Main Subjects : Veterinary Surgery


A Retrospective study of fracture Cases Managed in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital; 181 Cases (2014-2018)

Sozan Ali Muhamad; Othman Jalal Ali; Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Hardi Fattah Marif; Rizgar Rahim Sleman; Brwa Mhamed Ali; Dekan Ali Raza; Harem Habeel Hama Ali; Gashaw Mustafa Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126228.1266

The aim was to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in different breed, age and sex admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine-University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From those, dogs represented 49.72% (90/ 181 cases), whereas cat represents 18.23% (33/181 cases) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology was multi factorial, but the roadside accident was the main cause of fractures particularly in the dogs. Femoral fractures were the most common type of fractures that represented 26.51% (48 /181), whereas the other most common types of fractures were radius-ulna (19.33%, 35/ 181), tibia-fibula (13.81%, 25/181) and the pelvis (9.94%, 18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered better latitude and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of the 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found very convenient and without much difficulties, while cases with external coaptation were not. Satisfactory postoperative results were obtained from most, but in few cases, postoperative inflammation (4 cases), mal-union (5 cases) and incomplete alignment (2 cases) were found. It was concluded that fractures in animals should be considered in Sulaimani province and fracture repair was highly successful and the best-employed internal fixation techniques were intramedullary pins.

Using acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of laminitis in racing horses: a comparative study

Abdulmuniem Ibrahim Aljobory

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126217.1263

Objective: To compare the efficiency of using conventional acupuncture CA and electroacupuncture EA in the laminitis therapy in race horses.
Methods: Twenty adult race horses with laminitis were randomly selected. Clinical examination was carried out and acupuncture points were determined according to the results of diagnostic palpation of acupuncture. The horses were grouped into two equal groups; the 1st group was treated daily for 6 consecutive weeks, with CA and the 2nd group with EA. evaluation of lameness was depended on the visual and objective examination using the “American Association of Equine Practitioners” (AAEP) lameness scale and confidence stride lengths criterion for forelimbs which performed by the force plate indices. The lameness level was statistically analyzed applying t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis and p-value (P<0.05) was significant.
Results: Both visual and objective lameness examinations showed gradual statistical significant reduction (P<0.05) in the severity of lameness and improvement in the gait of the horses after CA and EA treatment. It is also showed that the lameness level was significantly (p<0.05) decreased after every weekly session of EA treatment in comparison with CA treatment.
Conclusion: It is concluded that continued electroacupuncture EA treatment by current study pattern showed a marked improvement in the movement of the laminitic horses when compared with conventional acupressure CA treatment.

Histological evaluation of the possible role of Na+/ H+ entiporter and anion exchanger in endochondral ossification activities of secondary bone healing in rats

Sahar Mohammed Ibrahim; Kareem Obayes Handool; Abubakar Adamu Abdul; jalila abu; Sabri Mohd Yusof; Mehdi Ibrahimmi; Loqman Yusof

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125832.1165

In secondary fracture healing, callus proliferate, undergo hypertrophy and the extracellular matrix becomes calcified. This step to some extent, recapitulates the embryological bone development with a combination of cellular proliferation and differentiation, increasing cellular volume and matrix deposition. The causes of the chondrocytes volume increase in secondary bone healing are poorly known, but cell membrane transporters perhaps could be implicated. We hypothesize that NHE-1 and AE-2 are among plasma membrane transporters that have a role in cellular differentiation and regulation of endochondral ossification for secondary bone fracture healing. Study of closed tibia fracture healing in 2 groups of 25 of 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were undertaken and histological evaluation were made at 5 different time points at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after induction of the fracture. Histological evaluation of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocyte zone area showed a significant difference in week 1 compared to other weeks. Immunohistochemistry study revealed a significant high level of labeling intensity of NHE-1 at the first four weeks. While labeling intensity of AE-2 showed moderate reaction at 1 and 2 weeks, that increased and reached the highest level at 3 and 4 weeks. These results suggested that NHE-1 and AE-2 had role in the endochondral ossification of secondary bone healing.

Laparoscopic and hand-assisted cystorrhaphy strengthened with omental pedicle in dogs: Radiographic and ultrasonographic study

Mohammed Alhamdany; layth Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 347-352
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163026

This study was designed to evaluate the using of two laparoscopic techniques for repairing an experimental cystotomy of urinary bladder reinforced with omental pedicle in dogs. Eighteen local breed male dogs were randomly allocated into two equal groups: first group an experimental cystotomy (about 2 cm) was induced laparoscopically at the ventral surface of the urinary bladder, repaired with titanium clips and reinforced with the omental pedicle. In the second group: similar technique was followed; however, the induced was repaired with hand-assisted extracorporeal laparoscopic method. In both groups, several diagnostic parameters were followed including clinical / laparoscopic exploration, radiology, and ultrasonography. Results obtained in the first group shown the titanium clips 4-6 clips freely applicated and whole time consuming for performing operation was 45±2.1 minutes. Clinically, the experimental animals didn't show any abnormal changes in their behavioral activities. Radiographic examination revealed distention of the urinary bladder accompanied by the presence of distances between the titanium clips; however, ultrasonography didn't show any leakage or thickness at the site of operation. Laparoscopic examination demonstrated mild adhesion between urinary bladder and adjacent organ. In the second group, the operation required 36±1.1 minutes to be completed. Postoperatively, no signs of pain were observed, however, animals demonstrated post-operative transient hematuria, lasts for 24 hours, accompanied with severe adhesion between the bladder and abdominal wall. Radiographically, regular distention of the bladder was revealed, while ultrasonographic examination showed hyperechoic dots and thickening of the bladder wall. We concluded that the hand-assisted laparoscopic cystorrhaphy strengthened by omentum is a practical, time saving and mini-invasive surgical technique.

A comparative study between kessler suture versus polypropylene mesh implantation to repair tenotomized common calcaneal tendon in rabbits

Saddam Humadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162907

The present study is assigned to throw the light on the benefit of using Kessler suture compared with polypropylene mesh implantation in healing of induced tenotomy of common calcaneal tendon in a rabbit model based on clinico-histopathological evaluation. Twenty adults New Zealand white male rabbits were used for this clinical prospective study divided equally and randomly into two groups. The first group, (suture group n=10) and the second group (mesh group n=10). Under the effect of general anesthesia, longitudinal skin incision over the common calcaneal tendon was made, and the skin flap was reflected. The tendon was isolated by blunt dissection from the surrounding tissue, with small curved forceps. Simulation of a rabbit’s common calcaneal tendon rupture was made by sharp transvers incision with scalpel. The first group repair with (Kessler Suture) using polypropylene suture size 4.0. In contrast, the second group repair with (polypropylene mesh implantation) after initial suturing of the cut ends of tendon by two simple interrupted stitches using polyglyconate suture size 4.0. The surgical skin wounds were re-stitched by simple interrupted pattern with 3-0 silk. After clinical follow-up of the treatment rabbits, certain secondary health problems were encountered represented by swelling of operative site and lameness. Grossly, adhesions were noticed between the tendon and subcutaneous tissue in rabbits of both groups. Microscopical examination reflected presence of inflammatory cells perivascular edema and few capillaries at two months. At the end of experiment there were perfect orientation and organization of collagen fibers in mesh group in comparing with suture group. Based on the results obtain from this study, it seemed that both groups reflected best outcome in healing of operated tendons with superiority of mesh group in comparing with suture group.

Effects of platelets rich fibrin and bone marrow on the healing of distal radial fracture in local dogs: Comparative study

Moyaser Thanoon; M.J. Eesa; E.R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 419-425
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163169

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of platelets rich fibrin and bone marrow on distal radial fracture healing in local breed dogs. Twenty four adult animals (males and females), mean aged 2.6 ±0.15 years, and the mean body weight 24.58 ±1.07 kg were used. The experimental animals were randomly divided into three equal groups. First group (Control group), transverse fracture was induced in the distal portion of radial bone and immobilized by Plaster of Paris, the fracture line didn't treated with any material. Second group (platelets rich fibrin group), the fracture line was surrounded by the platelets rich fibrin. Third group (bone marrow group), the fracture line was surrounded by autologous bone marrow. The radiographic results confirmed that the fracture healing was faster and superior in third group compared with first and second groups. The hematological results showed an increasing in concentration rates of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and calcium at the weeks that follows surgical operation. Depending on the serial rates of alkaline phosphatase, the third group and the second group are the better fractured bone healing than the first group. In conclusion, the results revealed that, the using of bone marrow and platelets rich fibrin improved and enhanced the healing of distal radial fracture.

Clinical and ultrasonographic study of using autogenous venous graft and platelet-rich plasma for repairing Achilles tendon rupture in dogs

A.H. Allawi; layth mahmoud Alkattan; osama muwaffag aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 453-460
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163199

The present article was aimed to assess the healing process of experimental entire rupture of Achilles tendon treated with various methods. The study was conducted on twenty-four healthy mature local breed dogs, which were randomly allocated in equal four experimental groups (6 of each). All dogs underwent complete Achilles tendon rupture and reconstructed as following: Group1 (control), animals were treated with tendorrhaphy only; Group 2, tendorrhaphy with platelet-rich plasma; Group 3, tendorrhaphy with a vein graft; and Group 4, the ruptured tendon was repaired with tendorrhaphy and augmented with vein and platelet-rich plasma. Dogs were monitored clinically and sonographically to evaluate tendon healing at 15, 30 and 60 days following the surgery. By comparison with the control group, the utilizing of plasma, with or without vein graft, enhanced the healing process of the induced rapture. Clinically, animals showed a fastest weight bearing and ultrasound imaging revealed increased echogenicity of fibrotic tissue. Clinically, the vein- platelet-rich plasma treated animal’s demonstrated early weight bearing, while animal treated with plasma showed earlier improvement in fiber pattern echogenicity. Furthermore, the using of vein graft for injury repair increased the repair process and the healing was earlier than that in the control group. In conclusions, our results suggested that the using of platelet-rich plasma with or without vein graft could enhance tendon healing and improve its mechanical function, which might be attributed to the synergistic effect of platelet-rich plasma with the vein graft.

A comparison between two different biomaterials for treatment of tracheal defect in dogs

Osama Al-Hyani; Abd Al-Haleem Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 317-327
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162883

This study was designed to evaluate the healing process of tracheal cartilage defect after implantation of two different biomaterials in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs from both sexes were used. They were divided into 2 equal groups. A window shape defect of about 3cm x 2cm was induced in the cervical part of three adjacent tracheal rings with their annular ligaments. In group one, the defect was closed with a small strip of ear cartilage (auto graft) from the same animal, while in the second group, calf's pericardium scaffold (xeno graft) was used to close the defect. All the animals were clinically monitored postoperatively, while gross pathological changes and biopsy collections for all animals was performed at 15, 30, 60 postoperative days. No postoperative clinical complications were recorded and all were looking healthy and resuming food and water intake normally. The gross pathological results revealed rapid occlusion to the trachea especially in first group and animals survived without any respiratory complications. The histological features in both groups were represented by newly granulation tissue formation and hyaline cartilage regeneration. The new hyaline cartilage cells formation was showed faster in group 1 rather than group 2. In conclusion, both grafts can be used for closing a tracheal defect in dogs with the priority of ear cartilage implantation.

Levels of some biochemical markers in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant lactating dairy cows in Baghdad, Iraq

Masar Kadhim; Basim Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 353-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163027

This study aimed to measure the biochemical markers including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin / globulin (A/G) ratio, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total bilirubin in sera of dairy cows from the period of February-2016 to March-2018. For this purpose, 78 dairy cows of >3 years old reared at some areas of Baghdad province were subjected to blood sampling from the jugular vein. Study values (mean ± standard error) of ALT, AST, GGT, A/G ratio and total bilirubin markers were found outside the normal ranges of international reference values. Conversely, ALP, CK, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and BUN were found within the normal ranges of international reference values. To investigate changes that occur during late stage of pregnancy, study animals were dividedinto two groups (non-pregnant lactating and pregnant dairy cows). Statistically, significant decrease (P<0.05) was encountered in values (M ± SE) of ALT, AST, and GGT enzymes; and significant increase (P<0.05) in ALP and CK values of pregnant compared to non-pregnant dairy cows. Data concerning the serum proteins, results also indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of total protein, whereas there no significant differences (P>0.05) were showed in values of albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. Pregnant dairy cows were showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of BUN and total bilirubin; however, glucose appeared without significant differences (P>0.05). It has been concluded that the lactation and gestation periods have a great impact on activity of biochemical indices in blood of dairy cows; therefore, there is a need for constant periodic monitoring for the described indices in this study to maintenance on animal’s health status.

Different methods for laparoscopic castration in dogs

Tarek Mahmood Al-Ukidi; Muneer S. Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 25-36
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.160177

The aim of this study was to evaluate the different methods of performing a Laparoscopic castration in dogs and to determine the efficiency and disadvantages of each of these methods. The study was conducted on 20 locally healthy dogs aged between 10-20 months and weights between 17-33 kg. The animals were randomly divided into four groups each group consisted of 5 dogs. In the first group, the castration was done by closed the ducts deferens with titanium clips, 4 clips were used, the average time for complete this surgery is (11.06± 1.19 Minute). The disadvantages of this method the possibility of failure to apply the clips. In the second group, laparoscopic castration was done by using Monopolar electrocautery, time requires for doing this operation is (34.85 ± 10.15 min.) the disadvantages of this technique bleeding may occur during cutting the spermatic cord, and the smoke of Monopolar electrocautery which impedes the vision of the surgeon. In the third group, extracorporeal ligation technique was used. This method proved highly efficient and prevented any bleeding because we did not need to cut the blood vessels, as well as the low material cost of this method compared to the other three groups. However, the time required to perform this procedure in this way was rather long compared to the remaining three groups where the time required to conduct the surgery is (36.82 ± 7.18) minutes and the disadvantages of this method is the tightening and twisting the blood vessels during pushing the knot to put her in the place as well as the length of the surgery time. While in the fourth group the laparoscopic castration was done by thermal cautery in which the clotting and cutting of blood vessels in the spermatic cord were done in the same tool, the time required to complete this surgery is (11.91±3.73 min). All the operations were performed under general anesthesia using Ketamine HCl 5% in dose 15mg/kg B.w and Xylazine 2% and 5 mg/kg B.W) as bolus i.m injection. Blood was collected from each animal before the surgery and 14, 30 days after the surgery to measure the level of testosterone hormone in the serum. The results showed there is no significant decrease before and after the surgery in the testosterone serum level. The testis was removed one month after the surgery to observe changes in testicular tissue and epididymis, there were hemorrhagic areas, necrotic regions, glomerulosclerosis and adhesions between the tunica vaginalis and the tunica albuginea. As well as the spermatozoa was stopped. Absences of the sperm in the epididymis (spermatogenia), also there are degenerative and necrotic changes in the epithelium of the epididymis and absence of the cavities of these nuclei in the sperm. We conclude from this study that laparoscopic castration in dogs can be performed in all methods which are mentions above, however, the thermal cautery method was the best method in terms of time, safety and economic cost.

Characterization and In Vitro evaluation of a novel coated nanocomposite porous 3D scaffold for bone repair

Sahar Ibrahim; Saffanah Mahmood; Intan Shameha Binti Abdul Razak; Loqman Mohamed Yusof; Zaid Khudhur Mahmood; Fufa I. Gimba; Md Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 157-173
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125548.1068

The aim of this study is to tissue engineer a 3D scaffold that can be used for load bearing segmental bone defects (SBDs) repair. Three different scaffolds were fabricated using cockle shell-derived CaCO3 aragonite nanoparticles (CCAN), gelatin, dextran and dextrin with coated framework via Freeze-Drying Method (FDM) labeled as 5211, 5211GTA+Alginate, 5211PLA. Scaffolds were assessed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytocompatibility of the organized scaffolds was assessed using cells multiplication and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration via In Vitro cell culture using human Fetal OsteoBlast cells line (hFOB). The results showed a substantial difference in ALP concentrations between the cultures of different scaffolds leachable medium during the study period. The biological evaluation also showed that three scaffolds did enhanced the osteoblast proliferation rate and improved the osteoblast function as demonstrated by the significant increase in ALP concentration. Engineering analyses showed that scaffolds possessed 3D interconnected homogenous porous structure with a porosity ranging 6%-49%, pore sizes ranging 8-345 µm, mechanical strength ranging 20-65 MPa, young’s modulus ranging 166-296 MPa and enzymatic degradation rate between 16%-38% within 2-10 weeks. The in vitro evaluation revealed that the scaffold 5211, 5211GTA+Alginate and 5211PLA fulfill all the main requirements to be considered as an ideal bone replacement.

Femur fractures and treatment options in 20 dogs admitted to our clinic from January 2013 to December 2015

M. Abd El Raouf; N.H.M. Mekkawy; A.M. AbdEl-Aal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145608

The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment of 20 dogs with femur fractures. Twenty (20) dogs with different ages, breeds, and gender admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Zagazig University from January 2013 to December 2015 with a complaint of hind limb lameness and were diagnosed as femur fractures through clinical and radiographic examination. German shepherd dogs (85%) and immature dogs (70%) were more susceptible to femur fractures. The most common site of the fracture was the femoral diaphysis (65%) followed by metaphysis (20%). Open reduction and internal fixation techniques were applied using intramedullary (IM) pins with or without cerclage wire (40%) and bone plate (15%) for treatment of diaphyseal fractures, and two cross pins (30%) for treatment of metaphyseal and distal physeal fractures. Pin migration after complete healing (1 case) and bone re-fracture due to jumping (1 case) was the postoperative complications. It was concluded that open reduction and internal fixation methods are the proper treatment for femur fractures if the proper surgical techniques were applied.

Biometry of genital organs in Iraqi female buffalo

Dhyea J. Khammas; Hnee E. Al-Saffar; Ali F. Alwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37421

Ninety-three of grossly normal buffalo genital tracts were under taken in this study. The mean length, width, thickness, and weight of the ovary devoicing functional Corpus Luteum (CL) were 2.39±0.77 cm, 1.55±0.46 cm, 1.19±0.31 cm and 3.12±2.11 gm, respectively, and 2.139±0.65 cm, 1.23±0.3 cm and 3.14±1.86 gm, for the left one respectively. The mean length, width, thickness and weight of right ovary containing functional CL were 2.61±0.52 cm, 1.59±0.45 cm, 1.53±0.24 cm and 4.79±1.59 gm respectively, and 2.88±0.60 cm, 2.34±0.38 cm, 1.48±0.15 cm and 5.54±1.23 gm for the left one respectively. The mean diameter of the largest six follicles located on the right ovary was 1.42±0.19 cm, and 1.41±0.1 cm of six follicles on left ovary. The mean length of prominent part of the 15 functional CL found on the right ovary was 0.57±0.17 cm and it was 0.57±0.21 cm on the left one, while the mean length and weight of those 15 functional CL of the right ovary were 1.151±0.18 cm and 1.31±0.52 gm, and on the left ovary they were 1.73±0.93 cm and 1.7±0.57 gm. The mean length, diameter and number of caruncles of the right uterine horns were 23.76±8.14 cm, 2.12±0.6 cm and 84.63±13.62 respectively, and they were 23.34±7.96 cm, 2.10±0.58 cm and 84.12±13.27 of the left horns respectively. The mean length and numbers of uterine body caruncles were 1.37±0.75 cm and 6.27±1.92 the mean length, diameter and number of annular rings of cervix were 5.33±0.96 cm, 2.58±0.64 cm and 4.7±0.61, respectively.