Main Subjects : Poultry Diseases

A cytopathological study of the role of liver impression as a diagnostic tool in pigeons

Zahra A. Al-Noayme; Ayman A. Al-Alhially

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127170.1477

The aim of the current study is to investigate any pathological changes which affect local pigeon liver by using liver impression and providing data base for the results of cytological and morphological features of hepatic impressions of local pigeon also to Study the relation between cellular contents and bacterial profiles at those impressions for that purpose about 20 birds of local pigeon were used in current study. the result showed presence of including heterophil 21.53% monocyte 1.52%, eosinophil 1.04%, basophil 0.01%, macrophage 4.01%. RBC 31.9% and vacuolated hepatocyte 4.94%. We also recorded presence of undifferentiated cells0.19% bacterial infection and parasite infestation of blood protozoa represented by presence of plasmodium parasite inside red blood cell in 4 samples out of 20 samples, G+ Staphylococcus and streptococcus and G- Bacteria coccobacilli as a bacterial. Bacteria including Staphylococci, Streptococci and Coccobacilli were noticed with in different densities between sections, the protozoal parasite as Plasmodium infestation were also detected in 20% of samples We concluded that, the hepatic impression give a diagnostic tool to aim in final diagnosis for inflammatory diseases in pigeons, in addition this impression give a primary idea about bacteria and parasitic infection that can be present in infected pigeons

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 223-231
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

Molecular detection and seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province, Iraq

Farhad B. Mikaeel; Adel T. Al-Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 247-252
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125885.1173

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease of mammals and birds; human infection occurs through consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Little was known about the infection rate of T. gondii among free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the infection rate in Duhok province by using ELISA (IgG) and conventional PCR. A total of 368 blood samples were collected from free range local chickens distributed in five different areas of Duhok province during the period from November 2016 to March 2017. The collected blood samples were from different sexes (hens and cocks) and from different age groups (less than 6 months and older than 6 months). The data found that the total infection rate was (84 / 368) 22.8% by ELSIA. The presence of the infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. In this study, there were differences from area to area in the infection rates, the highest rate was reported in Semel district at 33.7% which was significantly (p

Effect of vitamin E and Selenium supplementation on productive and physiological performance of quail fed rations with high level of fat

Duread Younis

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125553.1072

The aim of this study the effect of vitamin E, selenium or both of them /or selenium supplementation on productive and physiological traits of quail fed high fat diets. Three hundred unsexed one day old coturnix japonica quail chicks were used in this study. Chicks were reared in cages placed in semi-opened houses and provided with suitable environmentally conditions. Birds were randomized into four treatments each with three replicates (twenty-five birds in each). Two diets starter and finisher containing 3% fat as a source of energy were used until marketing age (42 days). Feed and water were available ad libitum. The experimental treatments were as follows: T1 standard ration (control), T2 standard ration supplemented with 200 mg vitamin E/kg ration, T3 standard ration supplemented with 0.3 mg sodium selenite/kg ration and T4 standard ration supplemented with 200 mg vitamin E/kg and 0.3 mg sodium selenite/ kg ration. Rations supplemented with vitamin E, sodium selenite or their combination caused a significant increase in average live body weight, weight gain, significant decrease in feed consumption, blood glucose concentration, heart glycogen concentration and ALT, and AST enzymes concentration, significant improvement in feed conversion ratio was noted in birds fed these diets. No significant differences in average feed passage time in the digestive tract, triglycerides, albumin, globulin, total protein, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells account, dressing percentage, liver glycogen concentration and mortality rate were observed among treatments.

The effect of thyme (Thymus daenensis) supplement on growth and hygienic parameters of broilers meat

Majid Gholami Ahangaran; Niloofar Peimani; Asiye Ahmadi Dastgerdi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 87-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125526.1048

The antibacterial effect of Thyme species was relatively approved but the effect of this plant on bacterial population of intestine in chickens and consequently on bacterial load of chicken meat following administration of thyme was not investigated. For evaluation of thyme effect on growth indices, microbial contamination of meat and microbial population of cecal content, 180 broiler chicks were divided into 4 equal groups with 3 replicates and were reared until 42 days. Chickens in different groups were treated with different doses of thyme (0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1 percent) in diets. The weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion rate were calculated weekly. In the end of 42 days old, all chickens were slaughtered. The population of Escherichia coli per gram of cecal contents and contamination of meat with Escherichia coli were assayed. The data showed that supplement of 0. 5 and 1 percent of thyme to diet elevated weight gain and decreased feed conversion rate. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 and 1 percent of thyme to diet can decrease microbial population of cecal content and meat. In conclusion, the addition of thyme to diet may improve growth rate and hygienic parameters in chicken meat.

The interference of Newcastle, avian influenza and infectious bursal disease vaccines with the efficiency of IB vaccine in broiler chicks by using quantitative RT-PCR test

Raed Hussen Saleh; Isam Mohammed Jaber

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 105-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125510.1032

This study was conducted to investigate the effects the interference of ND, AI, IBD vaccines on efficacy of the IBV vaccination program (H120 and Ma5). Three hundred broiler chicks (Ross308) from Al-Haddi hatchery / Babel province were divided randomly into three equal groups, each group contain 100 chicks and treated as follows: the 1st group; IB vaccine (H120) was given at one day old by intranasal and ocular drop methods, IB vaccine Ma5 strain vaccine was given at age 14 days by spray method. The 2nd group at one day old IB H120 + ND LaSota alive vaccines strain was given by intranasal and ocular drop method, also given mixed killed vaccine contain ND with AI by S/C injection. At 10 days old alive ND vaccine LaSota strain gives by drinking water. At 12 in day old attenuated IBD vaccine gives by drinking water. At day old IB Ma5 strain vaccine was given using spray method. The 3ed group: control group without vaccine. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 40 day old to determine the antibody titer against IBV by ELISA test and samples were taken from trachea and kidney for Real- time quantitative -PCR (viral load) at 21 and 35 days old. All groups were challenged with local virulent IBV isolate (IBV CH Babylon F2 2013) 100×106.5 ELD50/ml at 28 days old by ocular and intranasal drop method. Morbidity and mortality were recorded in all the challenged birds. The result show that the significant differences between all groups in different parameters at P<0.05.

Potency of garlic juice supplementation on some physiological and immunological aspects of broilers exposed to heat stress

H.A.J. Al-Shwilly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 107-112
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145606

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of garlic juice supplementation with broiler drinking water on performance, immune response, lipid profile, blood picture and activity of liver enzymes under heat stress. For this purpose 100 four days aged broiler checks (Ross) were allocated into control (C) and three treatment groups (25 each). All group checks were housed at 5 ºC above normal ambient temperature during the experiment. Treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3) checks were supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/L, respectively, with garlic juice in drinking water (6 hrs a day). Food and water were supplemented ad libitum. Body weights were monitored every five days and blood samples were obtained at 25 days for assessment of blood picture and antibody titers after vaccination, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and activity levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated. At 30 days age, T3 group broiler checks reported higher body weights than other groups. Total number of white and red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit levels and ratio of heterocytes to lymphocytes increased significantly in treated groups, whereas significant decline of cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations as well as ALT and AST levels were shown in T3 group broiler checks. Significant increase was shown in the levels of antibody titers against both Newcastle (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines. In conclusion, treatment of broiler checks early with garlic juice increase broiler performance and immune response against vaccination program and may be protect the broilers from heat stress.

Pathological study of subchronic oral toxicity induced by Di (2- ethyl hexyl) phthalate in Japanese quails

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Saeed Majed Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145567

In present study, we aimed to investigate the pathological changes induced by subchronic oral toxicity induced by sub lethal dose of Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. Forty male quails at one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group (treated group) was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP (557.41 mg/kg of body weight) for 42 days, while second group (control group) left without treatment throughout experiment period. The results of current study showed that there is congestion of kidney, microscopically they showed presence of hyaline degeneration in renal tubules, glomerulosclerosis, wide spread of degenerative and necrotic lesions in renal tubules, hemorrhage, infiltration of inflammatory cell especially macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial tissue of kidney. While grossing of liver showed hepatomegaly with hemorrhage, microscopically the sections showed wide distributing of vacuolar degeneration (fatty change) in different size and shape of vacuoles in cytoplasm of affected hepatocytes, infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly macrophages and lymphocytes. In conclusion, the oral administration of DEHP at dose 557.41 mg/kg of body weight for 42 days induced degenerative and necrotic irreversible changes in both kidney and liver of Japanese quail that affect their health and production.

Case Report: Prevalence and significance of aspergellosis in commercial broiler chicken: Pathological study

S.H. Eassa; M.H. Mohammed; A.M. Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 113-116
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145607

The present study was carried out to evaluate the pathological effects of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus Spp. in commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we discussed few outbreaks of Aspergillus infection of chicks a week aftter hatching in broiler farms of Duhok-Kurdistan region of Iraq during the period from February to May 2015 on the basis of clinical signs, post-mortem, histopathological and cultural findings. The main clinical signs of the disease in the infected flock included a 3-day onset of labored breathing and neurologic disorders displayed by incoordination, torticollis, and paralysis. Other clinical features included depression, ruffled feathers and gasping. Gross lesions were represented by cheesy granular materials in the air sacs, lungs, and trachea. Histopathology revealed fungal hyphae in sectioned lung tissue. Aspergillus was isolated by culturing in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar from the lesions. The present study deals with the incidence of acute aspergillosis in broiler chicks from Duhok, Kurdistan-Iraq.

Isolation and identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli from broiler in Erbil, Iraq

M.N. Al-Sharook; A.A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126717

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from slaughtered broilers in retail market that sell live chickens in Erbil city, Iraq. Forty-one cloacal fecal samples from broiler caecum were investigated from January to April 2016. ESBLs strains were isolated using MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime 1 mg/l and the isolates were identified phynotypically by biochemical tests, TBX agar and VITEK-2 compact system. A total of 34 Escherichia coli and 4 Proteus mirabilis were analysed for determination of ESBL/AmpC by disc diffusion test using antimicrobial 68DC MAST® ESβL discs group including cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime + ESBL inhibitor, cefpodoxime + AmpC inhibitor and cefpodoxime + ESBL inhibitor + AmpC inhibitor and 67DC MAST® ESβL discs group including cefpodoxime, cefpodoxime + clavulanate, ceftazidime, ceftazidime + clavulanate, cefotaxime and cefotaxime + clavulanate. The phenotypic results showed that in group 68DC discs 23.7% E. coli were resistant to cefpodoxime and in group 67DC discs 73.7% of E. coli and 7.9% of P. mirabilis were resistance to one or more of the cefpodoxime, ceftazidime and ceftazidime. Final results revealed that 78.0% of samples were ESBLs/ AmpC positive. This study is the first examination to determine phenorypically E. coli producing ESBLs/AmpC in broiler chickens in Iraq. Conclusion, the healthy broiler can be a major source of ESBLs/AmpC and the possibility that transmitted to humans through the food chain, direct contact and the surrounding environment raises the concerns about public health and safety of poultry meat and the negative consequences of drug therapy that causes the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Potency of mycotoxin binders on MDA level, expressions of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in the uterus of mice exposed to zearalenone

A. Samik; E. Safitri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 29-33
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126707

This study examined effect of mycotoxin binder administered to female mice exposed to zearalenon on apoptosis incidence by observe at MDA, Caspase 9 and 3 levels in mice uterus. Negative control group (K-) was not exposed to zearalenon and without the administration of mycotoxin binders, positive control group (K+) exposed to zearalenon of 0.1 mg/head/day and without the provision of mycotoxin binders; and treatment groups (P1, P2, P3) were exposed to zearalenon 0.1 mg/head/day by providing mycotoxin binders each 0.5; 1; 2 mg/head/day. Zearalenon and mycotoxinbinders administration was conducted for 10 days. Results on MDA level were as follows 15.48 ± 0.50 (K-), 45.59 ± 0.50 (K+), 34.92 ± 3.38 (P1), 27.72 ± 1.25 and 23.89 ± 3.74. Caspase 9 levels showed the following results: 0.3 ± 0.60 (K), 8.3 ± 0.90 (K+), 3.6 ± 0.41 (P1), 3.3 ± 0.34 (P2) and 2.8 ± 0.28 (P3), while the levels of Caspase3 were as follows: 3.35 ± 0.44 (K-), 12.5 ± 0.66 (K+), 3.6 ± 0.41 (P1), 4.80 ± 0.43 (P2) and 3.85 ± 0.50 (P3). In conclusion, mycotoxin binders may lower malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the expression of caspase 9 and caspase3 in the uterus of mice exposed to zearalenon.

Pathological Study of Acute Oral Toxicity Induced by Plasticizer Di (2- ethyl hexyl) Phthalate in Japanese Common Quails Coturnix coturnix japanies

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; S.M. Al-Abady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126714

The current study aimed to identified the pathological changes of oral toxicity induced by Di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Japanese common quail. To a chief this aim a pilot study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of DEHP. Forty male quails one day old were divided randomly into two equal groups, the first group was orally administrated by 10% of LD50 of DEHP daily for fourteen days, while second group was considered as control group and left without treatment all over the experimental time. The result of pilot study showed that the LD50 of DEHP in quails is 5574,1 mg/kg of body weight and the dose used in experiment to induced the acute oral toxicity was 557.4 mg/kg of quail's body weight. The result of gross pathological appearance of euthanized quails at fourteen days of experiment revealed presence of sever congestion in kidney lobules as well as congestion of liver with hemorrhagic ecchymotic patches while at other case the liver appear pale in color. The histopathology of kidney revealed presence of degenerative changes represented by cloudy swelling of the cell lining renal tubules lead to narrowing the lumen of affected tubules as well as interstitial edema with coagulative necrosis associated by infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as interstitial hemorrhage. The liver sections revealed presence of fatty change in hepatocytes in which the liver cell contained vacuoles of different size and shape also hepatocytes suffered from coagulative necrosis with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells as macrophages with presence of hemorrhage. We conducted from current study that the oral administration of plasticizer DEHP in fourteen days at dose of 557.4 mg/kg of quail body weight induced degenerative and coagulative necrosis in both kidney and liver tissue in Japanese common quail.