of plasma levels of tramadol and pethidine (48.42 and 7.1mg/kg, i.p., correspondingly) declined to 229.33, 268.33, 233.00, 198.33, 195.67 and 180.33 µg/ml by 38, 46, 38, 35, 36 and 27%, respectively. Tramadol affected the pethidine pharmacokinetics through an elevation in the area-under-curve (AUC0-∞) 49%, area-under-moment-curve (AUMC0-∞) 343%, mean-residence-time (MRT) 137%, half-life (t1/2β) 136%, and the distribution volume (Vss) 64%. Other estimated pharmacokinetic measures were reduced which included maximal concentration (Cmax) 47% and elimination rate constant (Kel) 60%. In general, the findings revealed a synergism as a mode of pharmacological interaction between pethidine and tramadol, in addition to a change in pethidine pharmacokinetics, which could improve pethidine effectiveness in the rat’s model.

Neurotoxicity of xylazine in chicks

Muna H. ALzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin; Douaa H. Haitham Alsanjry

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135299.2463

Despite the widespread use of xylazine in veterinary medicine, studies on its neurotoxicity are limited. So, our current study aims to reveal its neurotoxicity in chicks by determining the (LD50) of xylazine in Dixon's procedure. Moreover, it aims to study the effects of a small and repeated dose of xylazine on neurobehavioral test and the toxic doses of xylazine on the concentration of (glycine and glutamate) in the plasma of chicks and on the brain tissue after 60 and 90 minutes of injection. The LD50 of xylazine by injection into the chest muscle was 26.65 mg/kg. The injection of xylazine at a dose of 3 and 6 mg/kg in the chest muscle for three consecutive days caused an inhibition in motor activity within the open field as well as a significant elevation in the tonic immobility test response, injection of xylazine at doses 48.96 mg/kg ,60 and 90 minutes after the injection led to a significant increase in the glycine concentration as well as a significant decrease in glutamate after 90 minutes in the plasma of chicks, accompanied by histological variation in the brain tissue characterized by necrosis of neurons, vasogenic edema, neurophagia, cavities, infarction, necrosis of Purkinjean cell with decrees in the number of it. Our results revealed that xylazine had neurotoxic effects in chicks, represented by inhibition of neural behavior and motor activity within the open field, accompanied by a change in the concentration of glycine and glutamate in the plasma of chicks and histological variation in the brain tissue of chicks.

Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks’ model

Tamara K. Al-Najmawi; Muna H. Al-Zubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1119-1124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133188.2188

Ivermectin is a very safe drug; however, there are many studies on its toxic effects in different animals due to sensitivity, misuse, or accidental overdose. This study aimed to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and identify possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin toxicity. The LD₅₀ of ivermectin was determined by the Dixon method. The acute toxicity signs of ivermectin were induced at doses of 131.5,2629 and 394.5 mg/kg orally. The therapeutic effect of flumazenil on ivermectin poisoning was also studied. Administration of repeated doses of ivermectin for five consecutive days was recorded to measure the neurobehavioral within the open field and tonic immobility test. The oral LD₅₀ of ivermectin was 525.9mg/kg. The acute signs of poisoning on ivermectin-treated chicks were lethargy, ataxia, tremor, diarrhea, recumbency, and death. Flumazenil at a dose of 0.1mg/kg significantly reduced the toxicity signs induced by the ivermectin in chicks, especially tremor and ataxia, and prevented death. The administration of ivermectin at 26.3, 52.6, and 105.2 mg/kg doses led to a significant decrease in motor activity through a significant increase in the time of starting the movement and a decrease in the number of cross lines. We concluded that ivermectin has a neurotoxic effect in chicks when used in high doses; the results also indicate a potential clinical application of flumazenil for treatment side effects and toxicity of ivermectin, as well as ivermectin, has depressant effect in chicks represented by open-field activity.

Interaction of meloxicam and phenylbutazone on the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice

Yaareb J. Mousa; Khalil A. Khalil; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1011-1016
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132859.2140

The reason for the recent study was to inspect the therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam and phenylbutazone alone with their analgesic interaction and their subsequent inhibitory interaction at the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice. Meloxicam and phenylbutazone had the analgesic-median effective doses (ED50s) of 15.57 and 119.73 mg/kg, i.p., respectively, given once to mice separately as determined by the up-and-down procedure using a hot plate method. The estimated analgesic ED50s for meloxicam and phenylbutazone combination were at 12.84 and 98.75 mg/kg, i.p., correspondingly when given together at a ratio of 1:1 of their ED50s. The isobolographic analysis reveals that the analgesic interaction between meloxicam and phenylbutazone was antagonistic, as indicated by the interaction index of 1.65. The ELISA technique was used to estimate the cyclooxygenase-2 activity, reflecting that meloxicam or phenylbutazone significantly inhibited the cyclooxygenase-2 activity by 72 and 90%, respectively, compared to the control group. The combination composed of meloxicam and phenylbutazone has a lower limit of inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-2 activity (33%) in comparison to meloxicam or phenylbutazone. Meloxicam and phenylbutazone coadministration were significantly different from the control, meloxicam, and phenylbutazone groups concerning the cyclooxygenase-2 activity in mice. The sum of the data concluded that meloxicam and phenylbutazone have an excellent analgesic efficacy when administered alone. In contrast, the mixture of these two drugs has no benefit because of the antagonistic interaction at cyclooxygenase-2 in mice.

Protective effect of propolis on liver and kidney injury caused by methotrexate in chicks

Maab A. Fadel; Manahel A. Abdullah; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1067-1061
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133021.2162

The current study aimed to explain propolis's protective effect on the liver and kidney damage caused by methotrexate (MTX). A total of 80 chickens at one day old were used and divided into three groups; the first group was the control group, the second group received the propolis, the second group was treated with MTX, and the fourth group received both propolis and treated with MTX. After 15 days of experimental, all chickens were euthanized, and blood samples and liver and kidney tissue were collected. The result showed that the treated group with MTX showed an increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, AP, urea, creatinine, and uric acid in comparison with both the control and propolis group, while in the group treated with both Propolis and MTX showed serum level of AST, ALT, AP, urea, creatinine, and uric acid similar to that recorded in both in the control group and MTX group. The liver sections treated with methotrexate showed hyperplasia of fibrocytes in the portal area with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells represented by macrophages, and coagulative necrosis in affected hepatocytes, clear vacuoles in the hepatocytes, massive infiltration of macrophages. Sections of the liver treated with methotrexate and propolis explain a marked decrease in fatty degeneration, with few infiltrations of mononuclear inflammatory cells around portal areas. The liver section from the propolis-treated group and the control group showed typical hepatic tissue architecture. The kidney sections treated with methotrexate showed coagulative necrosis in the endothelial cells, glomeruli appearing irregular in shape, and hemorrhaging in the extracellular matrix. The sections of the kidney treated with methotrexate and propolis explain a marked rise in the renal tubules with the typical feature of a healthy one. The section of the kidney from the propolis treated group and control group showed typical architecture of renal tissue. In conclusion, propolis greatly protects against MTX's toxic effect on chicks' liver and kidneys.

The protective impacts of lipoic acid on diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity in broiler chicks

Marwa R. Abdul-Ghani; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1023-1027
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132915.2148

Alpha-lipoic acid is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound that shows free radical scavenging actions and potent antioxidant properties on the metabolites of other cellular oxidants. The investigation of the defensive activity of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) counter to diclofenac triggered liver and kidney damage in broiler chicks was the goal of this research. Chicks (7 days old) were distributed into four groups of six chicks each. The first group was the control received propylene glycol, the second group was injected intraperitoneally with Alpha-lipoic acid 80 mg/kg, the third group was injected intraperitoneally with diclofenac sodium at a dose of 2 mg/kg, and the fourth group was treated with ALA at 80 mg/kg and diclofenac at 2 mg/kg together. The trial continued for seven days. One day after the latest treatment, all the chicks were sacrificed by cutting jugular veins; blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Diclofenac causes a significant increase in ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea, while the coadministration of ALA with Diclofenac caused a significant decrease in ALT, AST, Creatinine, and Uric acid. Alpha-lipoic acid may benefit from counteracting diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity due to antioxidant effects.

Pregabalin potentiates the analgesic effect of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks: Isobolographic analysis

Qutaiba M. Mohammed; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 931-937
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132586.2108

The study aimed to reveal pregabalin’s median effective analgesic dose (ED50) and determine the type of analgesic interaction with tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks. The electrical stimulator device was used to detect pain before and after treatment, and through ascending and descending in doses and depending on the up and down method, the median effective analgesic doses were determined for all drugs used in the study, and then the interaction experiment was conducted at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of pregabalin with each of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol of their individual ED50 values, the results were subjected to the isobolographic analysis to determine the type of interaction. Results showed that ED50s for pregabalin, tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks were 156.5, 0.82, 5.65, and 10.74 mg/kg, respectively. Concomitant administration of drugs pregabalin: tramadol, pregabalin: diclofenac and pregabalin: paracetamol at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 36.2:0.18, 64.3:2.3 and 64.3:4.3 mg/kg respectively. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs interaction. The calculated interaction indexes were 0.45, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively. We conclude from the outcomes that the analgesic interaction was synergistic between pregabalin and tramadol significantly, while the analgesic interaction of pregabalin with both diclofenac and paracetamol was also synergistic, but to a lesser extent.

Antidiabetic of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel ethanolic extract on alloxan induced diabetic mice

Tridiganita Solikhah; Cinta Atsa Mahesa Rani; Mela Septiani; Yan Arengga Syah Putra; Qonita Rachmah; Gahastanira Permata Solikhah; Bodhi Agustono; Maya Nurwartanti Yunita; Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 797-802
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132178.2061

Diabetes is a disease characterized by high blood glucose due to the abnormal response of the cells in the body on produced insulin or insulin resistance. Indeed, the treatment for diabetes mellitus lasts for a lifetime and causes various side effects, such as headache, hypoglycemia, vomiting, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Interestingly, Dragon fruit has potent antidiabetic activity and without side effects. Thirty Wistar mice were included in the study. Alloxan with a dose of 150 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally to all groups except the standard control group. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and employed throughout the study. Mice were divided into five groups: standard control group without alloxan, diabetic control group with alloxan, treatment group of 100 mg/kg and 300mg/kg H. polyrhizus peel extract, and positive control group with 600 µg/kg glibenclamide. All treatments were given orally. Blood glucose level was checked on day 1, 7, and 14 on all groups using Accu-check instant glucometer. This study revealed that administration of alloxan to the diabetic control group significantly increased blood glucose level compared to the normal control group on day-1, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of H. polyrhizus peel extract and glibenclamide effectively decreases blood glucose levels, especially on day-7 and 14 compared to the control group (P<0.05).

Assessment of the analgesic effect of Alpha-lipoic acid by three acute pain models

Marwa R. Rehab; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 803-807
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132184.2062

Alpha-lipoic acids are Known as a good analgesic in neuropathic pain, especially in diabetic patients. This research aimed to assess the analgesic activity of ALA by three acute pain models using broiler chicks. We used electrical stimulation, hot water test, and formalin test to elicit acute pain. The up and down method was used to calculate the median effect of the analgesic dose. The ED50 of ALA was 45.18 and 74.56 mg/kg intraperitoneally by electrical stimulation and hot water test, respectively. We demonstrated that the peak of analgesic effect was after one hour by using different doses and different times. ALA at 0, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally produces a dose-dependent analgesic effect by formalin test. In conclusion: ALA induced analgesic activity, probably by closing voltage-gated calcium and or voltage-gated sodium channels. These outcomes show that therapeutic doses of ALA can affect pain and may mask or reduce nociception induced by acute pain models.

In vitro study of curcumin calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (Curcumin-NPs) impacts on the meriz goat’s coccidian oocysts

Mohamed R. Ali; Saad M. Bayati; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 809-814
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132196.2067

Nanoparticles biosynthesis has an essential and increased role in delivering medical compounds. Calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (CaCO3-NPs) were prepared as a stabilized amorphous and incorporated with herbal curcumin extract as an anticoccidial agent in vitro. CaCO3 - NPs were tested against local meriz goat coccidian oocysts. Concentrations were used 2, 4, 8, 16, 30 and 50 mg/ml shows oocysticidal effects and sporocystidal effects at concentration of 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 µg. Sporulation inhibition assay was used for 24 and 48 hours. Results of significant oocysticidal effect were seen to inhibit in the concentration of 30 - 50 mg/ml and able to inhibit the sporulation of meriz coccidian parasite oocysts at a rate of 92.54±3.51%. The sporocysticidal effect was also significant with a curcumin nanoparticles concentration of 400-1000 µg/ml with a rate of 98.1±2.11%. The stability of prepared curcumin nanoparticles was examined against various pH levels 4.01, 7, and 9.21 at multiple temperatures 4, 25, 60, and 100°C. Investigation after 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours of treatment occurs according to various treatments. Stability was assessed by spectrophotometric indicated significant reductions for pH 4 and 9 after one hour of treatment and at the temperature of 60°C and 100°C after 12-24 hours of treatment. These results reflect promising hopes of exploiting CaCO3 curcumin nanoparticles to eradicate coccidiosis as they are composed of and prepared from natural substances.

Expression of Ki67 in submandibular salivary glands of rabbits after BTX injection: Histological and immunohistochemical study

Abdullah A. Ahmed; Jawnaa K. Mammdoh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 611-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131101.1919

This study aimed to examine the possible histological effects of local injections of BTX in rabbits submandibular SGs and to find the dose-dependent and time relationship between injections and study immunohistochemistry expression of Ki67. Thirty male rabbits randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits for Each) 1st group: control (without treatment), 2nd group treated with 5U of BTX and 3rd group treated with 10U of BTX, five animals of each group were sacrificed in 1st week of treatment and another five animals sacrificed in 4th week of treatment. The rabbit was anesthetized then injected with the BTX in the gland. The histopathological changes in Group 5, 10 Unit BTX (1st week) were vacuolar degeneration of mucous acini cells, degeneration of serous acini cells, while the lesions showed hyperplasia and necrosis of epithelial cells lining striated ducts, necrosis of serous acini epithelium. The Diameter of mucous acini were found to be significantly increased in 10 Unit BTX groups. During the 1st and 4th weeks, the surface area of the striated ducts in the 5- and 10-unit BTX groups increased significantly, and the number of striated ducts in the 10 Unit BTX group decreased significantly when compared to the 1st week period of the same group. BTX groups revealed moderate to weak positive cytoplasmic reactivity for Ki67 protein in the parenchymal tissue of the glands. We conclude that BTX causes histological changes in the salivary gland as well as affecting Ki67. This data could be used in a future study to investigate the usage of BTX in cancer treatment.

Effects of Hypericum perforatum on serum lipid vascular systems in mice

Zena S. Hamed; Rana R. Abed; Mohammed S. Almashhadany; Marwan M. Merkhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 525-530
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130708.1868

Herbal products are increasingly used against lipid to attenuate its negative impact on vasculature system. However, there are uncertainty regarding the best administration approaches and preparation of herbal product to be used due to variation in absorption rate and extent with subsequent impaction on the lipid levels. The aim of the present study was comparing the pharmacological and analytical aspects of soaked versus powder form of Hypericum perforatum; a well-known anti-hyperlipidemic herbal product, using atorvastatin drug as a reference drug for comparison in addition to controlling groups (on/off lipid diet) handled as an additional control group. To conduct this research, the hyperlipidemia mice models were created by exposing the mice to a fatty diet and using H. perforatum and atorvastatin for evaluation. The plant extracts were also analyzed for active constituents. The results indicate that the plant analysis detected the presence of different antihyperlipidemic agents and the plant has effectively reduced plasma lipid parameters in exposed mice compared to control group; especially when taken forms of the plant was used. The study concluded that; soaked H. perforatum extract shown an effective reduction of lipid parameters and analysis of which revealed the presence of herbal active constituent which might be utilized in industrial pharmacy for new drug innovation.

Evaluation the antihyprlipidemic effect of apigenin flavonoid in mice

Zena S. hamed; Ahmad Sh. Altaweel; Khalid A. Shaban; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 279-283
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130008.1718

The study’s aim was to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of apigenin in mice as a model. Healthy adult albino mice of either sex were selected to use for this study. Four groups of animals were formed of 5 mice each. Animals Group 1 served as a negative control and fed the standard diet and tap water. Groups 2,3 and 4 were fed fatty diet and 1% water with H2O2 for 90 days to induce hyperlipidemia. After hyperlipidemic induction, group 2 served as a positive control, whereas group 3 was treated orally with apigenin 50 mg/kg/day for 14 constitutive days. Group 4 was treated by rosuvastatin (an antihyprlipidemic drug) orally at 7 mg/kg for 14 constitutive days. Blood samples were collected from all of the animals at the beginning of the study to measure the lipid profile. Then these were rechecked again after 12 weeks of feeding a high-fat diet, and then at the end of the experiment for the treated groups. The results demonstrated that the apigenin at 50mg/kg significantly reduced hyperlipidemia manifested by decreased TC, LDL-C, Triglyceride and elevation of HDL-C in comparison with the positive control group. The results, obtained by apigenin were the in accordance with those of the standard drug rosuvastatin for TC and LDL-C. This study concluded that apigenin lowered plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in mice. 

Hepato-renal and hematological effects of flunixin and silymarin coadministration in rats

Imtithal A. Mohammed; Khalid A. Shaban; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 367-373
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130323.1800

The study aimed to explore the ameliorative effects of silymarin when administered with flunixin on the liver, kidney, and blood components in rats. The animals were divided into four groups; each one consists of five rats. The first group was served as a control. The second and third groups were treated with silymarin 200 mg/kg b.wt, p.o and flunixin 2.5 mg/kg b.wt, i.p respectively. The fourth group was treated with silymarin and flunixin concurrently. The involved rats were treated for seven consecutive days by a single daily dose. Following the treatment, the biochemical analysis ALT, AST, ALP, Urea, and Creatinine, blood analysis parameters RBC, HGB, HCT, WBC, and PLT, and a histopathological examination liver and kidney were studied for the involved animals. The results showed that flunixin increased the levels of ALT and AST and the concentrations of Urea and Creatinine, and the total number of WBC. Also silymarin caused a remarkable decrease in the flunixin adverse effects on the liver and kidneys. This was reflected from the histological features observed from the diverse tested groups. Based on these findings, the authors concluded that silymarin has the ability to reduce the harmful effects of flunixin on both the liver and the kidneys.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the broiler chicks model

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 327-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130163.1746

No former studies are dealing with the pharmacological (pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics) interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the chicks' model. The median effective doses (ED50s) for nefopam and tramadol produces analgesia has been estimated each alone as 9.24 and 0.83 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The interaction concerning nefopam and tramadol combination was estimated by isobolographic analysis to be 2.91 and 0.25 mg/kg, IP. The kind of interaction between nefopam and tramadol was synergistic as indicated by the interaction index 0.61. The analgesic efficacy of the combination was significantly different from nefopam and tramadol administered alone. Nefopam plasma concentration 18.48 mg/kg, IP for different measured times 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours 33.25, 27.10, 15.05, 13.61, and 2.45 µg/ml while the concentration was increased once coadministered with tramadol 1.66 mg/kg, IP by 22, 26, 43, 45, and 81% been 40.72, 34.27, 21.53, 19.76, and 4.43 µg/ml, respectively. Nefopam pharmacokinetic profile comprised of area-under-curve (AUC), area-under-moment-curve (AUMC), mean-residence-time (MRT), half-life (t1/2β), maximal concentration (Cmax) amplified after tramadol is coadministered with nefopam by 52, 260, 23, 15, and 22%. The elimination constant (Kel), distribution volume (VD), clearance (Cl) were diminished 13, 25, and 29%, similarly. The sum results suggested a synergistic interaction between nefopam and tramadol along with a modification in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which improve the therapeutic efficacy of nefopam in the chickens besides, advocate using these two drugs as preanesthetics in veterinary medicine.

A Comparison between ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-midazolam or all of them to induce balance anesthesia in rabbits

Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 499-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130618.1852

The objective of this projectwas to study the induction of smooth anesthesia characterized by good induction (hypnosis), analgesia and good recovery with mild side effects caused by drugs. The effect of using Ketamine with both xylazine and midazolam KXM was investigated in adult rabbitsand compared with the positive control group that was administered with ketamine alone K at 40 mg/kg i.m, and with ketamine - xylazine group KX at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively, and with ketamine - midazolam group KM also at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively. Administration of xylazine and midazolam each one alone at 4 and 2 mg/kg I.M induced analgesia in a dose-dependent manner through a significant elevation of the electrical voltage after injection when compared with its value before injection. A minimum doses of a mixture KXM at 20,2 and 2 mg/kg i.m respectively, induced good hypnosis with rapid induction and long duration with recovery periods without significant variations in vital physiological parameters (respiratory rate, heart rate, and rectal temperature) and some biochemical parameters (GPT and GOT and glucose level) comparing with groups K, KX and KM. The outcomes of this work were revealed to the induction of proficient general anesthesia that was described by effective hypnosis with analgesic efficacy throughout the administration a minimum doses of ketamine/xylazine/midazolam combination in rabbits.

Effect of boric acid on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabbasi; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129497.1653

The aim of this study to explore the therapeutic effect of boric acid on the neurobehavioral (motor activity) level, and histopathologic changes in the brain, liver and kidneys against fluorosis. In this study rose chicks have been used and determined medium lethal sodium fluoride dose at 346.5 mg/kg orally. The chicks divided into four random groups each one consists of 10 chicks. The first group considered to be a control group, the second received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride, the third group received 10 mg/kg of boric acid and the fourth received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride and boric acid at the same previous dosages. After two weeks of daily treatment, neurobehavioral measures were taken, the use of boric acid has a major effect to improve the neurobehavioral measurement and develop complications of ALT, AST, creatinine, Ca, MDA. The results indicate that boric acid may be a therapeutic agent against the fluoride toxicity of the brain, liver and kidney. This result support by histopathological changes which represented by inflammation, congestion of portal vein and dilation of sinusoids in the liver and vacuolation, vasogenic edema and gliosis in the brain and Kidney of showed segmentation of glomeruli, dilation of Bowman’s space, necrosis of epithelial cells renal tubules and hemorrhage of NaF group, while the liver of the NaF with boric acid group showed an improvement the results of histopathological examination of the liver, brain and kidneys compared to the NaF group alone. The results revealed that boric acid has a preventing effects against fluoride after two weeks of treatment with boric acid.

Therapeutic effect of taurine on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabsy; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 223-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129854.1692

The study aimed to investigate if taurine could help reduce sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in chicks. The chicks in this study were divided into four equal groups, each with eight chicks: the control group, sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg group, taurine 3 g/kg group, the fourth group was dosed with each of the sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg and taurine 3 g/kg groups all groups were dosed orally. The dosing was set at 5 days/week for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, the group treated with taurine alone or with sodium fluoride showed an improvement in neurobehavioral and motor activity, as evidenced by a reduction in the duration of chick immobility in the immobility test and an increase in the number of squares cross in the open field test compared to the group treated with sodium fluoride alone. The level of ALT enzyme and calcium in the group treated with sodium fluoride increased significantly compared to the control and taurine group alone, and with sodium fluoride, AST and creatinine levels increased significantly after 4 weeks of sodium fluoride treatment compared to the other groups. When it came to measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione, the sodium fluoride group alone showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde and significant decrease in glutathione after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment when compared to the control and the other groups. The histopathological examination confirmed the previous findings, with the histological sections of the liver, kidney, and brain showing a significant improvement in the group treated with sodium fluoride and taurine after four weeks of treatment. We conclude from this study that taurine has a clear therapeutic effect against oxidative stress, as evidenced by behavioral and motor behavioral effects, as well as levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde, and liver function enzymes, and serum creatinine, as well as histopathological examination of the brain, kidneys, and liver. 

Acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of lambda-cyhalothrin in chicks

Shahaad A. Alrawe; Muna H. ALzubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 191-200
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129674.1678

A Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is classified as a synthetic type II pyrethroids, available in the local market, used to eliminate insects, which is widely used for spraying homes. This study aims to reveal the acute and subacute toxic effects of LTC in chicks as a biological model. The acute (LD50) by up and down method recorded through 24 hrs. The signs and toxicity scores were estimated, the sub-acute toxicity effects of LTC in the open-field activity and tonic immobility test, body-weight and histopathological effects were recorded. The oral LTC LD50 in chicks was 228.5 mg/kg. Oral administration of LTC at doses 57.12, 114.25, and 171.36 mg/kg, which represented 25%, 50%, and 75% of LD50 respectively, caused signs of toxicity such asdepression with wing dropping, feathered by closed eyelids, gasping, and recumbency. LTC causes a significant decrease in chick’s weight, locomotor activity in the open field activity represented by increase latency to move, and decrease the number of lines crossed. The liver and brain show histopathological changes such as congestion, focal infiltration of mononuclear cells, hemorrhage, coagulative necrosis, and vasogenic edema. In the brain, the lesion was represented by shrunken in purkinji, demyelination of axon and hyper atrophy of astrocyte, the lesion was more severe in both organs when exposed to a high concentration and for longer periods. Our results demonstrated that LCT has a moderate toxicity in chicks, and causes behavioral and histological toxic effects, especially with sub-acute toxicity. Therefore, we do not recommend using it, and restricted application in homes and agriculture.

Nefopam and ketorolac: Isobolographic analysis of analgesic effect and pharmacokinetic profile in chicks

Omar Y. Jassim; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 145-150
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129540.1660

There are no prior studies on the pharmacological interaction between nefopam and ketorolac and on their pharmacokinetics in the chickens. The median analgesic effective doses (ED50s) of nefopam and ketorolac were estimated individually as 8.39 mg/kg, i.m. for each drug. Thereafter, their values were determined together in combination as 2.63 and 2.63 mg/kg, i.m. after administration at the ratio of 1:1 of their ED50s. The pharmacodynamic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac was designated as synergistic through the interaction index 0.62. Plasma concentrations of nefopam alone 16 mg/kg, i.m. in different measured times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours were 34.07, 31.34, 22.53, 19.03, 14.81, and 10.37 µg/ml, whereas the plasma concentrations increased to become 44.67, 43.52, 45.71, 32.83, 20.96, and 22.54 µg/ml when administered with ketorolac 16 mg/kg, i.m. by 31, 39, 103, 73, 42, and 117 %, respectively. The changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of nefopam included increases in area under curve (AUC0-∞) 130%, area under moment curve (AUMC0-∞) 210%, mean residence time (MRT) 35%, half-life (t1/2β) 27%, time maximum (Tmax) 300% and concentration maximum (Cmax) 34%, whereas other values were reduced which included elimination rate constant (Kel) 21%, volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) 45% and clearance (Cl) 3%. The net results indicated a synergistic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac in addition to an alteration in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which may enhance nefopam therapeutic efficacy in chicks.

Effect of nefopam in normal chickens and its relationship to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 7-12
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127013.1433

The objective designated to discover the analgesic effect of nefopam in the normal (non-stressed) chickens and its possible alteration due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress (OS) in 7-14 day old chickens. The analgesia of nefopam has been increased by 47% in the stressed chickens by measuring the analgesic Median Effective Dose (ED50) value. This value was 9.10 mg/kg, IM in the normal chickens where it became 4.80 mg/kg, IM in stressed chickens. There is a significant rise in the antinociceptive action of nefopam 18 mg/kg, IM by 88% in the stressed group of chickens in comparison with the normal one elicited by an electro-stimulation and formaldehyde 0.05 ml of 0.1% tests for induction of nociception. The observations showed several significant stimulatory modifications in the neurobehaviour when nefopam treated with a subtle dosage 1 mg/kg, IM in the stressed chickens concerning the latency to move, squares crossed and time of the tonic immobility response test. Significant damage was detected in the liver function when nefopam injected at 18 mg/kg, IM in stress chickens in comparison to normal one by 28, 33 and 65% as estimated through Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate trans-aminase (AST) and Alanine trans-aminase (ALT) concentrations in the serum, respectively. The sum of data findings indicated that H2O2-inducedOS increased the analgesic activity of nefopam in the chickens; despite the changes occur on the neurobehaviour and liver function. The dose of nefopam should be reduced when preparing the therapeutic regimen in the stressed animals.

Acute toxicity of metronidazole and its interaction with chlorpyrifos in chicks

Douaa H. Alsanjary; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 13-18
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127035.1442

Metronidazole is antimicrobial drug for human and animal use, The more characteristic side effect associated with use high dose of metronidazole is neurotoxic signs, some of these signs that recorded in animal represented by ataxia and tremor, there is limited information is available on the pharmacological profile of metronidazole in birds The aim of our study explain some of its neurological effect in chicks by its interaction with one of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos that have well-known excitatory effect on nervous system. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos were determined depending on up and down method. The intraperitoneal and oral LD50 of metronidazole were 516.9 mg/kg, 3061.8 mg/kg respectively. The oral LD50of chlorpyrifos was 13.705 mg/kg, intraperitoneal treatment of metronidazole with Oral treatment of chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:1, 1: 0.5, and 0.5:1, respectively of LD50at the same time increased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the isobolographic analysis showed that the points of interaction occurred above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each; while oral treatment of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:0.5 LD50at the same time decreased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the point of interaction was above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each in conclusion we found that isobolografhic analysis for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in different percentages and routs of treatment reveal to antagonist effect despite the similarity in the toxic signs.

Study the analgesic effect of diclofenac and silymarin coadministration in chicks

Yasser M. Albadrany; Ahmed S. Naser; Mohammad M. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127065.1453

The study aimed to investigate the analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac and silymarin in chicks. The up and down procedure was used to assess the effective median analgesic dosages (ED50s) of diclofenac and silymarin administered intraperitoneally either alone or at the same time in chicks. Also, Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were measured by using the formalin test. Isobolographically, ED50s of drugs were assessed for the manner of interaction between both. Formalin testing also supervised analgesic and anti-inflammatory coadministration impact of diclofenac and silymarin at doses 5 and 40 mg/kg and 2.5 and 20 mg/kg respectively. Analgesic ED50s for diclofenac and silymarin in chicks were 9.3 and 76.6 mg/kg separately. Concomitant administration of drugs at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 and 0.25:0.25 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 2.3:18.6 mg/kg and 2.2:16.5 mg/kg separately. ED50s isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs. Additionally, coadministration of both drugs had effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, as seen by formalin test, led to a significant rise in latency to lift right foot beside a significant decline in foot lifting frequency when compared with control value, the anti-inflammatory reaction was demonstrated by a significant decrease in foot thickness compared to control value. In conclusion, the data indicate that diclofenac and silymarin coadministration controls acute pain synergistically, and suppress inflammatory reaction.

The neurobehavioral effects of flumazenil in chicks

Ahmed S. Naser; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 783-788
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.128443.1577

Flumazenil is choosy and competitive GABA receptor blocker that serves as an antidote to benzodiazepines overdose. Its administration in humans and some animal’s model is connected with nervousness, anxiety responses, or seizures attacks. The objective of this study was to scrutinize the neurobehavioral reaction as well as sedative and anxiolytic actions of flumazenil in chick’s model. The Median effective dose of flumazenil injected chicks was 0.114 mg/kg i.p. Flumazenil at 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg diminished the locomotors activity, prolonged the period of tonic immobility and have anxiolytic action in chicks. Flumazenil at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg cause mild sedation in chicks. Flumazenil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg have antagonistic effects in chicks sedated with diazepam at 10mg/kg. Flumazenil demonstrated fairly unexpectedly a depressant effect in the open field test and sedative and anxiolytic bias attention test in the chick’s model. These findings indicate that the impact of flumazenil is indicative of the characteristics of partial agonists when given on its own and antagonist when given after diazepam according to the neurobehavioral tests.

Effect of diclofenac on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in quail

Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 777-781
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128440.1576

This study investigated the Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin alone or with diclofenac sodium in adult Japanese quails. The quails divided into two groups, the first group was dosed intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin, the second group was injected by 50 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin intraperitoneally then directly injected intraperitoneally by diclofenac sodium at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by the spectrophotometer at wavelength 290 nm. Co-admiration of ciprofloxacin with diclofenac lead to appearing ciprofloxacin in plasma at 12.02, 6.4, 5.3, 3.30, 1.36, 0.60 μg/ml in the periods of 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours post-injection. A significantly increased in the concentration of ciprofloxacin at times of 0.25, 0.50, 1, and 2 hours post-injection and appeared at a concentration of 6.96, 3.09, 2.2, and 0.72 μg/ml. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin when given with diclofenac sodium was represented by 91% decrease in elimination constant rate, 53% decrease in elimination half-life t1/2, 64% decrease in volume of distribution to steady-state, 22% decrease in clearance, 28% increase area under curve, 41% decrease in area under moment curve, 53% decrease in mean residence time and 37% increase in maximum plasma concentration. Our study concludes that co-administration of ciprofloxacin with diclofenac sodium lead to alteration in some pharmacokinetic data of ciprofloxacin like effect on the plasma concentration and volume of distribution and clearance. This effect must be considered when therapy by ciprofloxacin with diclofenac, the co-administration of diclofenac with ciprofloxacin decrease the elimination of ciprofloxacin 

A Comparative pharmacological study on moxidectin and propolis ointment in rabbits naturally infested with Psoroptes cuniculi

Mohamed F. Dakroury; Asmaa A. Darwish

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 725-731
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128171.1560

Ear mange is an annoying problem for all animal breeders including rabbit's breeders. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of moxidectin and 10% propolis ointment on rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi with especial reference to some related biochemical parameters diagnostic and prognostic value. For this purpose, a total of thirty-two rabbits: 8 non-infested rabbits (control group (CG) and 24 naturally infested rabbits were used. Infested rabbits were equally divided into three groups: 1st group remained without treatment (diseased group (DG)), 2nd group was treated with moxidectin ((0.2 mg/kg body weight) S/C (MG)). Propolis ointment (10%) was applied topically to rabbits of the 3rd group (PG) once daily. Ear scrapes and blood samples were taken on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. The ear scraping was examined microscopically and the biochemical parameters were estimated and statistically analyzed. The results cleared that moxidectin achieved the complete healing (14th day) faster than propolis ointment (21st day), but MG suffered from a significant (P<0.05) hypoalbuminemia, increased liver and kidney function tests and cortisol levels when compared to PG. Liver and kidney function tests and cortisol yielded good values of the area under the curve, sensitivity%, specificity%, likelihood ratio, PPV%, NPV%, accuracy rate% in DG, MG (except creatinine) and PG. The study concluded that propolis had a prominent antipsoroptic effect without inducing hepatic or renal toxicity. Liver and kidney function tests and cortisol may be useful markers for rabbit mange diagnosis and prognosis and following up its treatment. 

Comparative antinociceptive effect of aspirin and aspirin nano particles in semisolid formulae in mice

Labeeb H. Al- Alsadoon; Maha T. AL-Saffar; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 535-539
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127138.1467

Aspirin are commonly used analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic drug in medicine, oral route is the most common one for drug administration as a result it will produce different adverse effects like peptic ulcer, nephropathy, and thrombocytopenia even with low and continuous therapeutic dose, so the alternative topical route is preferable with minimal adverse effects and effective concentration.Therefore, in the present study was to investigate whether the antinociceptive property of aspirin would enhance if used aspirin as nanoparticles after preparing it in several forms (gel, cream and ointment). Thirty-two healthy male mice weighing 30-35 gm. were used in the present study. The animals were divided as a randomized design. Each mouse was treated topically. All drug concentration of aspirin was prepared using gel, cream and ointment as vehicle and topically application on fore and hind paw of experimental animals. Pain was induced by application of hot plate for assessment of latency of pain stimulus. Time from placement to jumping or hind paw licking was recorded as latency of response. The result showed that the median effective concentration (EC50) for analgesic effect of aspirin (gel, cream, and ointment) were 0.848, 0.958 and 1.00% respectively while these EC50s were decrease when used nanoparticles aspirin (gel, cream and ointment) to 0.72, 0.657, and 0.701% respectively. In conclusion, topical applied of aspirin will produce effective therapeutic antinociceptive effects in mice although gel preparation produce a better response followed by cream, then ointment due to pharmacokinetic properties. Also nanoparticle preparation will produce superior response in all forms, whether Nano aspirin is prepared in gel form, cream or ointment.

Pathological and biological effects of treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin in rabbits

Assia BOUMEZRAG; Houari HEMIDA; Fadhela Amina BOUMEZRAG; Fadh SMAIL; Sekhou CISSE

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 443-450
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126977.1425

Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide, which is widely used to control a large variety of agricultural pests throughout the world as well as in Algeria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LCT exposure on body weight, hematological and blood biochemical parameters and to evaluate histopathological changes in some organs. Twelve (12) healthy local rabbits with a mean body weight of 1.8 kg were divided into three groups of four each: First group was kept as control (CTRL), second group (LCT 10) and third group (LCT 20) were given oral LCT at 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively three times a week for 25 days. The results showed no significant difference in mean body weight between groups. Blood analysis revealed no significant variation in hemogram between LCT-treated groups and control group. Serum biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase (P˂0.05) in total cholesterol content and glucose in LCT10 and LCT20, respectively. Total protein increased significantly (P˂0.0001) in LCT 20 group. While a very high increase (P˂0.0001) in the activity of asparatate aminotranferase (AST) was recorded in both treated groups, no change was observed in the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). LCT treatment exhibited severe histopathological changes in liver, kidney, lung and brain. It is concluded from the study that LCT produced serious toxic pathological alterations and metabolic dysfunctions in rabbits.

Effect of plasma isolated Orexin-A on the regulation of metabolites in male rats

Rana F. Jasim; Thikra A. Allwsh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 451-457
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127001.1429

This research includes the isolation and purification of Orexin-A from the plasma of healthy human via various biochemical techniques, it was proposed the therapeutic role of orexin on hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation and it has been suggested to study the effect of isolated orexin A on the metabolism of lipids and glucose in normal and hyperlipidemic rats, a high level of orexin-A had been found only in second peak (B) isolated by gel filtration chromatography (using Sephadex G-50) and showed (34.5) fold of purification, also, the effect of isolated orexin-A on some clinical parameters had been studied in normal and hyperlipidemic male rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with orexin-A at a dose of 1μmol/kg of body weight/day for one month. The results, obtained before treatment and after two and four weeks of treatment, had been showing a significant decrease in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, malondialdehyde and hyperinsulinemia, while there was a significant increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. It was concluded that orexin-A had an important role in regulating the metabolism of glucose and lipids, treatment of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, and decreasing lipid peroxidation in normal and hyperlipidemic rats.

Age-related anesthetic effect of ketamine in the chickens

Yaareb J. Mousa; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 501-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127100.1458

Little works of literature studied the anesthetic effect of ketamine in different ages of broiler chickens, hence this study intended to examine these alterations in chickens at different ages. The doses of ketamine that causes hypnosis in 50% of the chickens (hypnotic ED50) were 7.90, 7.90 and 6.80 mg/kg, intramuscular (IM) at 10, 20 and 40-day-old chickens, respectively, whereas the doses that resulted in analgesia in 50% of the chickens (analgesic ED50) were 12.92, 12.92 and 6.50 mg/kg, IM. The onset, duration and recovery from ketamine hypnosis were in an age-dependent manner and significantly longer at 40-day-old, although the depth and sensitivity of chickens to ketamine hypnosis rises as the age advancing forward. Ketamine analgesia is more effective at 40-day-old. There are neurobehavioral deficits, according to the age of chickens when injecting ketamine in a subtle dose of 1 mg/kg, IM. The concentrations related to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), tested in the serum, reveal that the 40-day-old chicken group differs significantly from 10 and 20-day-old chicken’s groups which all treated with single ketamine dose (25 mg/kg, IM). In conclusion, the present work discovered that ketamine’s efficacy, including hypnosis, analgesia and neurobehavioral activity will be increased as the age is progressing, suggesting that the veterinarians need to take it into account when preparing the dose regimen of ketamine anesthesia for different ages of animals.

Determination of the lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of lead chloride and its accumulation in different organs of Gambusia affinis fish

Amal A. Al-Kshab; Omamah Q. Yehya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 361-367
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126853.1401

In the present research, mosquito fish Gambusia affinis have been exposed to lead chloride during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in order to evaluate the lead chloride lethal 50 (LC50) concentration and the Its residue in certain organs of fish. Usage of the EPA computer software based on Finney Probit Analysis method has been statistically tested for the data collected LC50 values of G. affinis if 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were found to be 59.4, 55.9, 51.1 and 49. 0 mg/L, respectively. LC50 decreased as mean exposure times. 20 fish were placed in each concentration of four sublethal concentrations 20 and 25 mg/L for two acute periods 24 and 96 hours as well as 10 and 5 mg/l for chronic periods 15 and 30 hours. The testes were carried out as three replications, the accumulation of lead in various fish organs was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The finding revealed that the accumulation of PbCl2 on different organs of G. affinis be time dependent fashion and Pb-content in organs increased significantly time dependent at chronic exposure as compared as acute- exposure.

Biomarkering metabolic activities of the tapeworm Khawia armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915) in association to its fish host Barbus grypus (Hekle, 1843)

Bushra H. Al-Niaeemi; Maruah H. Dawood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126518.1339

The present work was aimed to study the relation between the tapeworm Khawia armeniaca infection and some metabolic extents in both the parasitic tapeworm and the parasitized fish Barbus grypus, using LDH and transaminase activities as a vital connotation. 57 adult Barbus grypus fish (Hekle fish) were hunted from Tigris river - Rashidiya area -North of Mosul - Iraq. The adult tapeworm K. armeniaca were collected from small intestine of the fish. Extract of Liver and intestinal tissues of the infected and uninfected fish in addition to tapeworm tissues were prepared. Some macromolecules concentrations and LD, AST and ALT activities were assayed using colorimetric methods.The results revealed that concentration of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids were lesser significantly at P≤0.05 in the intestinal tissues of infected fish 176.92µg/gm wet weight, 147.21µg/gm wet weight and 112.14 mg/dl respectively than that of uninfected fish 264.70µg/gm wet weight, 223.71µg/gm wet weight and 176.37 mg/dl respectively. Concentration of lipids in the tapeworm tissues was relatively high 130.67mg/dl. As for Liver LDH activity, it was significantly higher in the infected fish 279.90 IU/L than that of the uninfected fish 253.56 IU/L. whereas, liver ALT activity was diminished significantly at P≤0.05 in the liver of uninfected fish. On the other hands, there were no significant different in liver AST activity between the infected and the uninfected fish. There were significant differences at P≤0.05 between activities of the three enzymes in both infected and uninfected fish and tapeworm tissues. On the other hands, AST activity 35.46 IU/L was relatively higher than ALT activity 27.22 IU/L in tapeworm tissues. It is concluded that activitiesofliver LDH and ALT were significantly affected by intestinal tapeworm infection in Hekle fish and may considered as bioindicators for tapeworm infection in fish.

Effect of levofloxacin on some body tissues in mice

Rand A. Abdullah; Faten D. Taee; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126416.1316

Levofloxacin is a third generation of fluoroquinolones family. It is commonly used in the treatment of a several bacterial infections. However, misusing antibiotics impose damage to hepatocytes and myocytes. The present study was conducted to access the effect of levofloxacin on tissue histology in mice taking in consideration dose and duration of exposure. 24 matured male Albino mice were divided into 3 groups, Group G1: was considered as a control group. They received normal saline intraperitoneally / day. Group G2: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 10 days. Group G3: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. Microscopic examination of liver sections of group G2 revealed severe congestion of blood vessels in the portal area and central veins with inflammatory cells infiltration. While in group G3, Apoptosis, Degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with giant cell transformation were noticed. In addition to kupffer’s cell activation. Heart sections showed moderate congestion of blood vessels with edema in between the myocytes and inflammatory cells infiltration. Group G3 Necrosis with pyknosis of cardiac muscle nuclei was noticed. We concluded that levofloxacin induces toxic effects on liver and heart according to the dose of administration and duration of treatment.

Evaluation of the heavy metal content in the muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in groundwater in Basrah province, Iraq

Arafat Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126491.1336

The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Cd) in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in groundwater in Khor Al-Zubair, Basrah province (in the south of Iraq) were assessed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. XRF is a powerful technique for element analysis in different environmental samples with many advantages compared with conventional laboratory methods. The mean concentration of the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish (Cr= 11.42, Ni= 2.75, Hg=1.53, Pb= 1.93, and Cd=4.42 mg/ kg dry weight) exceeded the recommended maximum acceptable levels proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), The commission of the European Communities (EC), and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The results suggest that the tested fish muscle tissue was not safe for human consumption and that the groundwater in the Khor al-Zubair area is possibly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly owing to industrial activity.

Toxic effects of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats

Yamama Z. Alabdaly; Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany; Entisar R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 121-128
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126435.1322

This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity in rats of heated and un heatedbutylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Sunflower oil dissolved BHT, heated at 98±2ºC by a water bath. The animals were divided into five groups. The control group dosage orally with sunflower oil, the first group treated with 250 mg/kg BHT, the second group treated with 250 mg/kg heated, BHT the third group treated with 500 mg/kg BHT and the fourth group treated with 500 mg/kg heated BHT. All groups received oral treatment. The results showed a substantial reduction in motor activity relative to other groups at a dose of 250 mg/kg heated BHT. There was a substantial distinction in the negative geotaxis test in groups of 500 mg/kg heated and un-heated BHT, while a cliff avoidance test in the heat treated dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg was observed in the cliff avoidance test compared to other groups. A significant reduction occurred in all groups in the pocketing and dorsal tonic immobility test. The pathological changes of heated BHT groups were more severe than those of un-heated BHT groups especially the dose of 500 mg/kg heated BHT. It represented by coagulative necrosis, muscle atrophy in heart, interstitial pneumonia, serofibrinous exudate, pulmonary emphysema in lung and neuronal degeneration, microgliosis, myelin vacuolation and satellitosis in the brain. The study concluded that heated BHT at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg had toxic effects to motor and neurobehavioral activity, and histopathological changes in the brain, heart, and lung.

Effect of methotrexate and aspirin interaction and its relationship to oxidative stress in rats

yamama zuher Alabdaly; Mohammed Ghassan saeed; Hadeel mohammed Al-hashemi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 151-156
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126490.1335

This study aims to investigate the effect of aspirin in methotrexate toxicity (increase or decrease) relating to oxidative stress and histopathological changes of the liver and kidney in male rats. Twenty rats were divided into equal 4 groups, the first is considered control group, the second was treated with methotrexate in a dose of 10 mg/kg, the third was treated with methotrexate and aspirin in doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg respectively, the fourth was treated with aspirin alone with a dose of 30 mg/kg. All doses were given by daily oral dosage for 4 constitutive days. The result revealed a significant decrease in the concentration of both glutathione and albumin and a significant increase in the concentration of both malondialdehyde and ALT enzyme in the two groups treated with methotrexate alone or in combination with aspirin as compared to the control group. The histopathology revealed that the severity of lesions was in the group of methotrexate with aspirin, group of methotrexate only and a group of aspirin respectively, which are representing by coagulative necrosis and hypertrophy of hepatocytes in the liver while the lesions of kidney were atrophy of some glomeruli and renal cystic formation. The study concludes that aspirin increases the toxic effect of methotrexate at the level of oxidative stress concomitant with the occurrence of hepatic and renal toxicity.

Assessment of the withdrawal period for ractopamine hydrochloride in the goat and sheep

Mochamad Lauardi; Bambang Hermanto; Tjuk I. Restiadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 405-410
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126114.1237

Ractopamine hydrochloride often used as a bronchodilator, but its β-adrenergic agonist effects on un-striated muscle and its withdrawal time have not been assessed for Etawah goats and sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the safe time to slaughter goats and sheep post-treatment with ractopamine. Five clinically healthy adult goats and sheep (20 kg body weight) were treated with a single dose of ractopamine (1 mg, intravenously). Whole blood was sampled from the jugular vein at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min post-treatment. Ractopamine as a veterinary drug was analysed using HPLC at wavelength 225 nm. The concentrations at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min were 817.156 ± 13.460 µg.mL-1, 554.468 ± 50.157 µg.mL-1, and 294.588 ± 52.845 µg.mL-1 in goats and 706.266 ± 89.856 µg.mL-1, 579.194 ± 45.664 µg.mL-1, and 209.36 ± 54.797 µg.mL-1 in sheep, respectively. The withdrawal times in goats and sheep were 1141.710 ± 255.85 h and 989.741 ± 167.633 h, respectively, no drug residues detected. The safe time to slaughter goats after administration of 1 mg of ractopamine was approximately 3 months and 5 days post-treatment at a safety factor of 2, which was later than the sheep at 2 months and 22 days by a safety factor of two.

Anticlastogenic properties of Quercus infectoria galls extract against DMBA induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice in vivo

Sherzad I Amedi; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125930.1188

This study aimed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria galls extract (QIGE) as anticlastogenic. The effect of QIGE was tested in mice (5 groups for each test) treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA), the strong site-specific carcinogenic agent. In this study, the QIGE show no signs of toxicity, a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice caused a great increase in number of chromosomal aberrations, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and reduction in the percentage of mitotic index (MI) (cytogenetic markers). Oral pre-treatment and post-treatment of QIGE for 14 days at dose 2 gm/kg b.w. daily to DMBA-treated animals greatly reduced in number of micronucleus formation, chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosomal break, chromatid breaks, ring chromosome, dicentric chromosome and fragments. Besides, mitotic index frequency increased comparing with the positive control. The data suggest that QIGE has potent anti-clastogenic effect against DMBA-induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of albino male mice and it may have a protective effect against the mutagenicity of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

Are promising mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine abolish COVID-19 activity? A review study

Yaareb J Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Fanar A. Isihaq; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127049.1449

To explore the benefits of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), (which is an antimalarial agent that has shown effective pharmacological properties in different malarial conditions and immunological disorders, particularity in chloroquine-sensitive malaria), in the treatment and prevention of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because HCQ was recently advocated to minimize the pathogenicity of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to shed the light on a possible mechanism by which HCQ can defeat the COVID-19, a disease characterized by the WHO as a pandemic. Literatures from Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were cast-off to search the literature data. The keywords used are antimalarial agent, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2 and Zinc sulfate.The review summarizes the benefits of using HCQ against COVID-19 through exploiting the ability of this antimalarial agent in ameliorating the body immunity, inhibiting and/or delaying the viral glycosylation by increasing the pH inside the host cell and also via suppressing the viral transcription and replication through the formation of a complex structure after binding with zinc. We concluded thatthese interfering properties of HCQ support human immunity to fight against the progression of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the therapeutic efficiency of HCQ against the COVID-19 can be enhanced by the concurrent administration of zinc sulfate.

Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of xylazine and it’s interaction with metoclopramide in the acute pain model in mice

Khalid A. Shaban; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Gada A. Faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 383-388
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126070.1226

The study was designed to qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of metoclopramide and xylazine each alone or as a concomitant administration in mice. Adult albino Swiss mice weighing 20-30 mg used in all experiments. By using the hot plate test, the individual analgesic dose (ED50) of metoclopramide and xylazine detected depending on the up and down method. Isobolographic analysis used to evaluate the type of interaction between two drugs at the ratio 0.5:0.5 of individual ED50 for each drug at the level of antinociception effect. Simultaneously administration of the double dose of individual ED50 and low doses (sedative, non-analgesic doses) of both drugs, also evaluated at the level of central and visceral analgesia using a hot plate and writhing response test respectively. The individual ED50 of xylazine and metoclopramide was 10.8 and 25.6mg/kg IP respectively. A synergistic interaction at the level of analgesia explored between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 which represented as decreased in ED50 of metoclopramide and xylazine by 58.75 and 58.15% respectively. The animal suffered from only slight sedation and docile. Simultaneously IP administration of xylazine and metoclopramide at double dose of ED50 for each drug-induced significant increase in latency time of thermal response, as well as a significant decrease in writhes number, which induced by acetic acid in comparison with control groups. The percentage of analgesia at sub analgesic doses of a concomitant administration of both drugs was 100% in comparison with each drug alone. These results suggested safe and good use of both drugs in veterinary medicine.

The effect of nicotine per inhalation on the diameter and epithelium thickness of the seminiferous tubules of rats

Yew S. En; Hardany Primarizky; Widjiati Widjiati; Epy Luqman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 209-215
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125725.1141

This study aimed to assess the level of testicular damage by observing the changes in the diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in rats that exposure to nicotine per inhalation. Thirty adult male rats were used and divided into five equal groups and treatment as follows for 20 days; Control group NaCl 0.9%, P1 nicotine 0.5 mg/kg, P2 nicotine 1.0 mg/kg, P3 nicotine 2.0 mg/kg and P4 nicotine 4.0 mg/kg. All groups were given treatment per inhalation for twenty days. At the end of treatment and the rats were sacrificed testes were collected for histopathological preparation. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining and the sections were examined for histopathological changes. There results showed that nicotine administration induced varying degrees of structural damage to the seminiferous tubules, as the decreased in diamater and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules. The diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in four experimental groups reduced compared to the control group. This study proves that nicotine administration does decreases the spermatogenesis of rats by reducing the diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in testes. It also proves that the level of testicular damage is directly proportional to the dosage of nicotine administrated to male rats.

Toxicological and neurobehavioral effects of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin insecticides in mice

Khaerea A. Mustafa; Banan Kh. Al-Baggou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125738.1144

The aim of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin in mice separately and to study their toxic and neurobehavioral effects. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were determined depending on up and down method. The oral LD50 of chlorpyrifos was 193.05 mg/kg and of deltamethrin was 15.71 mg/kg in mice. The oral administration of chlorpyrifos 155 mg/kg and deltamethrin 12.56 mg/kg represent 80% of LD50 resulted in acute signs of poisoning that manifested by dyspnea, salivation and lacrimation at 100%, piloerection, straub tail, tremors, convulsions and death at 70% for chlorpyrifos and 60% for deltamethrin and writhing reflex at 20% for chlorpyrifos. Oral administration of chlorpyrifos 310 mg/kg and deltamethrin 24 mg/kg increased severity of toxicosis signs as a percentage of piloerection, straub tail, tremors, seizures and death 100%. As well as decrease the onset of tremors, convulsions and death, writhing reflex which appears at 20% for chlorpyrifos and 10% for deltamethrin. After three hours of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin oral administration at doses represent 20% and 10% of LD50 there are significantly hypoactivation in open-field activity, significantly increased in the duration of negative geotaxis performance, significantly decreased in head pocking and swimming scores compared to control group. In conclusion we found that deltamethrin was more toxic than chlorpyrifos this is based on the LD50 value. However, the signs of toxicosis and neurobehavioral effects produced by both toxicants were not differential and could not be associated with the toxic level.

Analgesic effect of silymarin in chicks

Ahmed Salah Naser; yasser albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 273-276
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162906

There were no studies about the analgesic effect of silymarin in the chicken. This study examined antinociceptive effect of silymarin given intraperitonially in 7-9 day-old chicks. The median effective dose of silymarin for the induction of analgesia to electric stimulation in the chicks was 65.3 mg/kg. Silymarin at 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg revealed analgesic effect to electric stimulation in chicks in dose dependent manner in comparison with the control group. The analgesic effect of silymarin at 120 and 240 mg/kg started at 15 min after injection and lasted after over 120 min of injection were as silymarin at 60 mg/kg the analgesic effect started at 15 min after injection and declined before 120 min of injection. The peak of analgesic effect for 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg were at 60 min after injection. These results indicate that silymarin have an analgesic property in the chicks model.

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of theaflavin in healthy and experimentally induced liver damage rabbits

Sarhan Rashid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 235-242
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162962

This current work aimed to study the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin in healthy and hepatotoxic rabbits for comparison. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly raised (P<0.05) after administration of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) Carbone tetrachloride (CCL4) subcutaneously. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated following administration of theaflavin intravenously and orally at 30 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively to both healthy animals and those with damaged liver. Theaflavin concentration in blood measured by HLPC at various time intervals. Pharmacokinetic results showed that theaflavin concentration when given orally reached its maximum concentration after 5 hours in healthy rabbits. While in hepatotoxic group, theaflavin concentration achieved the highest level in blood after three hours. Theaflavin bioavailability in hepatotoxic animals was significantly high and almost double its bioavailability in healthy animals. Results revealed that the area under curve (AUC) value in rabbits with damaged liver was significantly greater than in healthy group (P<0.05). t ½ of theaflavin after intravenous administration was 6.3±0.82 hour in damaged liver group which is significantly higher than that in healthy group (P<0.05). Theaflavin mean concentration in hepatotoxic group required more than 3 hours to decline to 352±19.4 ng/ml when compared to its concentration in healthy group which is required only 45 minutes to decrease to 310± 9.5 ng/ml. In conclusion liver has critical impact on the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin especially bioavailability and biotransformation and this research recorded reasonably large differences between healthy and liver damaged groups regarding theaflavin pharmacokinetic parameters which may result in negative influences on its biological efficacy when used in the treatment of various diseases.

Effect of diphenhydramine and phenobarbital in the concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde and glucose in plasma and brain of chicks treated with pentylenetetrazol

Maab Fadel; Fouad K. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 97-104
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163173

The aim of this study was to develop convulsion by giving pentylenetetrazol and to observe the interaction of this drug with diphenhydramine and phenobarbital in chickens with an evaluation of the interaction of these drugs and their effect on the biochemical parameters. The chicks were divided into five groups, each group containing six birds, control group injected with normal saline at 2ml/kg, second group injected with PTZ at56.5 mg/kg I.P., third group injected with diphenhydramine at dose 2.5 mg/kg I.M., before 20 minutes from injected of PTZ at dose 56.5 mg/kg I.P., forth group injected with phenobarbital at dose 10 mg /kg I.M., before 20 minutes from injected of PTZ at dose 56.5 mg/kg I.P., fifth group injected with diphenhydramineat dose 2.5 mg/kgI.M. and phenobarbital at dose 10 mg /kg I.M. before 20 minutes from injection of PTZ at dose 56.5 mg/kgI.P. The results showed that group which was treated with PTZ alone showed a significant decrease in glutathione concentration in plasma and brain compare with the control group. All groups except the group treated with PTZ diphenhydramine and phenobarbital showed a significantly increased in malondialdehyde concentration in plasma and brain compare with control group, as well as, all groups except the group treated with PTZ and phenobarbital appeared significantly increased in glucose concentration in plasma compared with the control group. In conclusion, the study appeared oxidative stress result in the lipid peroxidation which main reasons for decreasing of glutathione concentration and increasing of malondialdehyde concentration in chicks.

Protective effect of Silymarin against kidney injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in male rats

Measer Abdullah Ahmed; Hussien Mohammad Tayawi; Mohammed Khalil Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 127-130
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125529.1051

The herbal drugs have a protective effect for kidney function against chemical toxicity. 24 male rats divided into 4 groups and treated as following, control group administrated orally with 1ml/kg. B.W physiological solution (0.9%), One dose Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) 3 ml/kg. B.W, Silymarin 150 mg/kg. B.W and Silymarin150 mg/kg. B.W with CCl4 3 ml/kg. B.W for 30 days. Oxidative stress resulted by CCl4 caused increasing in Creatinine, Urea, total protein, Albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreasing in Glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum and congestion, degeneration and desquamation in kidney tissue. We concluded that Silymarin showed protective effect via increasing GSH, decreasing creatinine, Urea, total protein and MDA levels in serum and protect kidney tissue in rats.

Effect of bee venom on rat glucocorticoid receptor beta: a therapeutically model of rheumatoid arthritis

A. Al-Hassnawi; R. Mahdi; H. AL-Rubaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 127-133
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153838

This study aim to use bee venom as alternative medicine for treatment of rats induced with rheumatoid arthritis. Forty rats used for this purpose which divided into four groups, three groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis and one group considered as control group that subdivided into control negative and control positive (rheumatoid group). All the groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis injected with bee venom with different doses (high 40 μg/kg and low dose 10 μg/kg) and different times (after 5 days and after two weeks from CFA injection and along with CFA injection). Glucocorticoid receptor beta used as a biomarker which suggested function as negative regulator determine glucocorticoid sensitivity in target tissues and as an endogenous inhibitor for glucocorticoid action. The high and low dose showed significantly decrease in GCRβ as compared with control group and non-significant between rheumatoid and both along CFA and after 5 days of CFA injection. The pretreatment high and low dose revealed significant decrease in GCRβ compared with Rheumatoid group and non- significant as compared with control group in low dose bee venom treatment. Also, depending on hand paw edema assessment, a weak evidence about anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom has shown. From our data we concluded that bee venom prevents GCRβ elevation especially in pre-treatment group this may result assess to anti-inflammatory effect but the safety of this toxin still needed for another study. Clinically no evidence about the treated effect of bee venom on rheumatoid arthritis in rat.

Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

S.M. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 25-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126715

Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mgkg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age). On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mgkg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µgml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48%) and decrease in the half-life (32 %) and increase in volume distribution (29%) and increase in clearance by (96%) and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33%) and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%). These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

Survey study: The antibacterial drugs used for treatment of the animals in the teaching veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province

Y.J. Mousa; E.R. Mohammad; S.S. Ramadhan; M.M. Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126718

The aim of this survey is to collect data relating to antibacterial drugs used to treat different animals in the veterinary teaching hospital in the province of Kirkuk, which is taking place for the first time at the province level for the purpose of knowing the types of drugs most commonly used and the outcome whether these drugs used are optimal. Data were collected from the veterinary teaching hospital in Kirkuk province for 6 consecutive months and for the period between 1/7/2016 and until 1/1/2017 period included both the summer and autumn and winter seasons. The results show that the most commonly used drugs were Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline-Colistin compound by 26, 57 and 36% in cattle, sheep-goats and Poultry, respectively. While the least commonly used drugs were Tylosin, Gentamicin and Gentamicin-Tylosin compound by 10, 5 and 4% in cattle, sheep-goats and poultry, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this survey, we recommend the use of Penicillin-Streptomycin compound because it has a synergistic effect against most of the resistant bacteria and not to increase usage of Oxytetracycline because of its side effects and lack of effectiveness in recent times due to the abundance of resistant germs. Also, using antibacterial drugs, we would like to note the need for optimal scientific use of these drugs and to give attention to the period in which it takes the medicine to withdraw from the animal body before milking animals or slaughtering it, so that the bacterial resistance does not develop against these drugs in the future.

Dual effect of changes in temperature and pH on stability of cefquinome in vitro

L.A. Kafi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116860

The current study includes the dual effect of changes in temperature and pH on stability of cefquinome in vitro. Cefquinome was exposed to different phosphate buffer solution with a pH of 6,7 or 8 and each one was exposed to different temperatures which were 30̊C,50̊C or 70̊C in a water bath during 24 hours. Samples were collected after dissolving, after exposure to different pH and after 1,3,6,12 and 24 hours of exposure to different temperatures and pH values. Microbiological assay was used to analyze the samples. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in cefquinome concentrations (antibacterial activity) in alkaline medium with increasing temperature within the time. In conclusion cefquinome is affected by increasing temperature in alkali medium which causes a decrease in its concentration that will affect efficacy of cefquinome due to the degradation process.

Sequential changes of serum and liver subcellular oxidants and antioxidant concentrations in silymarin treated male rats

J.A.A. Al-Sa'aidi; H.J. Shoabith

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116862

The present study aimed to investigate the role of silymarin as an antioxidant and/or it activity in induction of the endogenous antioxidants in intact adult male rats. Seventy males were randomly devided into control and  silymarin treated groups (35 each), and were drenched with drinking water and silymarin suspension (200 mg/ kg b.w) daily for 40 days. Each group was allocated to 5 equal subgroups; sacrificed before treatment (0 day), and after 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of treatment. At the end of each period, males were anaesthesized, dissected and blood samples were obtained for assessment of MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. liver samples (1 g) have been removed and homogenized for assessment of liver subcellular MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. At the end of each periods, serum and liver subcellular MAD concentrations showed no significant changes between groups, whereas SOD, CAT, and GSH concentrations significantly increased at 10, 20, 30, and 40 day periods in silymarin treated males compared with control. It can be concluded that silymarin antioxidant activity is of pharmacological value not only as an antioxidant by itself but also as an inducer of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants even in normal intact male.

Pharmacological safety and therapeutic efficacy of propolis preparation in experimental mastitis of ewes

K.O.S. Al-Jeburii; H.F. Hassan; D.A. Abaas

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 399-411
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168765

This study for the evaluation safety of uses propolis at (1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) concentrations (alone and synergistically with antibiotic) inside the intramammary the lactation period of the healthy ewes, compared with treated and control groups. The result of safety test indicated that the uses of propolis as intramammary infusion inside the teat cause some effects that disappeared later, like elevation of SCC in milk, decrease in milk yield, prolong residue time for propolis, in addition to the hardness in the consistency of the udder and enlargement the supramammay lymph node when compared with treated and control groups. Also there is significant difference between groups in milk composition. The second trial was to evaluate the Pharmacological activity of propolis preparation and synergism preparation and compared it with antibiotic and control groups in treatment of experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis in the udder of ewes, after confirmed the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus strains by Api 20 Staph, one isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was selected based on (its resistance to 10 of 12 antibiotic tested). The infected dose 5 cfu/ml of bacterial suspension was selected to experimentally induced Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in 25 ewes, After the appearance of infection 18 -72 hours post inoculation of bacterial suspension of Staphylococcus aureus in the udder by intramammary route in ewes, the ewes treated paraenterally by antibiotic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic drug and locally in four groups (propolis 1% and 10%) (8 ewes) which appeared very mild side effects, synergism between propolis and antibiotic (4 ewes), antibiotic (12 ewes) and (1 ewe) as control group. The results showed systemic cure in all ewes but with differences in the local clinical cure between groups according to the type of antibiotic and its company production without bacterial cure in all groups , so that make the ewes under the risk of reinfection under any stress condition.

Thin layer chromatographic investigation of some veterinary drugs

Zena S. Hamed; Basil M. Yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 53-55
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168712

A simple technique, using solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography for the detection and separation of a number of commonly prescribed veterinary drugs was studied. Blood and urine have been considered as possible biological samples taken from the animals. The extraction of each sample was done according to the type of the drug as it is acidic or basic, then the extract was spotted on TLC plate by capillary tube after lining the starting line first. Separations of the components of the samples were developed after running the plate in a tight lid tank containing solvent (mobile phase). The identification of separated spots were carried out after lining the end line for the solvent front then by spraying the plate with mercurous nitrate reagent for acidic drugs and acidic iodoplatinate or potassium permanganate reagent for basic drugs. The rate of flow value (Rf) for each compound was measured and the color of spots were determined. This work provides a simple and rapid qualitative technique for the detection of veterinary drugs used at therapeutic doses and in overdosage.

Formulation of oxytetracycline 20% injectable solution for veterinary use

D.A. Abbas; A.M. Saed; F. Majed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 89-93
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168744

Preparation of a new formulation of oxytetracycline 20% injectable solution was done for veterinary therapeutic use. Information about all the materials used in preparation of formula were collected from the well known pharmacopeia while analar material were provided and used to prepare about three pilot formulae, from which the final one was prepared. Stability of new formula was tested in different room environmental conditions by comparing any change in physicochemical properties concerning form, colour, transparency, pH in different storage room temperatures for 18 months as well their MIC value and bacterial inhibition rate formorethan 12 months. The results showed that the new drug proved its stability, antibacterial activity when tested both in vitro against E coli 0.78 was growth in which MIC was 0.2 µg /ml. It was also tested clinically in therapy of group of infected sheep and cows (4 each) with respiratory diseases, at the college of veterinary medicine, University of Baghdad as well as in the central veterinary hospital in comparison with other similarly infected group treated with common commercially used 20% oxytetracycline drug (Alamycin)® while control group treated with normal saline. The results showed improvement of the animals of both treated groups when compared with control one, which its animal health deteriorated and improved when treated with the formula. Both quantitative and qualitative results for oxytetracycline 20% formula as well as its physicochemical properties and steritity was tested by Board of drug and biological standardization, Iraqi Veterinary State Company (I.V, S.C.) and a certificate of approval of quality, quantity, antibacterial activity was issued by I.V.S.C. for new oxytetracycline 20% injectable solution and registered, it as new drug formulated by the College of Veterinary Medicine, university of Baghdad for veterinary use.

Synthesis of new 1,2 dithiol 3-thione fluoroquinolone esters possessing anticancer activity in-vitro

B.B. Saeed; M.A. Al-Iraqi; F.T. Abachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 115-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168748

Three 1,2 dithiole 3-thion fluoroquinolone esters (2-4) were prepared via condensation of (p-hydroxyl phenyl) -1,2dithiole- 3-thione with fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin, Gatefloxacin and Moxifloxacin). The biological activity of these compounds was assayed against 60 types of cancer cells in vitro. The compound 2 (NSC=760553) showed anticancer activity against renal cell, while the comound 4 (NSC=760555) show activity against three types of cancer cell. The expected mechanism of their activity is that 1,2dithiole 3-thione derivatives may give H2S as new gas transmitter which play an important role in the biological systems.

Effect of cypermethrin and ivermectin against psoroptic mange in sheep

M. Kh. Shindala; B. A. Al- Badrani; O. A. Abdulla; N. A. Younis; R. K. Peters

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 263-267
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168735

The therapeutic efficacy of cypermethrin and ivermectin against Psoroptes ovis mites that caused psoroptic mange in sheep was evaluated in 10 naturally infected sheep of both sex 2-5 years old. Cypermethrin solution in 1/1000 dilution at once time for treatment of first group (n=5), showed better therapeutic efficacy against natural infection with Psoroptic mange, than ivermectin which used for treatment of sheep in second group (n=5) at dose of 0.4mg/kg body weight subcutaneously for once time also, the results was evaluated dependent upon the order of severity of skin lesion during 3, 7 and 14 day post treatment. Conclusion the results of that study was showed ivermectin can be used for treatment of mild and moderate cases of Psoropteic mange of sheep, while cypermethrin was used against sever cases.

Neurobehavioral biochemical changes associated with acute administration of omega-3 in male rats

Y. Z. Salih; F. A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 83-89
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166878

The aim of the study is to determine the toxic effect of omega-3 on the neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field in male rats after 2 and 24 hr of treatment with 2000, 4000, 6000 mg/kg. The toxic effect of the drug on serum glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), triglyceride (TG) and glucose levels in male rats was also studied. In the determination of median lethal dose of omega-3, the result showed wide range of dose 1000–10.000 mg/Kg of body weight given orally without any mortality among the treated animals. The study appeared acute toxic effect of omega-3 by 4000 and 6000 mg/Kg of body weight given orally when compared with the control group. These changes were noticed by a number of neurobehavioral tests after 2, 24 hr of treatment. In open field, there was a significant decrease in the number of cross of squares and time of standing up of the rats. There was also significant decrease in numbers of head entrance in holes in pocking test. A significant increase in the negative geotaxis and cleft avoidance test was noticed after only 24 hours. In swimming test there was a significant decrease in score of swimming, while there was no significant difference in tonic immobility test after 2, 24 hr. However, there was no significant effect on all neurobehavioral tests by the dose 2000 mg/Kg the only significant decrease was noticed in number of head entrance in holes after 2 and 24 hr. In the biochemical tests, omega-3 at doses 4000 and 6000 mg/Kg did not produce a significant changes for serum GSH, MDA, TG, and glucose, compared with the control group. In conclusion, omega-3 is a non-toxic drug. Omega-3 produced neurobehavioral changes in high doses, without any significant change in lipid peroxidation, and serum GSH, TG, and glucose.

Evaluation of the therapeutic bioequivalence for veterinary formulation of cypermethrin from different origins

M.K. Shindala; K.A. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 143-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166889

The bioequivalence are comparison of therapeutic efficacy of veterinary formulations from different origins containing the same active substance thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of cypermethrin insecticides for both Jordanian and Indian origins for treatment of sheep were naturally infected with psoroptic mange in dependent on the changes of scores of infection severity, differential leukocyte count and monitor the reinfection (reappearance of skin lesions). Sheep were naturally infected with psoroptic mange and treated with dip solution cypermethrin twice (14-day interval between them) 1/1000 dilution from both origins demonstrate significantly decreased scores of infected severity at days 7, 14, 21, 28 compared with zero day (before treatment) accompanied with positive changes in the DLC manifested by significant decrease in percentages of both eosinophils and neutrophils with occurrences significant increase in percentage of both lymphocytes and monocytes at days 7, 14, 21, 28 compared with zero day (before treatment).In addition, insecticides provided protection against infection with psoroptic mange because reinfection did not occur after 4 weeks from the second treatment with insecticide.In conclusion, both Jordanian and Indian origins of cypermethrin insecticide were equally in their therapeutic efficacy.

Effect of diphenhydramine on the changes in cholinesterase activity and intestinal motility induced by imidocarb in chicks

N.K. Ibrahim; G.A. Faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 47-53
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166874

This study examines and evaluates the interaction between imidocarb and diphenhydramine on the level of cholinesterase activity and small intestinal transit (SIT) in chicks. Imidocarb at 45 mg/kg,s.c. significantly inhibited plasma and brain cholinesterases, 30 min after injection by 69 and 21%, respectively. Diphenhydramine at 5 mg/kg, s.c significantly inhibited plasma and brain cholinesterase by 29.7 and 35.7%, respectively and significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of imidocarb on plasma cholinesterase by 33.2%. Imidocarb at 40 mg/kg, s.c. significantly increased SIT 15 and 30 min after injection by 92, 100%, respectively. Diphenhydramine at 5 and 10 mg/kg, s.c., 15 min before imedocarb at 40mg/kg, s.c. significantly decreased SIT produced by imidocarb alone by 80.6 and 70.5 %, respectively and prevented the SIT when given immediately after imedocarb at 40 mg/kg, s.c. by 100%.The data revealed that diphenhydramine has a beneficial effect in controlling the SIT modulated by imidocarb in chicks and there was no adverse interaction between two drugs at the level of cholinesterase.

Immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in male rabbits treated with dexamethasone

J.A.A. Al-Saaidi; Kh.A. Dawood; A.D. Latif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 141-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168752

The potent ameliorating effect of ethanol extract of N. sativa seed on the immune system has been assessed in dexamethasone-induced immune-suppressed male rabbits. Fifty mature male rabbits were randomly assigned into five equal groups (control and four treated groups). Animals were daily treated, for 42 days, as follow: C: was orally administered with drinking water; T1: was orally administered with N.s.S.E. (1.5 g/ kg, b.w.); T2: was injected with dexamethasone (2 mg/ kg, b.w., im); T3: was combined treated concomitantly with N.s.S.E. and dexamethasone; T4: was treated with dexamethasone for 21 days followed by N.s.S.E. for 21 days. The results of body weight gain revealed significant increase in T1 and significant decrease in T2 among the experimental groups. Submandibular lymph node weights of T1, T2 and T3 were significantly higher than that of C. Kidneys weights in T2 and T3 registered significant increase compared with C. Bone weight in T1 and T4 groups was significantly higher than that of other groups. Liver weight in T2 was significantly higher and in T4 was significantly lower than other groups. Total leucocytes count and lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils percentages were significantly decreased in T1, while showed no significant differences in T2, T3 and T4 groups compared with that of control. Phagocytes activity and bone marrow mitotic index were significantly reduced in T2 group, while returned to normal in T1, T3 and T4 groups compared with control. Titers of IgM, IgA, C3, and C4 showed no significant differences among groups, while IgG titer was increased in T1 and T4 and decreased in T2. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the examined extract showed a certain immunomodulating effect. Of the immunological aspects, cellular immunity was potentially ameliorated in intact and dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressed- male rabbits.