Main Subjects : Poultry Diseases


Studying an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis in broilers in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Maan T. Jarjees; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher; aqeel alshater

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 769-774
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131932.2024

The aim of this study was to provide field outbreaks data with FAdVs in Ninevah governorate to emphasize the importance of the disease due to high mortality and production losses. A total of 729,500 broilers collected from 64 flocks at 14 different locations in Nineveh governorate during the second half of 2020. were included in this study. Histopathological changes of the liver in infected birds have been studied. Molecular identification of FAdV was accomplished by DNA extraction from liver samples using DNeasy Tissue Kit. Results reviled that there were 51892 mortalities representing 7.11%. It was noted that the broiler flocks were infected during their 2nd-6th weeks of age, being the highest in the 5th week of age. Decreased mortality was detected from July to December. being 11.3, 7.91, 7.08, 6.38, 5.94 and 4.95%, respectively. Microscopical examination of the liver manifested the pathognomonic presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies related to the disease. PCR findings revealed positive results of FAdVs. It could be concluded that the environmental stress and immunosuppressive agents could contribute to the percentage and duration of mortalities in broiler flocks. 

Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in layer chickens of Bangladesh

Ahsan Raquib; Answar Uddin; S.M. Nurozzaman; Mohammod Misbah Uddin; Golam Ahsan; Md Masudur Rahman; Md Mahfujur Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 9-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127511.1506

Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes major health hazards in poultry birds in Bangladesh which results in huge economic losses every year. This study was carried out to estimate and analyze the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection in commercial layer chickens at Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh during the period from November 2018 to October 2019. A total of 505 serum samples from 94 commercial layer farms of Kishoreganj Sadar Upazila and Pakundia Upazila of Kishoreganj district were collected. Serum plate agglutination (SPA) was performed to detect the antibody against MG. Prevalence was found 73% in the Kishoreganj district by SPA test. MG was significantly (P<0.01) more prevalent in Pakundia Upazila 82% than Kishoreganj Sadar Upazila 61.11%. In case of season, winter season had significantly higher (X^2=30.94, p=0.000) prevalence of MG infection. In relation to age, seroprevalence of MG infection was highest 78% in birds of 65 weeks’ age and lowest 71% in 6-25 weeks’ age birds. Any significant (P>0.05) association was not found between flock size and seroprevalence of MG. Seroprevalence was highest in flock containing above 2600 birds. MG infection is prevalent in the chicken population of Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh. Measures should be taken for successful prevention and control of this disease in Bangladesh.

Effectiveness of using probiotic Batcinel-K® and CEVAC SET-K® vaccine on some blood parameters in chickens

Aamer R. Al-Aqaby; A.A. Glaskovich; A.A. Glaskovich

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 611-616
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127018.1439

In the current study, probiotic Batcinel-K® and CEVAC SET-K® vaccine are used to determine their effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters of broiler-chickens. Three hundred broilers chicks "Ross-308" at one-day old were divided into six groups of 50 chicks /each. Blood was taken at 56th, 63rd and 112nd days old. The count of erythrocytes and leukocytes was calculated. Hemoglobin and total serum protein, serum albumin and globulins concentration was determined. Results show that these selected probiotic can improve some of the blood indexes of birds, especially in combination with the vaccine. At the 63rd day old of broilers chicken, globulin parameters in 4th and 5th treatment groups were higher by 2.97% (P

A cytopathological study of the role of liver impression as a diagnostic tool in pigeons

Zahra A. Al-Noayme; Ayman A. Al-Alhially

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 555-560
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127170.1477

The aim of the current study is to investigate any pathological changes which affect local pigeon liver by using liver impression and providing data base for the results of cytological and morphological features of hepatic impressions of local pigeon also to Study the relation between cellular contents and bacterial profiles at those impressions for that purpose about 20 birds of local pigeon were used in current study. the result showed presence of including heterophil 21.53% monocyte 1.52%, eosinophil 1.04%, basophil 0.01%, macrophage 4.01%. RBC 31.9% and vacuolated hepatocyte 4.94%. We also recorded presence of undifferentiated cells0.19% bacterial infection and parasite infestation of blood protozoa represented by presence of plasmodium parasite inside red blood cell in 4 samples out of 20 samples, G+ Staphylococcus and streptococcus and G- Bacteria coccobacilli as a bacterial. Bacteria including Staphylococci, Streptococci and Coccobacilli were noticed with in different densities between sections, the protozoal parasite as Plasmodium infestation were also detected in 20% of samples We concluded that, the hepatic impression give a diagnostic tool to aim in final diagnosis for inflammatory diseases in pigeons, in addition this impression give a primary idea about bacteria and parasitic infection that can be present in infected pigeons

Molecular detection and seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province, Iraq

Farhad B. Mikaeel; Adel T. Al-Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 247-252
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125885.1173

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease of mammals and birds; human infection occurs through consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Little was known about the infection rate of T. gondii among free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the infection rate in Duhok province by using ELISA (IgG) and conventional PCR. A total of 368 blood samples were collected from free range local chickens distributed in five different areas of Duhok province during the period from November 2016 to March 2017. The collected blood samples were from different sexes (hens and cocks) and from different age groups (less than 6 months and older than 6 months). The data found that the total infection rate was (84 / 368) 22.8% by ELSIA. The presence of the infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. In this study, there were differences from area to area in the infection rates, the highest rate was reported in Semel district at 33.7% which was significantly (p

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

Effect of vitamin E and Selenium supplementation on productive and physiological performance of quail fed rations with high level of fat

Duread Younis

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125553.1072

The aim of this study the effect of vitamin E, selenium or both of them /or selenium supplementation on productive and physiological traits of quail fed high fat diets. Three hundred unsexed one day old coturnix japonica quail chicks were used in this study. Chicks were reared in cages placed in semi-opened houses and provided with suitable environmentally conditions. Birds were randomized into four treatments each with three replicates (twenty-five birds in each). Two diets starter and finisher containing 3% fat as a source of energy were used until marketing age (42 days). Feed and water were available ad libitum. The experimental treatments were as follows: T1 standard ration (control), T2 standard ration supplemented with 200 mg vitamin E/kg ration, T3 standard ration supplemented with 0.3 mg sodium selenite/kg ration and T4 standard ration supplemented with 200 mg vitamin E/kg and 0.3 mg sodium selenite/ kg ration. Rations supplemented with vitamin E, sodium selenite or their combination caused a significant increase in average live body weight, weight gain, significant decrease in feed consumption, blood glucose concentration, heart glycogen concentration and ALT, and AST enzymes concentration, significant improvement in feed conversion ratio was noted in birds fed these diets. No significant differences in average feed passage time in the digestive tract, triglycerides, albumin, globulin, total protein, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells account, dressing percentage, liver glycogen concentration and mortality rate were observed among treatments.

The effect of thyme (Thymus daenensis) supplement on growth and hygienic parameters of broilers meat

Majid Gholami Ahangaran; Niloofar Peimani; Asiye Ahmadi Dastgerdi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 87-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125526.1048

The antibacterial effect of Thyme species was relatively approved but the effect of this plant on bacterial population of intestine in chickens and consequently on bacterial load of chicken meat following administration of thyme was not investigated. For evaluation of thyme effect on growth indices, microbial contamination of meat and microbial population of cecal content, 180 broiler chicks were divided into 4 equal groups with 3 replicates and were reared until 42 days. Chickens in different groups were treated with different doses of thyme (0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1 percent) in diets. The weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion rate were calculated weekly. In the end of 42 days old, all chickens were slaughtered. The population of Escherichia coli per gram of cecal contents and contamination of meat with Escherichia coli were assayed. The data showed that supplement of 0. 5 and 1 percent of thyme to diet elevated weight gain and decreased feed conversion rate. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 and 1 percent of thyme to diet can decrease microbial population of cecal content and meat. In conclusion, the addition of thyme to diet may improve growth rate and hygienic parameters in chicken meat.

The interference of Newcastle, avian influenza and infectious bursal disease vaccines with the efficiency of IB vaccine in broiler chicks by using quantitative RT-PCR test

Raed Hussen Saleh; Isam Mohammed Jaber

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 105-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125510.1032

This study was conducted to investigate the effects the interference of ND, AI, IBD vaccines on efficacy of the IBV vaccination program (H120 and Ma5). Three hundred broiler chicks (Ross308) from Al-Haddi hatchery / Babel province were divided randomly into three equal groups, each group contain 100 chicks and treated as follows: the 1st group; IB vaccine (H120) was given at one day old by intranasal and ocular drop methods, IB vaccine Ma5 strain vaccine was given at age 14 days by spray method. The 2nd group at one day old IB H120 + ND LaSota alive vaccines strain was given by intranasal and ocular drop method, also given mixed killed vaccine contain ND with AI by S/C injection. At 10 days old alive ND vaccine LaSota strain gives by drinking water. At 12 in day old attenuated IBD vaccine gives by drinking water. At day old IB Ma5 strain vaccine was given using spray method. The 3ed group: control group without vaccine. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 40 day old to determine the antibody titer against IBV by ELISA test and samples were taken from trachea and kidney for Real- time quantitative -PCR (viral load) at 21 and 35 days old. All groups were challenged with local virulent IBV isolate (IBV CH Babylon F2 2013) 100×106.5 ELD50/ml at 28 days old by ocular and intranasal drop method. Morbidity and mortality were recorded in all the challenged birds. The result show that the significant differences between all groups in different parameters at P<0.05.

Potency of garlic juice supplementation on some physiological and immunological aspects of broilers exposed to heat stress

H.A.J. Al-Shwilly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 107-112
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145606

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of garlic juice supplementation with broiler drinking water on performance, immune response, lipid profile, blood picture and activity of liver enzymes under heat stress. For this purpose 100 four days aged broiler checks (Ross) were allocated into control (C) and three treatment groups (25 each). All group checks were housed at 5 ºC above normal ambient temperature during the experiment. Treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3) checks were supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/L, respectively, with garlic juice in drinking water (6 hrs a day). Food and water were supplemented ad libitum. Body weights were monitored every five days and blood samples were obtained at 25 days for assessment of blood picture and antibody titers after vaccination, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and activity levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. At 30 days age, T3 group broiler checks reported higher body weights than other groups. Total number of white and red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit levels and ratio of heterocytes to lymphocytes increased significantly in treated groups, whereas significant decline of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations as well as ALT and AST levels were shown in T3 group broiler checks. Significant increase was shown in the levels of antibody titers against both Newcastle (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines. In conclusion, treatment of broiler checks early with garlic juice increase broiler performance and immune response against vaccination program and may be protect the broilers from heat stress.

Case Report: Prevalence and significance of aspergellosis in commercial broiler chicken: Pathological study

S.H. Eassa; M.H. Mohammed; A.M. Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 113-116
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145607

The present study was carried out to evaluate the pathological effects of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus Spp. in commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we discussed few outbreaks of Aspergillus infection of chicks a week aftter hatching in broiler farms of Duhok-Kurdistan region of Iraq during the period from February to May 2015 on the basis of clinical signs, post-mortem, histopathological and cultural findings. The main clinical signs of the disease in the infected flock included a 3-day onset of labored breathing and neurologic disorders displayed by incoordination, torticollis, and paralysis. Other clinical features included depression, ruffled feathers and gasping. Gross lesions were represented by cheesy granular materials in the air sacs, lungs, and trachea. Histopathology revealed fungal hyphae in sectioned lung tissue. Aspergillus was isolated by culturing in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar from the lesions. The present study deals with the incidence of acute aspergillosis in broiler chicks from Duhok, Kurdistan-Iraq.

Pathological study of subchronic oral toxicity induced by Di (2- ethyl hexyl) phthalate in Japanese quails

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Saeed Majed Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145567

In present study, we aimed to investigate the pathological changes induced by subchronic oral toxicity induced by sub lethal dose of Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. Forty male quails at one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group (treated group) was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP (557.41 mg/kg of body weight) for 42 days, while second group (control group) left without treatment throughout experiment period. The results of current study showed that there is congestion of kidney, microscopically they showed presence of hyaline degeneration in renal tubules, glomerulosclerosis, wide spread of degenerative and necrotic lesions in renal tubules, hemorrhage, infiltration of inflammatory cell especially macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial tissue of kidney. While grossing of liver showed hepatomegaly with hemorrhage, microscopically the sections showed wide distributing of vacuolar degeneration (fatty change) in different size and shape of vacuoles in cytoplasm of affected hepatocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. In conclusion, the oral administration of DEHP at dose 557.41 mg/kg of body weight for 42 days induced degenerative and necrotic irreversible changes in both kidney and liver of Japanese quail that affect their health and production.

Pathological Study of Acute Oral Toxicity Induced by Plasticizer Di (2- ethyl hexyl) Phthalate in Japanese Common Quails Coturnix coturnix japanies

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; S.M. Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126714

The current study aimed to identified the pathological changes of oral toxicity induced by Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. To a chief this aim a pilot study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of DEHP. Forty male quails one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP daily for fourteen days, while second group was considered as control group and left without treatment all over the experimental time. The result of pilot study showed that the LD50 of DEHP in quails is 5574,1 mg/kg of body weight and the dose used in experiment to induced the acute oral toxicity was 557.4 mg/kg of quail's body weight. The result of gross pathological appearance of euthanized quails at fourteen days of experiment revealed presence of sever congestion in kidney lobules as well as congestion of liver with hemorrhagic ecchymotic patches while at other case the liver appear pale in color. The histopathology of kidney revealed presence of degenerative changes represented by cloudy swelling of the cell lining renal tubules lead to narrowing the lumen of affected tubules as well as interstitial edema with coagulative necrosis associated by infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as interstitial hemorrhage. The liver sections revealed presence of fatty change in hepatocytes in which the liver cell contained vacuoles of different size and shape also hepatocytes suffered from coagulative necrosis with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells as macrophages with presence of hemorrhage. We conducted from current study that the oral administration of plasticizer DEHP in fourteen days at dose of 557.4 mg/kg of quail body weight induced degenerative and coagulative necrosis in both kidney and liver tissue in Japanese common quail.

Isolation and identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from broiler in Erbil, Iraq

M.N. Al-Sharook; A.A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126717

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from slaughtered broilers in retail market that sell live chickens in Erbil city, Iraq. Forty-one cloacal fecal samples from broiler caecum were investigated from January to April 2016. ESBLs strains were isolated using MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime 1 mg/l and the isolates were identified phynotypically by biochemical tests, TBX agar and VITEK-2 compact system. A total of 34 Escherichia coli and 4 Proteus mirabilis were analysed for determination of ESBL/AmpC by disc diffusion test using antimicrobial 68DC MAST® ESβL discs group including cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime + ESBL inhibitor, cefpodoxime + AmpC inhibitor and cefpodoxime + ESBL inhibitor + AmpC inhibitor and 67DC MAST® ESβL discs group including cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime + clavulanate, ceftazidime, ceftazidime + clavulanate, cefotaxime and cefotaxime + clavulanate. The phenotypic results showed that in group 68DC discs 23.7% E. coli were resistant to cefpodoxime and in group 67DC discs 73.7% of E. coli and 7.9% of P. mirabilis were resistance to one or more of the cefpodoxime, ceftazidime and ceftazidime. Final results revealed that 78.0% of samples were ESBLs/ AmpC positive. This study is the first examination to determine phenorypically E. coli producing ESBLs/AmpC in broiler chickens in Iraq. Conclusion, the healthy broiler can be a major source of ESBLs/AmpC and the possibility that transmitted to humans through the food chain, direct contact and the surrounding environment raises the concerns about public health and safety of poultry meat and the negative consequences of drug therapy that causes the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Potency of mycotoxin binders on MDA level, expressions of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in the uterus of mice exposed to zearalenone

A. Samik; E. Safitri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 29-33
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126707

This study examined effect of mycotoxin binder administered to female mice exposed to zearalenon on apoptosis incidence by observe at MDA, Caspase 9 and 3 levels in mice uterus. Negative control group (K-) was not exposed to zearalenon and without the administration of mycotoxin binders, positive control group (K+) exposed to zearalenon of 0.1 mg/head/day and without the provision of mycotoxin binders; and treatment groups (P1, P2, P3) were exposed to zearalenon 0.1 mg/head/day by providing mycotoxin binders each 0.5; 1; 2 mg/head/day. Zearalenon and mycotoxinbinders administration was conducted for 10 days. Results on MDA level were as follows 15.48 ± 0.50 (K-), 45.59 ± 0.50 (K+), 34.92 ± 3.38 (P1), 27.72 ± 1.25 and 23.89 ± 3.74. Caspase 9 levels showed the following results: 0.3 ± 0.60 (K), 8.3 ± 0.90 (K+), 3.6 ± 0.41 (P1), 3.3 ± 0.34 (P2) and 2.8 ± 0.28 (P3), while the levels of Caspase3 were as follows: 3.35 ± 0.44 (K-), 12.5 ± 0.66 (K+), 3.6 ± 0.41 (P1), 4.80 ± 0.43 (P2) and 3.85 ± 0.50 (P3). In conclusion, mycotoxin binders may lower malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the expression of caspase 9 and caspase3 in the uterus of mice exposed to zearalenon.

Interference of maternal immunity with immune response of broiler chicks vaccinated with Gumboro vaccine

A.A.K. Sheehan; M.N. Al-Shahery

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 187-192
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168693

This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of maternal immunity and to find the proper time for vaccination against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in broiler chicks with studying levels of total protein, albumin and globulin. One hundred twenty chicks were used and 20 of them were tasted respectively at age of 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 days. It was observed that the levels of maternally derived antibody (MDA) were detectable up to 14 days of age and then declined to low levels in 21 days using ELISA test whereas globulin level did not show any significant change during the period of study. One hundred forty chicks were used to find the proper time of vaccination; they were divided in to seven groups, and vaccinated with live attenuated intermediate vaccine against IBD with different vaccination programs. The study showed that the second group which vaccinated 7 days and boostered at 14 days old was the best one. Ten chicks of each group were scarified at 28 days and 35 days for blood collection. It was demonstrated that the second group presented a significant elevation in levels of specific antibodies against IBD and globulin.

Effect of Peganum harmala on histological reactions after post Marek's disease vaccination in layer hens

Z.A. Dawood; T.S. Qubih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 339-346
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168756

This study was conducted on laying chick breed high line, 140 chicks one day old were divided into four groups: first control, second was given Peganum harmala in food, Third given vaccine and Peganum harmala. The fourth was given vaccine only. Bivalent vaccine Rispens, CVI988 and HVT was used at one day old by intramuscular injection. Sample of lymphatic organs, spleen, thymus, and Bursa of Fabricious were taken at days 3, 10, 16, 22, 28, 34, 42 for gross and histological study. Blood smears were taken at the same days for measuring stress factor and Phagocytic index. The gross reactions vary from congestion to enlargement of organs and hemorrhage after vaccination comparable with control. Paleness appear in those groups treated with Peganum harmala.Histological sections of spleen, thymus showed clear changes representing by hemorrhage, perivascular cuffing and depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of the most of lymphatic organs such as thymus, spleen, and Bursa of Fabricious, Phagocytic index showed significant increase in all groups vaccinated and unvaccinated groups compared to control group. Stress factor showed significant increase in all groups also.

Pathological lesions of kidneys in outdoor aviary chickens

S.M. Al-Hamadani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 269-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168736

 In this study forty (40) cases of outdoor aviary chickens from veterinary teaching hospital at University of Mosul. Gross lesions of Kidneys revealed 15% congestion of kidney, 10% from these cases was pale in color, 30% suffered from enlargement and congestion in the kidney, 25% from these cases showed enlargement and congestion and hemorrhage. The histological examination of the kidney show congestion in the blood vessels, also in other cases necrosis in glomerular renal tuft, while In the other histological sections cases show swelling and degeneration of epithelial cells that lead to narrowing the lumen of the renal tubule, in some cases showed infiltration of inflammatory cells (mononuclear cells), in additional there was another change represented necrosis and shrinking of renal glomeruli.

Survey on the most important diseases of the digestive system in laying hens and parent stock in Mosul

A.A.M. Al-Niema; S.O. Youkhana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 241-245
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168732

In this study investigate (100) pathogenic cases during examination 428 diseased hens (during production period) in Mosul city. The results of this study indicated that E.coli infection constituted the greatest percentage (34%) of the cases. The most common diseases caused by this bacteria found in this study were peritonitis (26 cases), followed by acute septicemia (7 cases), and one case of coligranuloma. Salmonellosis constituted 4% of the cases three cases of fowl cholera were recognized, two cases (2%) of Necrotic Enteritis were diagnosed and both were associated with coccidiosis (E.brunetti). Similarly, two cases (2%) of ulcerative enteritis were diagnosed. Among the most important viral diseases diagnosed in this study were Newcastle disease (the digestive form), six cases (6%) were recorded, two cases of lymphoid leukosis (one diffuse and the second nodular) were diagnosed. As far as parasites of the digestive tract, 7 cases (7%) of Ascaris spp., seven cases of coccidiosis were seen. Among the diagnosed syndromes, the fatty liver and fatty liver hemorrhagic syndromes, constituted 13 cases, Two cases (2%) of food poisoning particularly aflatoxicosis were seen.

Pathological lesions of respiratory system in pigeons in Mosul area

M.A.M. A. Al-Mola

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 421-427
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168767

Thirty pigeon were collected to study the most common lesions of respiratory system from 1/12/2010 to 1/3/2011, and performance the post mortem examination on these pigeons. The study demonstrate presence of respiratory clinical signs represent by sneezing, rales, respiratory distress, watery or mucoid nasal discharge and other clinical signs such as ruffled feather, loss of appetite, loss of ability of flying, watery or greenish diarrhea, restlessness, torticollis and mostly death. The most prominent gross pathological lesions were 43.3% of studied pigeons include congested pharynx, hemorrhage of larynx and congested of trachea. Petechial hemorrhage with congestion of bronchus and lung. 3.3% show tracheal and bronchus congestion, petechial hemorrhage on lung and opacity of air sacs with thickening. The prominent histopathological lesions observed about 26.7 % of lesions characterized by the presence of hemorrhage in mucosa of larynx, vaculler degeneration of epithelial cells of mucous gland in trachea and sloughing and desquamation of mucosa, hemorrhage in mucosa and congestion of blood vessels of trachea. In bronchus presence of congestion of blood vessels and hemorrhage inside the bronchi. In the lung hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue and emphysema, 3.3% of lesions observed hemorrhage and hyperplasia of epithelial cells of larynx. Vaculler degeneration of epithelial cells of mucous gland in trachea, hemorrhage and thrombosis in bronchi with inflammatory exudate. In lung sever hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue with thickness of alveolar wall, hemorrhagic air sacs and thickened. This study conclude presence of sever pathological lesions in the lower respiratory system of pigeons due to infection with different diseases either bacterial diseases such as air saculitis, infectious coryza, or viral diseases like infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, Newcastle disease, circoviral infection, or mycoplasmosis and chlamydiosis, and also may be non infectious causes like increase ammonia level.

 

Pathological effects of subtoxic doses of selenium on broiler chickens

E.A. Al- Jubory; A.H. Al- Hamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 429-437
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168768

 
This study was conducted to determine the pathological sublethal toxic effects of selenium (sodium selenate) on broiler chickens. The 24h median lethal dose (LD50) of selenium was  0.72 mg/kg. Two sublethal doses were taken (0.02, 0.04 mg/kg) which constituted (3% and 6%) of the LD50. One hundred fifty one day old Rose broiler chicken were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, the first group was considered as control group (without treatment). The 2nd and 3rd groups were treated with natural requirement of selenium (0.3) mg /kg of diet. The 2nd and 3rd groups were treated with 0.02, 0.04 mg selenium/ kg (3% and 6%) respectively, orally. Eight chickens from each group were killed at 14, 24, 34 and 44 days of treatment and pathological lesions were recorded. The most important gross pathological changes in liver and kidney were paleness and petechial hemorrhage, congestion of the brain and heart blood vessels have been observed after 7 days of treatment in the 3rd group was more severe than that in 2nd group. The histopathological changes in liver were vacular degeneration of hepatic cells, hemorrhage and central veins congestion. Degeneration; coagulative necrosis of the tubular epithelial cells and interstitial hemorrhage in the kidney. The histopathological lesions were acute cellular degeneration; vacculation, hemorrhage and congestion of the brain blood vessels. In the heart there was hemorrhage with congestion and thickening of the walls of blood vessels. All changes were more severe in the 3rd group when compared with 2nd group.

Immune response for live and killed Newcastle disease vaccines (LaSota strain) in broiler chicks

A.A. Shamaun; A.A.A. Al-Hialli

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 257-261
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168734

This study was designed to determine the level of immunity and efficacy of body weight in different age in broilers by live attenuated with adjuvant and killed vaccines (LaSota strain). In this study used (8) groups of broiler, first five groups vaccinated with different vaccination program, another (3) groups as control. Results reveal that no significant increase in mean body weight at 18-28 days in all groups, but significant increase at 28-35 days age in groups (1,4) on groups (6,8) at (P<0.05). ELISA shows presence of not specific antibody in the sera at vaccinated groups in 18 days age, where presence of specific antibody at group 2 compare with group 3 in 28 days age, also specific antibody at group 3 compared with group4 in 35 days age at (P<0.05). HI shows presence of not specific antibody in the sera at vaccinated groups in 18 days age, where presence of specific antibody at group 4 compared with groups 1,2,3 in 28 days age, but where is 35 days age which presence of specific antibody at group 2 compared with group (1 and 5) at (P<0.05). The result of Maternal Antiboday revealed in ELISA & HI which decrease of specific antibody in broiler chicks at 8 days age. The result of Phagocytic index revealed occurrence of specific phagocyte at 35 days age in group 5 compared with group (7 and 8) and also presence specific phagocyte in group (2,3 and 4) compared with group 6 at (P<0.05).