Main Subjects : Fish Diseases


Administration of Nitrobacter as Ammonia Decomposer in Maintenance Media of Clarias gariepinus with Aquaponics

Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja; Adinda Septyasari Taragusti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

Abstract. Many Indonesian catfish farmers apply the aquaponics system to overcome the problem of limited cultivation land. However, the use of high-stock solid method on aquaponics system causes a decrease in water quality due to the accumulation of fish feces and food scraps that are not consumed by fish and are left to pile up and turn into ammonia. Ammonia in water is toxic and dangerous for fish health. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias sp.) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The control group were treated without Nitrobacter administration and 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters observed were SGR, SR and FCR. Whereas, the supporting parameters were water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) plant growth and water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Effect of probiotic (Poultrystar®) and heat stress on some blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Rawnaq Ismail; Alaa Alhamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 221-225
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125539.1061

This study was conducted to determine the effect of the heat stress on some blood parameters and role of probiotics (Poultrystar®) to reduce these effects, 120 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with mean weight 150±10g were obtained from collage of Agriculture and forestry /University of Mosul. Fish were acclimated for at least 7 day in the laboratory and fed daily, the water temperature was maintained at 25 ±2°C. Three experiments have been done, each of 40 fish which have been divided randomly into four groups 10 for each. First experiment the four groups exposed to different water temperature (control 25, 30, 32, 34 °C), second experiment the four groups treated with (Poultrystar®) in a dose 1 g/ kg body weight by using stomach tube with exposed to heat stress (control 25, 30, 32 and 34 °C). In the third experiment the four groups have been treated with (Poultrystar®) in the same dose of the previous experiment for 7 days then exposed to heat stress. The results show there were significantly increase in hemoglobin concentration in three experiments, and also the Packed cell volume was significantly increase in three experiments, but the stress index was significantly decrease in three experiments, and the probiotics (Poultrystar®) improved the blood picture especially in the second and third experiment because no probiotic used in the first experiment.

Prevalence of nematodes infestation in Clarias gariepinus from El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, Egypt

Sh.S. Sorour; A.H. Hamouda

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162963

A total number of 400 Clarias gaiepinus were collected alive from several and various locations at El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, to investigate the prevailing nematodes that infect this fish species from the two locations. Nearly all the examined fish were positive for one or more nematodes; four spp. of two families were identified from Clarias gaiepinus at El-Burullus Lake: Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. (recovered from the gall bladder for the first time) and Terranova spp. larvae (recorded for the first time in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate representing new locality record), one nematode from Clarias gaiepinus at Lake Nasser: 3rd stage  larvae (L3) of Contraceacum spp. (has zoonotic importance). The prevalence of Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. and Terranova spp. larva were 37.5%, 44%, 0.5% and 10% respectively, meanwhile the prevalence of L3 larvae of Contraceacum spp. were 100%. This study was planned to compare between the nematodes infecting Clarias gaiepinus from the two lakes evaluating clinical signs, postmortem examinations, parasitological examinations, seasonal prevalence and histopathological investigations of infected fish with different nematodes infestation. Clarias  gaiepinus must be eviscerated as soon as possible after catching to prevent 3rd stage larvae of Contraceacum spp. in the abdominal cavity from liberating from their sheaths and attacking the fish musculature (the edible part in the fish) as well as,prevent Terranova spp. larvae in the gills from attacking another parts of the fish and thus prevent the transmission of the nematodes of zoonotic importance to the consumers.

Effect of microalgae Spirulina spp. as food additive on some biological and blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Nasreen Muhialddin Abdulrahman; Hawkar Jaafar Hama Ameen; Shamal Rasul Hama; Bakhan Rafiq Hassan; Pola Jalal Nader

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125527.1049

This study was carried out to study the effect of adding different levels of the microalgae Spirulina spp. in fish laboratory of Animal Sciences Department, College of Agricultural Sciences of Sulaimani University, Sulaimani, Iraq. A total of 72 common carp fingerling weight 45±2 gm used to detect the effect of three different levels of the algae Spirulina spp. The control treatment T1 with 0%., T2 with 3 gm /kg diet and T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet. Each treatment in three replicates in which six fingerlings common carp were stocked in each aquarium. Results indicated no significant differences at PSpirulina) in T3 was higher significantly at PSpirulina was higher significantly at PSpirulina to common carp diets in different levels leads to significant differences in differential WBC counts, T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet was higher in WBC counts. Lymphocytes were higher in each of control and T3. Monocytes were higher in control, granulocytes in T2 with 3 gm Spirulina /kg diet. Adding of Spirulina affected significantly in cholesterol as compared to the control. Triglyceride was higher in control and T2. T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet leads to higher and lower significantly in HDL and LDL respectively. T1 and T3 were higher significantly in spleenosomatic index. Inclusion of S. platensis in fish diet as a feed additive or as a partial replacer of the expensive fishmeal imposes significant promotions in fish growth, coloration, reproduction and flesh quality.

Histopathological changes in diseased and treated catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by ciprofloxacin and clove oil

S.S. Abd El-Salam; M.F. Ghaly; D.M. Baraka; S.H. Mahmoud; A.A. El-Makhzangy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153788

Bacteria pathogens may cause a serious loss in aquaculture and also health hazards to humans. On the basis of biochemical characteristics and API-20E system, all isolates of pathogens from diseased fish were identified as Aeromonas spp, the most predominant bacterial species were A. sobria 46.7%, A. caviae 19.03%, A. jandaei 8.6 % and A. veronii 8.6 %. One hundred and twenty Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus were divided into four equal groups (1,2,3 and 4) were challenged with Aeromonas sobria which predominant isolates, Gp. (1) was challenged only, while Gps. (2, 3 and 4) were treated after challenged with ciprofloxacin, clove extract and ciprofloxacin and clove extract in combination, respectively. The antibacterial activity of antibiotic and clove extract in their therapeutic doses decrease the mortality rate as (20, 16 and 13%) respectively compared with non-medicated Gp. (1) which recorded mortality 83%. Internal signs of infection with Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) include congestion of the hepatic blood vessels, areas of coagulative necrosis in the liver and hydropic degeneration of renal tubules according to the histopathological examination. In-vivo the combination of ciprofloxacin and clove extract was the choice as alternative bacterial therapeutic agent in infected Clarias gariepinus with Aeromonas sobria. Moreover histopathological changes have been widely used as biomarkers in the evaluation of the health of fish exposed to contaminants.

Effects of feeding frequency on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) growth rate

S.A. Hama Amin; N.M. Abdulrahman; V.M. Ahmed; P.B. Ibrahim; R.R. Ismail; M.B. Ahmed; N.M. HamaGareeb

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153786

In present study the effect of feeding frequency on growth performance, food efficiency and survival rate of common carp fingerlings were investigated. Three groups of common carp fingerlings (average weight 22.88±1 gm) designed with three feeding frequencies one meal a day (D1), two meals a day (D2) and three meals a day (D3) with three replicates of each treatment. Fish in experimental treatments were fed by 4% of body weight. Feeding frequencies had significant effect on growth performance (P<0.05). The final body weight and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly higher in group D3 (P<0.05) in this comparison. Similar responses were observed for body weight increased (BWI) and daily growth rate (DGR) and the best BWI and DGR were obtained in D3 group, that showed significantly different to other groups (P<0.05). The best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained from three daily feeding (D3), however there were no significant different between D2 and D3 (P>0.05). Also feeding frequencies had positive effect on fish survival rate (P<0.05). The best results in growth performance and survival rate were obtained by feeding threemeals a day (D3).

Effect of some mycotoxin on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

F. I. Magouz; M.S. Salem; M.A. Hashad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153830

The present study was conducted in the fish lab, Sakha Aquaculture Research Unit, Central laboratory for Aquaculture Research-Abbassa, during season 2015, Feeding experiment was conducted for 16 weeks to study the effect of dietary contamination with aflatoxin B1 (150 ppb, AFB1) with and without the dietary supplementation of (1gm/kg) of Liquorice (medicinal plants), (2g) of MTB-100 (chemicals) and (0.5g) of Gromin-plus (chemicals) on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. A group of 150 Nile Tilapia fingerlings (O. niloticus) with an average initial body weight 13.50 gm were randomly allotted into 5 treatments in 10 glasses aquaria (80x35x40cm). Each treatment was applied in two aquaria. Fresh tap water was stored in fiberglass tanks for 24h under aeration for dechlorination. Prior to the start of the experiment, the fishes were adapted to a basal commercial diet (control diet) containing 31% crude protein and consisted of herring fish meal, soybean meal, yellow corn, wheat bran, sunflower oil and vitamins and minerals mixture for two weeks. These ingredients were pressed by manufactured machine (pellets size 1mm), milled and toxin AFB1 was added at a concentration of 150 ppb except the control. Fish in all treatments were daily fed the experimental diets at level of 3% of the fish biomass. The feed amount was given at two times daily, six days a week for 16 weeks. Fish were weighed weekly and the feed amounts were adjusted on the basis of the new weight. The aflatoxic dite has adversely affected the growth performance and survival rate, feed utilization and carcass composition in fish and residues of AFB1 in the whole body of fish and indices organs and blood biochemistry of the experimented fish. Dietary MTB-100, Liquorice and Gromin-plus inclusion alleviated aflatoxiccosis semptoms by fish, since it improved all the above tested parameters of aflatoxicated fish. Generally, obtained results in the present study indicated that the additives all the above could be used as detoxifying agents for aflatoxins.