Main Subjects : Animal Physiology

Effect of Prosopis farcta extracts on some complications (hematology and lipid profiles) associated with alloxan induced diabetic rats

Ismael H. Mohammed; Esmail S. Kakey

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125574.1089

This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl acetate Prosopis farcta extracts on some complications associated with diabetes in rats. The experimental rats of 1.5-2 months old that weighed 190-220 g were randomly divided into six groups of seven animals each. Body weight, serum glucose, hematological changes and lipid profiles were studied. Alloxan was used of induction diabetes in rats. 252 rats were used anddifferent doses of the ethyl acetate extracts of roots, fruits, and leaves of P. farcta were orally administered daily for 28 daysfornormal and diabetic rats and the effective dose was 200 mg/kg BW for each kind of extracts. The results showed that administration of root, leaves and fruit extracts of P. farcta caused improvement in body weight, blood glucose, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), hematocrit (HCT orPCV) in alloxan diabetic rats in insulin like treatment manner, with the most effective improving effect for roots extract. Regarding to the effects on total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, administration of extracts caused decrease in the total WBC and neutrophil count. Administration of root, leaves and fruit extracts of P. farcta, showed suppression in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and increasing in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) of alloxan diabetic rats. In conclusion, the P. farcta extracts possesses properties of improving some health complications accompanied diabetes in rats.

Application of magnetic technology in local quail house and hatchery on performance, reproductive and physiological traits under heat stress

Mahbuba Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 259-266
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162897

Using magnetic technology has shown major potentials in different fields especially agriculture. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the using of magnetic technology application in local quail house and hatchery on productive and physiological traits under heat stress condition. Results revealed that quail when served 0.2 T magnetically treated water (MTW) were significantly (P≤0.05) better in most productive, reproductive characteristics in the 1st experiment: eggs production, water consumption, egg weight, shell strength, estrogen conc., also improved FCR in females, all semen quality and testosterone conc. in males. Also, total RBCs count, thrombocyte, blood pH, blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), thyroxin hormone and total count of Lactobacillus spp. in small intestine. However, reduction in dead sperm, abnormal acrosome, corticosterone conc., body temperature, blood clotting time, E. coli and fungi counts in both sexes. In the 2nd experiment using of magnetic technology on embryonic development traits of local quails incubating eggs that collected from experiment 1 were significantly (P≤0.05) higher in the most characteristics at the group of 0.2 T MTW as fertility, hatchability, chicks weight, immune status of hatched chicks. While reduction in dead embryo and heterophil-to- lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. Finally, the results of 0.2 T MTW achieved superiorly gains compared with the other groups.

Assessment the level of some heavy metal in vital body fluids and blood parameters in lactating Awassi ewes

Ashwaq Ahmed Hassan; Rana amer asim Al Suleman agha; Ali Saeed Al-Chalabi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 297-301
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162908

The aim of the study was to estimate the level of cadmium, zinc and oxidative stress parameters in serum and milk as well as the blood constituents in local at the age of 3-4 years during the spring and summer seasons. Blood and milk samples were collected from 30 ewes (15 each season). The blood samples were allocated to into two tubes, for complete blood profile study and for biochemical analysis. Milk was used for biochemical tests. Blood analysis showed a significant difference between some blood values during the two seasons represented by significant increase of total white blood number, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in circulating blood of lactating ewes during summer season compared with spring season. Red blood cells number and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration did not change among the two seasons. Both mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value of lactating ewe increased significantly during spring season with respect to the summer season. The serum glutathione level showed a significant elevation during spring season compared with the summer season, while, the level of malonaldehyde and peroxynitrite free radicle remain constant during the study period. There were no significant changes in the level of cadmium in serum and milk of examined ewes, while the serum level of zinc significantly higher during the spring compared to the summer season and milk zinc level remain stable during both seasons. The study concluded variations in haematological, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum and milk concentration of Zn and Cd according to lactation season in ewes.

Effect of heat stress on sex hormones, sex organ weight and relationships with sexual puberty in male rats

hiyam matty; Ashwaq Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 63-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163089

This study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic and acute heat stress on sex hormones level and their relationship to sexual puberty in male rats. Used 45 male pups in the age of weaning, were randomly divided for 3 groups each group included 15 pups of each sex. 1st group was a control group, 2nd group exposed to chronic heat stress at 38Cº for 1hour a day since the age of weaning until onset of puberty and the 3rd group exposed to acute heat stress at 38Cº for 4 hours per day for 5 consecutive days from 35 day age of rat and each group above were secondarily divided into 3 age groups consisted of pre-puberty, at puberty and post-puberty. Results of study showed that male rats exposed chronic heat stress led to a significant increase in body weight, tail of epididymis, prostate gland weights, at onset of puberty compared with control group, with a significant decrease in body weight, testis, head and tail of epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle weights at post-puberty compared with control group. as well as a significant decrease in the level of luteinizing hormone at post-puberty compared with acute heat stress group. Males exposed to acute heat stress cause a significant decrease in the head and tail of the epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle weights and significant increase in the concentration each of testosterone and luteinizing hormones at post-puberty compared with the control group. Acute exposure to heat stress caused early sexual puberty in males to show from the early appearance of first sperm compared with the control group, while the exposure to chronic heat stress led to delay of puberty associated with a delay in the appearance of first sperm compared with the control group. It concluded from this study that male rat's exposure to heat stress affects differently on sex hormone. Acute heat stress led to reach early sexual puberty and reflected the impact on puberty when chronic exposure to heat stress.

Biochemical and histopathological study of thioredoxin reductase isolation from blood serum in normal and oxidative stress-exposed rats

A.A. Hamdon; L.A. Al-Helaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 115-124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163243

The study included investigation of effects of the thioredoxin reductase isolated from serum of human on oxidative stress induced in rats, through histopathological examination of the heart and liver, and the measurement of the biochemical parameters, which included: thioredoxin reductase, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and uric acid. Treating experimental animals with 1% hydrogen peroxide led to a significant increase in thioredoxin reductase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin compared to control group, while a significant decrease in: albumin and uric acid, but non-significant in alanine aminotransferase. As well as, a different dose 2 and 4mgl Kg of rat body weight of isolated TrxR with 1% hydrogen peroxide improved parameter levels through decrease oxidative stress that induced in rats. The results of the histopathological examination revealed slight to moderate changes in the heart, while no distinguishing changes were observed in the heart of the group treated with hydrogen peroxide and injected with enzyme in intraperitoneally with 4 mg/ kg of rat weight compared to control group. In the liver, there was observed vascular degeneration and thickening of hepatic capsule as a result of chronic congestion and degeneration in the blood vessels which after treatment with 1% hydrogen peroxide compared to control group, but there was noticeable improvement in the liver of group treated with hydrogen peroxide and injected with the enzyme in intraperitoneally with 4 mg/kg of rat weight, and these results confirm the role of the enzyme in the protection of the body from oxidative stress, the use of the enzyme can reduce the severity of different diseases.

Protective effects of coenzyme Q10 against sodium fluoride-induced reproductive disorders in male rats

Sabreen M. Momammed Ali; Ahmed Jasim Nowfal; Bara Najim Abdillah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 143-149
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125534.1056

This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective role of (CoQ10) on reproductive dysfunction of male rats induced by sodium fluoride (NaF). thirty two rats were divided into four even groups and treated for 56 days as follows: the first group served as control (C) The second group (G1) received coenzyme Q10 at dose of 10 mg/Kg.B.W; while third group (G2) received 100ppmsodium fluoride in drinking water and fourth groups (G3) received NaF 100 ppm and CoQ10 10 mg/Kg.B.W for 56 days. The results showed that exposure of rats to NaF caused decrease in serum testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormones (LH) concentrations. Whereas Administration of CoQ10 caused an increase the concentrations of theses hormones in group G3 as compared with group G2. Testicular morphometric and histopathological alterations were observed in group G2 in the form of marked microvacuolation in the basal level of germinal cells, amyloid deposited within seminiferous tubules with disarrangement and depletion of germ cells. Whereas testicular histological alterations were improved in rats treated with CoQ10. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that use of Co Q10 can alleviating the deleterious effects on male reproductive function following exposure to NaF, may be via improvement the testicular functions or other related endocrine glands.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Renoprotection by Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori; Raden Joko Kuncoroningrat Kuncoroningrat Kuncoroningrat; Suhailah Hayaza; Dwi Winarni; Saikhu Akhmad Husen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125513.1035

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the renoprotective effect of the Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp extract (GMPE) on plasma creatinine and renal proximal tubules of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. This study used 36 male Balb/c strain mice. The samples were divided into 6 groups, namely KN (normal control), KD (diabetic control), KM (metformin control), and P (treatment group) comprising: P1 (50 mg GMPE/kg body weight), P2 (100 mg GMPE/kg body weight), as well as P3 (200 mg GMPE/kg body weight). The GMPE and metformin suspension were administered orally for 14 days on the diabetic mice. The diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ multiple at low-dose of 30 mg/kg body weight daily for five consecutive days. On day 15, mice were terminated. Data of plasma creatinine and renal proximal tubule damage levels or the number of swelling and necrosis cells were analyzed. Interestingly and it showed that administration of GMPE could reduce the plasma creatinine level and the ameliorate renal proximal tubules of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In conclusion, the renoprotective effect of GMPE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice was associated with the attenuation in oxidative stress and inflammatory, which also had antidiabetic and antioxidant activities.

Physiological and histological effects of broccoli on lead acetate Induced hepatotoxicity in young Male albino rats

Sulaf Mustafa Mohammed; Majida Noori Ibrahim; Mahmood Othman Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 21-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125528.1050

The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Broccoli against lead acetate (PbA) hepatotoxicity by some physiological and histological indicators. The results showed that intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection by 12 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate once a week for 8 weeks led to an increase in the activity of Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acid phosphatase (ACP), Total serum protein (TP) and Total serum bilirubin (TSB). Liver's histological sections of lead acetate injected rats showed infiltration of inflammatory cells with sinusoid dilation, necrosis, and apoptosis of Kupffer cells. Broccoli has an ameliorative effect, that the physiological parameters and histological examination have been showed an improvement. In conclusion, lead acetate produces hepatic disorder and the potential use of Broccoli as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals protects against lead acetate hepatic toxicity.

Broiler performance response to anise seed powder supplementation

Hemin Nuradden Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 131-135
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125533.1055

The present study was conducted to evaluate growth promoting effect of anise seed Pimpinella anisum L. in broiler chickens in terms of live body weight, carcass characteristics (traits), organ weights, production traits and mortality percentage. For this purpose, four levels with 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% of aniseed powder were administered in feed from day 0 till the end of experiment (42 days of age). Positive results were obtained specially in body weight and carcass traits like dressing percentage, when aniseed was fed by broiler chicken. This study showed a significant at P<0.05 effect of different treatments on live body weight and dressing percentage, but there was no significant at P<0.05 effects of different treatments on mortality percentage. Also, there was a significant at P<0.05 effect of different treatments on Carcass cuts: breast, thigh and back percentage, but there was no significant at P<0.05 effects of different treatments on wings, heart, liver and gall bladder percentage. According to the results obtained of this study, it can be concluded from this study that additive dietary broiler chicken with anise seed improve production traits like live body weight, body weight gain, dressing percentage, FCR and production index. However, there were not significant effect on mortality and some internal body organ percentage.

Evaluation of the isolation protocols of primary cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) skin tissue

M. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153837

In this study, pieces of skin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish were collected freshly from juveniles from a privet fish farm in Duhok city, Kurdistan-Iraq. Those pieces of skin were cultured In Vitro by using two methods of explanting; direct explants and enzymatic pre-digested explants of tissue fragments. The results showed a highest cell yield (5×103 cell/ml) on passage 2 of enzymatic pre-digested tissues and higher cell growth rate in compare with cell yield (38×102 cell/ml) gained from direct explant tissues. Both procedures showed forming of clumped cells colonies in initial passages (P1 and P2), and the morphological changes were developed in both cells to show a fibroblast like appearance thereafter. Such findings are important and advantageous to suggest a faster and more efficient protocol for tissue culture cells isolation with lower cost and better isolation success as well.