Main Subjects : Veterinary Theriogenology

The Impact of Various Antioxidant supplementation on Ram's Sperm Quality, Fertilization, and early embryo development, in vitro

Saif Al-Hafedh; FATİN CEDDEN

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132426.2092

The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) is very stressful for gametes. Gametes are subjected during in vitro manipulation to many different types of stress; oxidative stress is the most prominent one, which will cause damage or alter the genetic material of the sperm and reduce the quality of the oocytes, and has a crucial impact on the possibility of developing embryos even after implantation. This study aimed to determine the influence of antioxidants on the achievement of In vitro culture (IVC) and sperm's ability to adhere to and penetrate further into In vitro maturated oocytes. For this purpose, we have incubated ram sperm using four different treatments in terms of antioxidants: melatonin, cysteamine, vitamin C, and vitamin E. They were incubated by the standard methods of maturation and capacitation of sperm. The oocytes were fertilized by spermatozoa that had been capacitated with two groups of fertilization media, the first group containing melatonin and the second group containing cysteamine. Compared with other groups, sperms treated with melatonin demonstrated hyperactivity, and the fertilization rate was significantly increased. As for the IVF medium containing melatonin, it was superior to cysteamine in embryo development rates. In conclusion, melatonin could be a promising tool for improving sperm competence for fertilizing oocytes and embryo development in sheep.

Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in buffalo cows

Dhafer M. Aziz; Barra D. Al-Watar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 233-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129858.1694

The study was conducted to evaluate the application of transabdominal ultrasonography for the determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in Iraqi buffaloes. Thirty-two buffaloes at different periods of gestation were included. The buffaloes were palpated transrectally and transabdominal ultrasonography was applied to determine the pregnancy and fetal viability status. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive value of transrectal palpation were 93.7, 100, 83.3, 90.9, and 100%, and for transrectal palpation were 78.1, 100, 58.8, 68.2, and 100%, respectively. The values of accuracy and specificity in the first trimester obtained by transabdominal ultrasonography were lower than those obtained by rectal palpation (66.6 vs. 94.4% and 62.5 vs. 90.9%), whereas the same values of accuracy and specificity were at second and third trimesters. Notwithstanding the values of the transrectal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography sensitivity were 100% in the three trimesters of buffalo’s gestation. At the first trimester of gestation, transabdominal ultrasonography required more time in comparison to transrectal palpation to get the final decision. Conversely, transrectal palpation required more time than transabdominal ultrasonography to diagnose the pregnant buffalos which were at the second and third trimesters of gestation. The transabdominal ultrasonography pregnancy diagnosis in the third trimester was faster than at the second and first trimester, a highly significant (P<0.001) negative correlation was reported between the time required for pregnancy diagnosis and the gestation age. It can be concluded that the transabdominal is a practical approach of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and determination of fetal viability in buffalo cows especially at the second and third trimesters of gestation. 

Induction of estrus using human menopausal gonadotrophin in Iraqi Awassi ewes

Elias Kh. Hussein; Uday T. naoman; Radhwan R. Alajeli

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 529-533
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127132.1466

This study aimed to induce estrus by using Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG) in Iraqi Awassi Ewes and comparison its action with Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG). The study was carried out between first of June 2018(non or earlier-breeding season) until all ewes lambing in the middle of November 2018. Sixty Iraqi Awassi ewes aged 2-4 years old and weight 35-45 kg were used in this study. Ewes were divided randomly into three groups, (20 ewes per each). All ewes comprised of intra-vaginal sponge impregnated by progesterone for 12 days. Control ewes (C) were injected intramuscularly with 2ml of sterile saline solution, HMG treatment group (HMG) were injected intramuscularly with 300 IU of HMG hormone while PMSG treatment Group (PMSG) were injected intramuscularly with 500 IU of PMSG at the same day of sponge removal. Estrus response percentages were 40% (8/20), 85% (17/20), 90% (18/20) in control (which significantly change P<0.05), HMG and PMSG groups, respectively. Estrus onset time was 71±1.9, 72±1.9, and 71±1.0 hours, respectively, also the data records no significant changes in estrus duration means which were 31±0.5, 31±0.7 and 31.0±0.5 hours, respectively in all groups. The pregnancy rate was 30% (6/20), 85% (17/20), 90% (18/20), respectively (control group significantly change P<0.05). The gestational period was 155± 1.4, 155±.1.3 and 155± 1.6 days respectively in all the groups and the twining rate were 1.1±0.3, 1.1±0.1 in both HMG and PMSG groups respectively without significant changes (P<0.05) while control group record no twining data. The result of this study recorded rise of dystocia and pregnancy toxemia which were higher in the PMSG group when compare with other groups. We can conclude that using HMG and PMSG hormones show a high rate of successful when they used in estrus synchronization programs but the birth problems need more investigation.

Study on the post-partum disorders and their relationship with the reproductive performance in Iraqi cow-buffaloes

Mohammed Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 313-317
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126771.1387

This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of various postpartum disorders on subsequent reproductive performance in Iraqi cow buffaloes. The data were collected from 172 buffaloes within private dairy buffaloes herd. In this study, the diagnosis and treatment of the affected cases with postpartum disorders (Retained placenta, puerperal metritis, uterine prolapse and vaginal prolapse) contributed in the data collection based on the parity, calving time and reproductive parameters (days to first estrus, open days, service per conception, intervals between estrus and calving interval). Cow buffaloes were divided according to their postpartum disorders into 5 groups: first group (healthy), second group (retained placenta), third group (puerperal metritis), forth group (uterine prolapse) and fifth (vaginal prolapse). The results of this study showed that a total of 74.42% of the cow buffaloes had normal post-partum and open days 121.9 days with resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 77.41 days, increased incidence of G2, G3, G4 and G5 were 9.88, 6.97, 6.97, 5.23 and 3.48%, respectively. Open days were significantly longer in buffaloes in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 compared to healthy group. In conclusions, early postpartum disorders manifested by increased days to first estrus, calving interval, days open and service per conception were longer than healthy cases in the Iraqi cow- buffaloes.

Semen collection in Rusa timorensis under general anaesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine: Clinical study

Wan-Nor Fitri; Wahid Haron; Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Siti Aimi Sarah; Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi; Muhammad Azrolharith; Zubaidah Kamarudin; Donny Yawah; Ahmad Zulhizri; Che-Amat Azlan; Yap Keng Chee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 197-205
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126614.1350

There is a scarcity of information for a reliable and safe protocol for semen collection in R. timorensis. The induction of general anesthesia by Ketamine-Xylazine in both intravenous and intramuscular routes provides valuable information for the practicality of the procedure. Five healthy and matured Rusa timorensisstags, aged more than 3 years, weighing an average of 68.5 ± 2.4 kg were selected for this experiment. General anaesthesia was conducted by using a combination of Ketamine and Xylazine at the dosage of 2mg/kg, and 1mg/kg respectively in both intramuscular and intravenous routes. The procedure was performed from April to November 2012 resulting in 30 collections. The physiological parameters included were respiratory rate, heart rate and temperature before, during and post-procedure. The onset, recovery and total time are significantly different between IV and IM route at 5.13 ± 0.88 min, 7.47 ± 1.61 min, 18.67 ± 1.47 min, and 11.67 ± 1.44 min, 11.73 ± 1.03 min and, 29.07 ± 4.01 min respectively. Meanwhile, there is no significant difference in the duration time of anesthesia between IV and IM route at 15.27 ± 3.03 min and 17.40 ± 3.55 min respectively. Both routes provide the same success rate and yield the same semen quality, however, the intravenous route is desirable due to fast induction and recovery time. General anaesthesia is integral for the restraining of wild cervidae, intravenous route of drug administration should be considered for semen collection in Rusa deer.

Effect of season on embryo production in Iraqi local black goat

Abdulstar Majeed; Ihsaan H. Al-Timimi; Mudafer N. AL-Saigh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 59-65
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125514.1036

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of season on embryo production in Iraqi local black goat. 599 female genital system of Iraqi local black goat were collected from AL-Fallujah abattoir, AL-Anbar province during the period from July 2010 to the 1st July 2011. The oocytes were collected via aspiration and slicing. Only good and fair quality oocytes were selected for in vitro maturation. Fresh semen were used from two Bucks of proven fertility for fertilization . TALP , MEM , and TCM-199 culture media were used of in-vitro maturation (IVM) and in-vitro fertilization (IFV). It has been shown that high recovery and maturation rate 87.3% and 45.6% respectively were observed at breeding season as compared with recovery rate 72.5% and maturation rate 35.2% respectively in non-breeding season. There was a significant difference (P˂0.05) in recovery rate and maturation rate between different season. It has been found that fertilization rate was 60.05% in breeding season. While it has 33.9% in non-breeding season. There was a significant difference in fertilization rate (P˂0.05) between breeding and non-breeding season. Blastocyst obtained during breeding season was 56.41% , while it was 43.24% in non-breeding season. There was a significant difference (P˂0.05) between different season. It was concluded that there is an effect of season on oocyte recovery.

Evaluation of performance rate, some hematological and biochemical parameters in Iranian Afshari breed fattened sheep fed diet containing Gundelia (Gundelia tournefortii L.)

S. Madreseh Ghahfarokhi; Amir Dehghani Samani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 33-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125515.1037

The effects of diets containing Gundelia (Gundelia tournefortii L.), which is a wild plant species in Middle East countries, on performance rate and health parameters of Iranian Afshari breed sheep were studied for the first time. Totally 60 fattened sheep in three groups were studied via receiving different diets and performance rate, hematological and biochemical parameters, which are related to animals health and also are indicator for diet's efficiency, for each groups were evaluated via laboratory methods. The results of current study show that performance rate and/or hematological and biochemical parameters in group which received diet containing Gundelia hay and grain were same as control group which received standard diet, but performance rate in group which received Gundelia hay singly was lower than other groups. Number of White Blood Cells, differential number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, concentration of plasma proteins and fibrinogen, serum concentration of total protein, cholesterol and lipase had increases in treatment groups versus control group and number of red blood cells, serum concentration of glucose, albumin and blood urea nitrogen had decreases in treatment groups versus control group. Given to low costs and high performance rate of Gundelia hay plus grain diet, which is related to presence of high amount of carbohydrates and fatty acids in it, this diet can be considered as an efficient diet for fattened sheep but more studies are need. Study on production's quality in animals are receiving Gundelia's diet is suggested as a subject for next studies.

Polymorphism of growth hormone gene in the artificial insemination result of Madura cattle with Limousin semen as a reference for genetic selection

B. Utomo; E. Safitri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 113-118
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153832

Research on genetic polymorphism of growth hormone (GH) and receptor growth hormone (rGH) has not been done in crossbred of Limousin cattle, so it is interesting to be examined. Blood samples were taken from 14 Madura calves were artificially inseminated with Limousin cement. DNA amplification is done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method to determine the genotype. DNA sequencing was done to determine nucleotide sequences of GH unit genes. The results showed that identification of GH and rGH gene polymorphisms was done by breaking DNA fragments from 432 and 298 bp in Madura and Limousin cattle (Madrasin) ie, L and V alleles have a frequency of 0.67 and 0.33 for the GH gene, respectively. This proves that the crossed-breeding of Madrasin have V allele that is not owned by the Madura cattle. While in the rGH gene, the A allele is 0.92 and the G allele is 0.08, with the frequency of the A allele larger than the G allele. This research concluded: that GH and rGH undergo changes on polymorphisms in Madrasin cattle can be used as a basis for selection.

Reproductive hormones profile of Iraqi Awassi ewes immunized against synthetic inhibin-α subunit or steroid-free bovine follicular fluid

S.S.A. Kafaji; J.A.A. Al-Sa; aidi; K.K. Khudair

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 123-128
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145609

The current study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin-α subunit and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive hormones profile out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, used for immunization of male rabbits, and obtaining of SFBFF antiserum. Forty non-pregnant Awassi ewes were allocated into 4 groups (n = 10 each). At day 38 of experiment, ewes were treated with intra-vaginal sponge impregated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 60 mg for 12 days. Ewes were treated at 0, 28 and 50 days with 4, 2 and 2 ml of normal saline (control; C-ve), 400, 200 and 200 µg of ovalbumine (C+ve), 400, 200 and 200 µg of inhibin (SI group), and 4 ml of normal saline at 0 day, and 4ml and 2ml of SFBFF antiserum, at 28 and 50 days, respectively (AI group). Blood samples were collected at 24 and 48 hours before and after sponge withdrawal for assessment of FSH, LH, inhibin-B, Activin-A, E2 and P4. Before sponge withdrawal, FSH level increased in SI ewes, whereas only after sponge withdrawal, FSH, LH, activin-A and E2 levels increased in SI and AI ewes. Opposite results were shown of inhibin-B level. In conclusion, active or passive immunization against inhibin in Awassi ewes could augment reproductive functions out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes.

Semen evaluation in local dogs during different season in Baghdad

N.S. Ibrahim; N.W. Zaid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126719

The recent study was designed to estimate the effect of season on dogs' semen parameters in mature and pubertal males, before and after hormonal adding and precede the sperms viability after collection. Twenty local dogs were divided into two equal groups the first one aged between 2-3 years which represent the mature dogs group, and the second group aged 9-12 months which considered as newly pubertal males. This study was done in dogs cages in College of Veterinary Medicine – University of Baghdad from 1/2/2015 to 1/2/2016. The semen was collected by using artificial vagina twice weekly. The physical examination (semen volume, colour, odour, debris and pH) and also the microscopical examination (mass motility, individual motility, sperm numbers, viability and deformities) and precede both the viability of sperms every hour till ceased of individual motility and the effect of adding of oxytocin and prostaglandine f2α. The herein study indicated that there were a significant decrease in sperms mass motility, individual motility, sperms numbers and viability during summer season, nevertheless, the deformities increased significantly during the summer in both males groups. The deformities show significant differences between mature and pubertal males. The individual motility indicated an increase after hormonal adding to the semen, the individual motility also ceased after 12 hrs from collection in all seasons. This study concluded that the male dogs could breed during the different seasons of the year, and the summer season had negative effect on male reproductive fertility. The hormonal adding lead to increase the individual motility also the maximum period of survival of the sperms after collection not extended more than 12 hrs.

A clinical study for use of some reproductive programs in repeat-breeder dairy cows

A.H.J. Al-Bdeery; D.H.J. Al-Delemy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 275-281
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168737

The present study was carried out on 120 repeat-breeder dairy cows belong to the breed Holstien-Frriesian , Animals of the study was divided into two equal groups, first group (A) involved 60 repeat breeder dairy cows expressed nervous excitation signs and elevated heart rate at the time of artificial insemination, while second group (B) involved 60 repeat-breeder dairy cows did not express nervous excitation signs and have normal heart rate. Each group was further subdivided into six equal subgroups: A1 and B1 (control) was injected with 5 ml of distilled water, A2 and B2 was injected with Oxytocin after artificial insemination, A3 and B3 was injected with hCG after AI, A4 and B4 was injected with Propranolol before AI, A5 and B5 was injected with Propranolol before AI in addition to injection of Oxytocin after AI, A6 and B6 was injected with Propranolol before AI in addition to injection of hCG after AI. The result revealed significant differences of the conception and pregnancy rate among the sixth subgroups inside each group. The percentage of repeat-breeder dairy cows belonging A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 were 0% ,10%, 30%, 40%, 70% and 50%, respectively. The statistical analysis showed significant increase (P<0.01) in subgroup (A5) (70%) followed by A6 (50%), A4 (40%), A3 (30%) and the lowest ratio was recorded in A2 (10%) compared with control (A1) which did not record any instance of pregnancy. While the ratios of the repeat-breeder dairy cows subgroups which did not expressed nervous excitation (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 and B6) were 10%, 20%, 60%, 10%, 20% and 60%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P<0.01) in the conception rate of B6 (60%) followed by B3 (60%), B2 and B5 (20%) while the lowest ratio was recorded in B4 (10%) and (control) (10%).  On the other hand, in comparison between the groups (A and B), the results revealed higher ratios of all subgroups belong to A group at 0.01 level of significancy except A2 and B2 which revealed difference at 0.05 level of significancy, while A6 and B6 showed no significant difference.  The result of present study stated that the better reproductive program to increase the conception and pregnancy rate in the first group A was by injection of Propranolol in addition to Oxytocin hormone, while second group B was by injection of hCG hormone only.

Biometry of genital organs in Iraqi female buffalo

Dhyea J. Khammas; Hnee E. Al-Saffar; Ali F. Alwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37421

Ninety-three of grossly normal buffalo genital tracts were under taken in this study. The mean length, width, thickness, and weight of the ovary devoicing functional Corpus Luteum (CL) were 2.39±0.77 cm, 1.55±0.46 cm, 1.19±0.31 cm and 3.12±2.11 gm, respectively, and 2.139±0.65 cm, 1.23±0.3 cm and 3.14±1.86 gm, for the left one respectively. The mean length, width, thickness and weight of right ovary containing functional CL were 2.61±0.52 cm, 1.59±0.45 cm, 1.53±0.24 cm and 4.79±1.59 gm respectively, and 2.88±0.60 cm, 2.34±0.38 cm, 1.48±0.15 cm and 5.54±1.23 gm for the left one respectively. The mean diameter of the largest six follicles located on the right ovary was 1.42±0.19 cm, and 1.41±0.1 cm of six follicles on left ovary. The mean length of prominent part of the 15 functional CL found on the right ovary was 0.57±0.17 cm and it was 0.57±0.21 cm on the left one, while the mean length and weight of those 15 functional CL of the right ovary were 1.151±0.18 cm and 1.31±0.52 gm, and on the left ovary they were 1.73±0.93 cm and 1.7±0.57 gm. The mean length, diameter and number of caruncles of the right uterine horns were 23.76±8.14 cm, 2.12±0.6 cm and 84.63±13.62 respectively, and they were 23.34±7.96 cm, 2.10±0.58 cm and 84.12±13.27 of the left horns respectively. The mean length and numbers of uterine body caruncles were 1.37±0.75 cm and 6.27±1.92 the mean length, diameter and number of annular rings of cervix were 5.33±0.96 cm, 2.58±0.64 cm and 4.7±0.61, respectively.