Main Subjects : Poultry Immunity
Potency of garlic juice supplementation on some physiological and immunological aspects of broilers exposed to heat stress
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 107-112
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of garlic juice supplementation with broiler drinking water on performance, immune response, lipid profile, blood picture and activity of liver enzymes under heat stress. For this purpose 100 four days aged broiler checks (Ross) were allocated into control (C) and three treatment groups (25 each). All group checks were housed at 5 ºC above normal ambient temperature during the experiment. Treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3) checks were supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/L, respectively, with garlic juice in drinking water (6 hrs a day). Food and water were supplemented ad libitum. Body weights were monitored every five days and blood samples were obtained at 25 days for assessment of blood picture and antibody titers after vaccination, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and activity levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. At 30 days age, T3 group broiler checks reported higher body weights than other groups. Total number of white and red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit levels and ratio of heterocytes to lymphocytes increased significantly in treated groups, whereas significant decline of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations as well as ALT and AST levels were shown in T3 group broiler checks. Significant increase was shown in the levels of antibody titers against both Newcastle (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines. In conclusion, treatment of broiler checks early with garlic juice increase broiler performance and immune response against vaccination program and may be protect the broilers from heat stress.
Pathological Study of Acute Oral Toxicity Induced by Plasticizer Di (2- ethyl hexyl) Phthalate in Japanese Common Quails Coturnix coturnix japanies
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences,
2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
The current study aimed to identified the pathological changes of oral toxicity induced by Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. To a chief this aim a pilot study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of DEHP. Forty male quails one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP daily for fourteen days, while second group was considered as control group and left without treatment all over the experimental time. The result of pilot study showed that the LD50 of DEHP in quails is 5574,1 mg/kg of body weight and the dose used in experiment to induced the acute oral toxicity was 557.4 mg/kg of quail's body weight. The result of gross pathological appearance of euthanized quails at fourteen days of experiment revealed presence of sever congestion in kidney lobules as well as congestion of liver with hemorrhagic ecchymotic patches while at other case the liver appear pale in color. The histopathology of kidney revealed presence of degenerative changes represented by cloudy swelling of the cell lining renal tubules lead to narrowing the lumen of affected tubules as well as interstitial edema with coagulative necrosis associated by infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as interstitial hemorrhage. The liver sections revealed presence of fatty change in hepatocytes in which the liver cell contained vacuoles of different size and shape also hepatocytes suffered from coagulative necrosis with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells as macrophages with presence of hemorrhage. We conducted from current study that the oral administration of plasticizer DEHP in fourteen days at dose of 557.4 mg/kg of quail body weight induced degenerative and coagulative necrosis in both kidney and liver tissue in Japanese common quail.